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Full-page portrait? aqd Biogifaphical etche^ of 

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E HAVE completed our labors in writing and compiling the PORTRAIT ANDBIOGRAPH' 
ALBUM OF WHITESIDE COUNTY, and wish, in presenting it to our patrons, to speak 
briefly of the importance of local works of this nature. It is certainly the duty 
of the present to commemorate the past, to perpetuatethe names of the pioneers, 
to furnish a record of their early settlement, and to relate the story of their progress. 
The civilization of our day, the enlightenment of the age, and this solemn duty which 
men of the present time owe to their ancestors, to themselves and to their posterity 
demand that a record of their lives and deeds should be made. In local history is found a power 
to instruct man by precedent, to enliven the mental faculties, and to waft down the river of time a safe 
vessel in which the names and actions of the people who contributed to raise this region from its 
primitive state may be preserved. Surely and rapidly the noble men, who in their vigor and prime 
came to Whiteside County and claimed the virgin soil as their heritage, are passing to 
their graves. The number remaining who can relate the history of the first days of settlement is 
becoming small indeed, so that an actual necessity exists for the collection and preservation of his- 
torical matter without delay, before the settlers of the wilderness are cut down by time. Not only 
is it of the greatest importance to render history of pioneer times full and accurate, but it is also essen- 
tial that the history of the county, from its settlement to the present day, should be treated through its various 
phases, so that a record, complete and impartial, may be handed down to the future. The present the age 
of progress, is reviewed, standing out in bold relief over the quiet, unostentatious olden times; it is abrilliant 
record, which is destined to live in the future; the good works of men, their magnificent enterprises, theii 
lives, whether commercial or military, do not sink into oblivion, but, on the contrary, grow brighter with age, 
and contribute to build up a record which carries with it precedents and principles that will be advanced and 
observed when the acts of soulless men will be forgotten, and their very names hidden in obscurity. 

In the preparation of the personal sketches contained in this volume, unusual care and pains were 
taken to have them accurate, even in the smallest detail. Indeed, nothing was passed lightly over or treated 
indifferently, and we flatter ourselves that it is one of the most accurate works of its nature ever published. 
As one of the most interesting features of this work, we present the portraits of numerous representa- 
tive citizens. It has been our aim to have the prominent men of to-day, as well as the pioneers, represented 
in this department ; and we congratulate Ourselves on the uniformly high character of the gentlemen whose 
portraits we present. They are in the strictest sense representative men, and are selected from all the call- 
ings and professions worthy to be represented. There are others, it is true, who claim equal prominence with 
those presented, but of course it was impossible for us to give portraits of all the leading men and pioneers 
of the county. We are under great obligation to many of the noble and generous people of Whiteside 
County for kindly and material assistance in the preparation of this ALBUM. 

CHICAGO, August, 1885. 




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HE Father of our Country was 
born in Westmorland Co., Va., 
Feb. 22, 1732. His parents 
were Augustine and Mary 
(Ball) Washington. The family 
to which he belonged has not 
been satisfactorily traced 'in 
England. His great-grand- 
father, John Washington, em- 
igrated to Virginia about 1657, 
and became a prosperous 
planter. He had two sons, 
Lawrence and John. The 
former married Mildred Warner 
and had three children, John, 
Augustine and Mildred. Augus- 
tine, the father of George, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore 
him four children, two of whom, 
Lawrence and Augustine, reached 
maturity. Of six children by his 
second marriage, George was the 
eldest, the others being Betty, 
Samuel, John Augustine, Charles 
and Mildred. 

Augustine Washington, the father of George, died 
in 1743, leaving a large landed property. To his 
eldest son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an estate on 
the Patomac, afterwards known as Mount Vernon, 
and to George he left the parental residence. George 
received only such education as the neighborhood 
schools afforded, save for a short time after he left 
school, when he received private instruction in 
mathematics. His spelling was rather defective. 

Remarkable stories are told of his great physical 
strength and development at an early age. He was 
an acknowledged leader among his companions, and 
was early noted for that nobleness of character, fair- 
ness and veracity which characterized his whole life. 

When George was 1 4 years old he had a desire to go to 
sea, and a midshipman's warrant was secured for him, 
but through the opposition of his mother the idea was 
abandoned. Two years later he was appointed 
surveyor to the immense estate of Lord Fairfax. In 
this business he spent three years in a rough frontier 
life, gaining experience which afterwards proved very 
essential to him. In 1751, though only 19 years of 
age, he was appointed adjutant with the rank of 
major in the Virginia militia, then being trained for 
active service against the French and Indians. Soon 
after this he sailed to the West Indies with his brother 
Lawrence, who went there to restore his health. They 
soon returned, and in the summer of 1752 Lawrence 
died, leaving a large fortune to an infant daughter 
who did not long survive him. On her demise the 
estate of Mount Vernon was given to George. 

Upon the arrival of Robert Dinwiddie, as Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Virginia, in 1752, the militia was 
reorganized, and the province divided into four mili- 
tary districts, of which the northern was assigned to 
Washington as adjutant general. Shortly after this 
a very perilous mission was assigned him and ac- 
cepted, which others had refused. This was to pro- 
ceed to the French post near Lake Erie in North- 
western Pennsylvania. The distance to be traversed 
was between 500 and 600 miles. Winter was at hand, 
and the journey was to be made without military 
escort, through a territory occupied by Indians. The 



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trip was a perilous one, and several times he came near 
losing his life, yet he returned in safety and furnished 
a full and useful report of his expedition. A regiment 
of 300 men was raised in Virginia and put in com- 
mand of Col. Joshua Fry, and Major Washington was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel. Active war was 
then begun against the French and Indians, in which 
Washington took a most important part. In the 
memorable event of July 9, 1755, known as Brad- 
dock's defeat, Washington was almost the only officer 
of distinction who escaped from the calamities of the 
day with life and honor. The other aids of Braddock 
were disabled early in the action, and Washington 
alone was left in that capacity on the field. In a letter 
to his brother he says : " I had four bullets through 
my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet I escaped 
unhurt, though death was leveling my companions 
on every side." An Indian sharpshooter said he was 
not born to be killed by a bullet, for he had taken 
direct aim at him seventeen times, and failed to hit 

After having been five years in the military service, 
and vainly sought promotion in the royal army, he 
look advantage of the fall of Fort Duquesne and the 
expulsion of the French from the valley of the Ohio, 
to resign his commission. Soon after he entered the 
Legislature, where, although not a leader, he took an 
active and important part. January 17, 1759, he 
married Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, the wealthy 
widow of John Parke Custis. 

When the British Parliament had closed the port 
of Boston, the cry went up throughout the provinces 
that "The cause of Boston is the cause of us all." 
It was then, at the suggestion of Virginia, that a Con- 
gress of all the colonies was called to meet at Phila- 
delphia.Sept. 5, 1774, to secure their common liberties, 
peaceably if possible. To this Congress Col. Wash- 
ington was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the 
Congress re-assembled, when the hostile intentions of 
England were plainly apparent. The battles of Con- 
cord and Lexington had been fought. Among the 
first acts of this Congress was the election of a com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces. This high and 
responsible office was conferred upon Washington, 
who was still a member of the Congress. He accepted 
it on June 19, but upon the express condition that he 
receive no salary. He would keep an exact account 
of expenses and expect Congress 1o pay them and 
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch to 
trace the military acts of Washington, to whom the 
fortunes and liberties of the people of this country 
were so long confided. The war was conducted by 
him under ever)- possible disadvantage, and while his 
forces often met with reverses, yet he overcame every 
obstacle, and after seven years of heroic devotion 
and matchless skill he gained liberty for the greatest 
nation of earth. On Dec. 23, 1783, Washington, in 
a parting address of surpassing beauty, resigned his 

x : 

commission as commander-in-chief of the army to 
to the Continental Congress sitting at Annapolis. He 
retired immediately to Mount Vernon and resumed 
his occupation as a farmer and planter, shunning all 
connection with public life. 

In February, 1 789, Washington was unanimously 
elected President. In his presidential career he was 
subject to the peculiar trials incidental to a new 
government ; trials from lack of confidence on the part 
of other governments; trials from want of harmony 
between the different sections of our own country ; 
trials from the impoverished condition of the country, 
owing to the war and want of credit; trials from the 
beginnings of party strife. He was no partisan. His 
clear judgment could discern the golden mean ; and 
while perhaps this alone kept our government from 
sinking at the very outset, it left him exposed to 
attacks from both sides, which were often bitter and 
very annoying. 

At the expiration of his first term he was unani- 
mously re-elected. At the end of this term many 
were anxious that he be re-elected, but he absolutely 
refused a third nomination. On the fourth of March, 
1797, at the expiraton of his second term as Presi- 
dent, he returned to his home, hoping to pass there 
his few remaining years free from the annoyances of 
public life. Later in the year, however, his repose 
seemed likely to be interrupted by war with France. 
At the prospect of such a war he was again urged to 
take command of the armies. He chose his sub- 
ordinate officers and left to them the charge of mat- 
ters in the field, which he superintended from his 
home. In accepting the command he made the 
reservation that he was not to be in the field until 
it was necessary. In the midst of these preparations 
his life was suddenly cut off. December 12, he took 
a severe cold from a ride in the rain, which, settling 
in his throat, produced inflammation, and terminated 
fatally on the night of the fourteenth. On the eigh- 
teenth his body was borne with military honors to its 
final resting place, and interred in the family vault at 
Mount Vernon. 

Of the character of Washington it is impossible to 
speak but in terms of the highest respect and ad- 
miration. The more we see of the operations of 
our government, and the more deeply we feel the 
difficulty of unit : ng all opinions in a common interest, 
the more highly we must estimate the force of his tal- 
ent and character, which have been able to challenge 
the reverence of all parties, and principles, and na- 
tions, and to win a fame as extended as the limits 
of the globe, and which we cannot but believe will 
be as lasting as the existence of man. 

The person of Washington was unusally tall, erect 
and well proportioned. His muscular strength was 
great. His features were of a beautiful symmetry. 
He commanded respect without any appearance of 
haughtiness, and ever serious without being dull. 








OHN ADAMS, the second 
President and the first Vice- 
President of the United States, 
was born in Braintree ( now 
Quincy),Mass., and about ten 
miles from Boston, Oct. 19, 
1735. His great-grandfather, Henry 
Adams, emigrated from England 
about 1640, with a family of eight 
sons, and settled at Braintree. The 
parents of John were John and 
Susannah (Boylston) Adams. His 
father was a farmer of limited 
means, to which he added the bus- 
iness of shoemaking. He gave his 
eldest son, John, a classical educa- 
tion at ' Harvard College. John 
graduated in 1755, and at once took charge of the 
school in Worcester, Mass. This he found but a 
"school of affliction," from which he endeavored to 
gain relief by devoting ' himself, in addition, to the 
study of law. For this purpose he placed himself 
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town. He 
had thought seriously of the clerical profession 
but seems to have been turned from this by what he 
termed " the frightful engines of ecclesiastical coun- 
cils, of diabolical malice, and Calvanistic good nature,'' 
of the operations of which he had been a witness in 
his native town. He was well fitted for the legal 
'profession, possessing a clear, sonorous voice, being 
ready and fluent of speech, and having quick percep- 
tive powers. He gradually gained practice, and in 
1764 married Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, 
and a lady of superior intelligence. Shortly after his 
marriage, (1765), the attempt of Parliamentary taxa- 
tion turned him from law to politics. He took initial 
steps toward holding a town meeting, and the resolu- 

tions he offered on the subject became very popular 
throughout the Province, and were adopted word for 
word by over forty different towns. He moved to Bos- 
ton in 1768, and became one of the most courageous 
and prominent advocates of the popular cause, and 
was chosen a member of the General Court (the Leg- 
lislature) in 1770. 

Mr. Adams was chosen one of the first delegates 
from Massachusetts to the first Continental Congress, 
which met in 1774. Here he distinguished himself 
by his capacity for business and for debate, and ad- 
vocated the movement for independence against the 
majority of the members. In May, 1776, he moved 
and carried a resolution in Congress that the Colonies 
should assume the duties of self-government. He 
was a prominent member of the committee of five 
appointed June n, to prepare a declaration of inde- 
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson, but 
on Adams devolved the task of battling it through 
Congress in a three days debate. 

On the day after the Declaration of Independence 
was passed, while his soul was yet warm with the 
glow of excited feeling, he wrote a letter to his wile, 
which, as we read it now, seems to have been dictated 
by the spirit of prophecy. "Yesterday," he says, "the 
greatest question was decided that ever was debated 
in America; and greater, perhaps, never was or will 
be decided among men. A resolution was passed 
without one dissenting colony, ' that these United 
States are, and of right ought to be, free and inde- 
pendent states." The day is passed. The fourth of 
July, 1776, will be a memorable epoch in the history 
of America. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated 
by succeeding generations, as the great anniversary 
festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of 
deliverance by solemn acts of devotion to Almighty 
God, It ought to be solemnized with pomp, shows> 

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games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations 
from one end of the continent to the other, from this 
time forward for ever. You will think me transported 
with enthusiasm, but I am not. I am well aware of 
the toil, and blood and treasure, that it will cost to 
maintain this declaration, and support and defend 
these States; yet, through all the gloom, I can see the 
rays of light and glory. 1 can see that the end is 
worth more than all the means; and that posterity 
will triumph, although you and I may rue, which I 
hope we shall not." 

In November, 1777, Mr. Adams was appointed a 
delegate to France, and to co-operate with Bemjamin 
Franklin and Arthur Lee, who were then in Paris, in 
the endeavor to obtain assistance in arms and money 
from the French Government. This was a severe trial 
to his patriotism, as it separated him from his home, 
compelled him to cross the ocean in winter, and ex- 
posed him to great peril of capture by the British cruis- 
ers, who were seeking him. He left France June 17, 
1779. In September of the same year he was again 
chosen to go to Paris, and there hold himself in readi- 
ness to negotiate a treaty of peace and of commerce 
with Great Britian, as soon as the British Cabinet 
might be found willing to listen to such pvoposels. He 
sailed for France in November, from there he went to 
Holland, where he negotiated important loans and 
formed important commercial treaties. 

Finally a treaty of peace with England was signed 
Jan. 21, 1783. The re-action from the excitement, 
toil and anxiety through which Mr. Adams had passed 
threw him into a fever. After suffering from a con- 
tinued fever and becoming feeble and emaciated he 
was advised to goto England to drink the waters of 
Bath. While in England, still drooping and despond- 
ing, he received dispatches from his own government 
urging the necessity of his going to Amsterdam to 
negotiate another loan. It was winter, his health was 
delicate, yet he immediately set out, and through 
storm, on sea, on horseback and foot,hemade the trip. 

February 24, 1785, Congress appointed Mr. Adams 
envoy to the Court of St. James. Here he. met face 
to face the King of England, who had so long re- 
garded him as a traitor. As England did not 
condescend to appoint a minister to the United 
States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he was accom- 
plishing but little, he sought permission to return to 
his own country, where he arrived in June, 1788. 

When Washington was first chosen President, John 
Adams, rendered illustiious by his signal services at 
home and abroad, was chosen Vice President. Again 
at the second election of Washington as President, 
Adams was chosen Vice President. In 1796, Wash- 
ington retired from public life, and Mr. Adams was 
elected President.though not without much opiwsition. 
Serving in this office four years,he was succeeded by 
Mr. Jefferson, his opponent in politics. 

While Mr. Adams was Vice President the great 

French Revolution shook the continent of Europe, 
and it was upon this point which he was at issue with 
the majority of his countrymen led by Mr. Jefferson. 
Mr. Adams felt no sympathy with the French people 
in their struggle, for he had no confidence in their 
power of self-government, and he utterly abhored the 
classof atheist philosophers who he claimed caused it. 
On the other hand Jefferson's sympathies were strongly 
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence or- 
iginated the alienation between these distinguished 
men, and two powerful parties were thus soon organ- 
ized, Adams at the head of the one whose sympathies 
were with England and Jefferson led the other in 
sympathy with France. 

The world has seldom seen a spectacle of more 
moral beauty and grandeur, than was presented by the 
old age of Mr. Adams. The violence of party feeling 
had died away, and he had begun to receive that just 
appreciation which, to most men, is not accorded till 
after death. No one could look upon his venerable 
form, and think of what he had done and suffered, 
and how he had given up all the prime and strength 
of his life to the public good, without the deepest 
emotion of gratitude and respect. It was his peculiar 
good fortune to witness the complete success of the 
institution which he had been so active in creating and 
supporting. In 1824, his cup of happiness was filled 
to the brim, by seeing his son elevated to the highest 
station in the gift of the people. 

The fourth of July, 1826, which completed the half 
century since the signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, arrived, and there were but three of the 
signers of that immortal instrument left upon the 
earth to hail its morning light. And, as it is 
well known, on that day two of these finished their 
earthly pilgrimage, a coincidence so remarkable as 
to seem miraculous. For a few days before Mr. 
Adams had been rapidly failing, and on the morning 
of the fourth he found himself too weak to rise from 
his bed. On being requested to name a toast for the 
customary celebration of the day, he exclaimed " IN- 
DEPENDENCE FOREVER." When the day was ushered 
in, by the ringing of bells and the firing of cannons, 
he was asked by one of his attendants if he knew 
what day it was? He replied, "O yes; it is the glor- 
ious fourth of July God bless it God bless you all." 
In the course o r the day he said, " It is a great and 
glorious day." The last words he uttered were, 
"Jefferson survives." But he had, at one o'clock, re- 
signed his spitit into the hands of his God. 

The personal appearance and manners of Mr. 
Adams were not particularly prepossessing. His face, 
as his jx>rtrait manifests.was intellectual ard expres- 
sive, but his figure was low and ungraceful, and his 
manners were frequently abrupt and uncourteous. 
He had neither the lofty dignity of Washington, nor 
the engaging elegance and gracefulness which marked 
the manners and address of Jefferson. 

t >rr*, ,, v 





born April 2, 1743, at Shad- 
"well, Albermarle county, Va. 

His parents were Peter and 
Jane ( Randolph) Jefferson, 
the former a native of Wales, 
and the latter born in Lon- 
don. To them were born six 
daughters and two sons, of 
whom Thomas was the elder. 
When 14 years of age his 
father died. He received a 
most liberal education, hav- 
ing been kept diligently at school 
from the time he was five years of 
age. In 1760 he entered William 
and Mary College. Williamsburg was then the seat 
of the Colonial Court, and it was the obodeof fashion splendor^! Young Jefferson, who was then 17 
years old, lived somewhat expensively, keeping fine 
horses, and much caressed by gay society, yet he 
was earnestly devoted to his studies, and irreproacha- 
able in his morals. It is strange, however, under 
such influences, that he was not ruined. In the sec- 
ond year of his college course, moved by some un- 
explained inward impulse, he discarded his horses, 
society, and even his favorite violin, to which he had 
previously given much time. He often devoted fifteen 
hours a day to haid study, allowing himself for ex- 
ercise only a run in the evening twilight of a mile out 
of the city and back again. He thus attained very 
high intellectual culture, alike excellence in philoso- 
phy and the languages. The most difficult Latin and 
Greek authors he read with facility. A more finished 
scholar has seldom gone forth from college halls; and 

there was not to be found, perhaps, in all Virginia, a 
more pureminded, upright, gentlemanly young man. 

Immediately upon leaving college he began the 
study of law. For the short time he continued in the 
practice of his profession he rose rapidly and distin- 
guished himself by his energy and accuteness as a 
lawyer. But the times called for greater action. 
The policy of England had awakened the spirit of 
resistance of the American Colonies, and the enlarged 
views which Jefferson had ever entertained, soon led 
him into active political life. In 1769 he was chosen 
a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. In 
1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skelton, a very beauti- 
ful, wealthy and highly accomplished young widow. 

Upon Mr. Jefferson's large estate at Shadwell, there 
was a majestic swell of land, called Monticello, which 
commanded a prospect of wonderful extent and 
beauty. This spot Mr. Jefferson selected for his new 
home; and here he reared a mansion of modest yet 
elegant architecture, which, next to Mount Vernon, 
became the most distinguished resort in our land. 

In 1775 he was sent to the Colonial Congress, 
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a 
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and he 
was placed upon a number of important committees, 
and was chairman of the one appointed for the draw- 
ing up of a declaration of independence. This com- 
mittee consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, 
Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert R. 
Livingston. Jefferson, as chairman, was appointed 
to draw up the paper. Franklin and Adams suggested 
a few verbal changes before it was submitted to Con- 
gress. On June 28, a few slight changes were made 
in it by Congress, and it was passed and signed July 
4, 1776. What must have been the feelings of that 


man what the emotions that swelled his breast 
who was charged with the preparation of that Dec- 
laration, which, while it made known the wrongs of 
America, was also to publish her to the world, free, 
soverign and independent. It is one of the most re- 
markable papers ever written ; and did no other effort 
of the mind of its author exist, that alone would be 
sufficient to stamp his name with immortality. 

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to 
Patrick Henry, as Governor of Virginia. At one time 
the British officer, Tarleton, sent a secret expedition to 
Monticello, to capture the Governor. Scarcely five 
minutes elapsed after the hurried escape of Mr. Jef- 
ferson and his family, ere his mansion was in posses- 
sion of the British troops. His wife's health, never 
very good, was much injured by this excitement, and 
in the summer of 1782 she died. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to Congress in 1783. 
Two yeirs later he was api>ointed Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to France. Returning to the United States 
in September, 1789, he became Secretary of State 
in Washington's cabinet. This position he resigned 
Jan. i, 1794. In 1797, he was chosen Vice Presi- 
dent, and four years later was elected President over 
Mr. Adams, with Aaron Burr as Vice President. In 
1804 he was re-elected with wonderful unanimity, 
and George Clinton, Vice President. 

The early part of Mr. Jefferson's second adminstra- 
tion was disturbed by an event which threatened the 
tranquility and peace of the Union ; this was the con- 
spiracyof Aaron Burr. Defeated in the late election 
to the Vice Presidency, and led on by an unprincipled 
ambition, this extraordinary man formed the plan of a 
military expedition into the Spanish territories on our 
southwestern frontier, for the purpose of forming there 
a new republic. This has been generally supposed 
was a mere pretext ; and although it has not been 
generally known what his real plans were, there is no 
doubt that they were of a far more dangerous 

In 1809, at the expiration of the second term for 
which Mr. Jefferson had been elected, he determined 
to retire from political life. For a period of nearly 
forty years, he had been continually before the pub- 
lic, and all that time had been employed in offices of 
the greatest trust and responsibility. Having thus de- 
voted the best part of his life to the service of his 
country, he now felt desirous of that rest which his 
declining years required, and upon the organization of 
the new administration, in March, 1809, he bid fare- 
well forever to public life, and retired to Monticello. 

Mr. Jefferson was profuse in his hospitality. Whole 
families came in their coaches with their horses, 
fathers aTid mothers, boys and girls, babies and 
nurses, and remained three and even six months. 
Life at Monticello, for years, resembled that at a 
fashionable watering-place. 

The fourth of July, 1826, being the fiftieth anniver- 


sary of the Declaration of American Independence, 
great preparations were made in every part of the 
Union for its celebration, as the nation's jubilee, and 
the citizens of Washington, to add to the solemnity 
of the occasion, invited Mr. Jefferson, as the framer, 
and one of the few surviving signers of the Declara- 
tion, to participate in their festivities. But an ill- 
ness, which had been of several weeks duration, and 
had been continually increasing, compelled him to 
decline the invitation. 

On the second of July, the disease under which 
he was laboring left him, but in such a reduced 
state that his medical attendants, entertained no 
hope of his recovery. From this time he was perfectly 
sensible that his last hour was at hand. On the next 
day, which was Monday, he asked of those around 
him, the day of the month, and on being told it was 
the third of July, he expressed the earnest wish that 
he might be permitted to breathe the air of the fiftieth 
anniversary. His prayer was heard that day, whose 
dawn was hailed with such rapture through our land, 
burst upon his eyes, and then they were closed for- 
ever. And what a noble consummation of a noble 
life ! To die on that day, the birthday of a nation,- - 
the day which his own name and his own act had 
rendered glorious; to die amidst the rejoicings and 
festivities of a whole nation, who looked up to him, 
as the author, under God, of their greatest blessings, 
was all that was wanting to fill up the record his life. 

Almost at the same hour of his death, the kin- 
dred spirit of the venerable Adams, as if to bear 
him company, left the scene of his earthly honors. 
Hand in hand they had stood forth, the champions of 
freedom; hand in hand, during the dark and desper- 
ate struggle of the Revolution, they had cheered and 
animated their desponding countrymen; for half a 
century they had labored together for the good of 
the country; and now hand in hand they depart. 
In their lives they had been united in the same great 
cause of liberty, and in their deaths they were not 

In person Mr. Jefferson was tall and thin, rather 
above six feet in height, but well formed; his eyes 
were light, his hair originally red, in after life became 
white and silvery ; his complexion was fair, his fore- 
head broad, and his whole countenance intelligent and 
thoughtful. He possessed great fortitude of mind as 
well as personal courage ; and his command of tem- 
per was such that his oldest and most intimate friends 
never recollected to have seen him in a passion. 
His manners, though dignified, were simple and un- 
affected, and his hospitality was so unbounded that 
all found at his house a ready welcome. In conver- 
sation he was fluent, eloquent and enthusiastic; and 
his language was remarkably pure and correct. He' 
was a finished classical scholar, and in his writings is 
discernable the care with which he formed his style 
upon the best models of antiquity. 

*&* ** 




of the Constitution," and fourth 
President of the United States, 
was born March 16, 1757, and 
died at his home in Virginia, 
June 28, 1836. The name of 
James Madison is inseparably con- 
nected with most of the important 
events in that heroic period of our 
country during which the founda- 
tions of this great republic were 
laid. He was the last of the founders 
of the Constitution of the United 
States to be called to his eternal 

The Madison family were among 
the early emigrants to the New World, 
landing upon the shores of the Chesa- 
peake but 15 years after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. The father of 
James Madison was an opulent 
planter, residing upon a very fine es- 
tate called "Montpelier," Orange Co., 
Va. The mansion was situated in 
the midst of scenery highly pictur- 
esque and romantic, on the west side 
of South-west Mountain, at the foot of 
It was but 25 miles from the home of 
Jefferson at Monticello. The closest personal and 
[xjlitical attachment existed between these illustrious 
men, from their early youth until death. 

The early education of Mr. Madison was conducted 
mostly at home under a private tutor. At the age of 
1 8 he was sent to Princeton College, in New Jersey. 
Here he applied himself to study with the most im- 

Blue Ridge. 

prudent zeal ; allowing himself, for months, but three 
hours' sleep out of the 24; His health thus became so 
seriously impaired that he never recovered any vigor 
of constitution. He graduated in 1771, with a feeble 
body, with a character of utmost purity, and with a 
mind highly disciplined and richly stored with learning 
which embellished and gave proficiency to his subse- 
quent career. 

Returning to Virginia, he commenced the study of 
law and a course of extensive and systematic reading. 
This educational course, the spirit of the times in 
which he lived, and the society with which he asso- 
ciated, all combined to inspire him with a strong 
love of liberty, and to train him for his life-work of 
a statesman. Being naturally of a religious turn of 
mind, and his frail health leading him to think that 
his life was not to be long, he directed especial atten- 
tion to theological studies. Endowed with a mind 
singularly free from passion and prejudice, and with 
almost unequalled powers of reasoning, he weighed 
all the arguments for and against revealed religion, 
until his faith became so established as never to 
be shaken. 

In the spring of 1776, when 26 years of age, he 
was elected a member of the Virginia Convention, to 
frame the constitution of the State. The next year 
(1777), he was a candidate for the General Assembly. 
He refused to treat the whisky-loving voters, and 
consequently lost his election ; but those who had 
witnessed the talent, energy and public spirit of the 
modest young man, enlisted themselves in his behalf, 
and he was appointed to the Executive Council. 

Both Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson were 
Governors of Virginia while Mr. Madison remained 
member of the Council ; and their appreciation of his 









intellectual, social and moral worth, contributed not 
a little to his subsequent eminence. In the year 
1780, he was elected a member of the Continental 
Congress. Here lie met the most illustrious men in 
our land, and he was immediately assigned to one of 
the most conspicuous positions among them. 

For three years Mr. Madison continued in Con- 
gress, one of its most active and influential members. 
In the year 1784, his term having expired, he was 
elected a member of the Virginia Legislature. 

No man felt more deeply than Mr. Madison the 
utter inefficiency of the old confederacy, with no na- 
tional government, with no power to form treaties 
which would be binding, or to enforce law. There 
was not any State more prominent than Virginia in 
the declaration, that an efficient national government 
must be formed. In January, 1786, Mr. Madison 
carried a resolution through the General Assembly of 
Virginia, inviting the other States to appoint commis- 
sioners to meet in convention at Annapolis to discuss 
this subject. Five States only were represented. The 
convention, however, issued another call, drawn up 
by Mr. Madison, urging all the States to send their 
delegates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to draft 
a Constitution for the United States, to take the place 
of that Confederate League. The delegates met at 
the time appointed. Every State but Rhode Island 
was represented. George Washington was chosen 
president of the convention ; and the present Consti- 
tution of the United States was then and there formed. 
There was, perhaps, no mind and no pen more ac- 
tive in framing this immortal document than the mind 
and the pen of James Madison. 

The Constitution, adopted by a vote 81 to 79, was 
to be presented to the several States for acceptance. 
But grave solicitude was felt. Should it be rejected 
we should be left but a conglomeration of independent 
States, with but little power at home and little respect 
abroad. Mr. Madison was selected by the conven- 
tion to draw up an address to the people of the United 
States, expounding the principles of the Constitution, 
and urging its adoption. There was great opposition 
to it at first, but it at length triumphed over all, and 
went into effect in 1789. 

Mr. Madison was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the first Congress, and soon became the 
avowed leader of the Republican party. While in 
New York attending Congress, he met Mrs. Todd, a 
young widow of remarkable power of fascination, 
whom he married. She was in person and character 
queenly, and probably no lady has thus far occupied 
so prominent a position in the very peculiar society 
which has constituted our republican court as Mrs. 

Mr. Madison served as Secretary of State under 
Jefferson, and at the close of his administration 
was chosen President. At this time the encroach- 
ments of England had brought us to the verge of war. 

British orders in council destioyed our commerce, and 
our flag was exposed to constant insult. Mr. Madison 
was a man of peace. Scholarly in his taste, retiring 
in his disposition, war had no charms for him. But the 
meekest spirit can be roused. It makes one's blood 
boil, even now, to think of an American ship brought 
to, upon the ocean, by the guns of an English cruiser. 
A young lieutenant steps on board and orders the 
crew to be paraded before him. With great nonchal- 
ance he selects any number whom he may please to 
designate as British subjects ; orders them down the 
ship's side into his boat ; and places them on the gun- 
deck of his man-of-war, to fight, by compulsion, the 
battles of England. This right of search and im- 
pressment, no efforts of our Government could induce 
the British cabinet to relinquish. 

On the 1 8th of June, 1812, President Madison gave 
his approval to an act of Congress declaring war 
against Great Britain. Notwithstanding the bitter 
hostility of the Federal party to the war, the country 
in general approved; and Mr. Madison, on the 4th 
of March, 1813, was re-elected by a large majority, 
and entered upon his second term of office. This is 
not the place to describe the various adventures of 
this war on the land and on the water. Our infant 
navy then laid the foundations of its renown in grap- 
pling with the most formidable power which ever 
swept the seas. The contest commenced in earnest 
by the appearance of a British fleet, early in Februaiy, 
1813, in Chesapeake Bay, declaring nearly the whole 
coast of the United States under blockade. 

The Emperor of Russia offered his services as me 
dilator. America accepted ; England refused. A Brit- 
ish force of five thousand men landed on the banks 
of the Patuxet River, near its entrance into Chesa- 
peake Bay, and marched rapidly, by way of Bladens- 
burg, upon Washington. 

The straggling little city of Washington was thrown 
into consternation. The cannon of the brief conflict 
at Bladensburg echoed through the streets of the 
metropolis. The whole population fled from the city. 
The President, leaving Mrs. Madison in the White 
House, with her carriage drawn up at the door to 
await his speedy return, hurried to meet the officers 
in a council of war. He met our troops utterly routed, 
and he could not go back without danger of being 
captured. Bui few hours elapsed ere the Presidential 
Mansion, the Capitol, and all the public buildings in 
Washington were in flames. 

The war closed after two years of fighting, and on 
Feb. 13, 1815, the treaty of peace was signed atGhent. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, his second term of 
office expired, and he resigned the Presidential chair 
to his friend, James Monroe. He retired to his beau- 
tiful home at Montpelier, and there passed the re- 
mainder of his days. On June 28, 1836, then at the 
age of 85 years, he fell asleep in death. Mrs. Madi- 
son died July 12, 1849. 








AMES MONROE, the fifth 
President of The United States, 
was born in Westmoreland Co., 
Va., April 28, 1758. His early 
life was passed at the place of 
nativity. His ancestors had for 
many years resided in the prov- 
ince in which he was born. When, 
at 17 years of age, in the process 
of completing his education at 
William and Mary College, the Co- 
lonial Congress assembled at Phila- 
delphia to deliberate upon the un- 
just and manifold oppressions of 
Great Britian, declared the separa- 
tion of the Colonies, and promul- 
gated the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. Had he been born ten years before it is highly 
probable that he would have been one of the signers 
of that celebrated instrument. At this time he left 
school and enlisted among the patriots. 

He joined the army when everything looked hope- 
less and gloomy. The number of deserters increased 
from day to day. The invading armies came pouring 
in ; and the tories not only favored the cause of the 
mother country, but disheartened the new recruits, 
who were sufficiently terrified at the prospect of con- 
tending with an enemy whom they had been taught 
to deem invincible. To such brave spirits as James 
Monroe, who went right onward, undismayed through 
difficulty and danger, the United States owe their 
political emancipation. The young cadet joined the 
ranks, and espoused the cause of his injured country, 
with a firm determination to live or die with her strife 

for liberty. Firmly yet sadly he shared in the mel- 
ancholy retreat from Harleam Heights and White 
Plains, and accompanied the dispirited army as it fled 
before its foes through New Jersey. In four months 
after the Declaration of Independence, the patriots 
had been beaten in seven battles. At the battle of 
Trenton he led the vanguard, and, in the act of charg- 
ing upon the enemy he received a wound in the left 

As a reward for his bravery, Mr. Monroe was pro- 
moted a captain of infantry, and, having recovered 
from his wound, he rejoined the army. He, however, 
receded from the line of promotion, by becoming an 
officer in the staff of Lord Sterling. During the cam- 
paigns of 1777 and 1778, in the actions of Brandy- 
wine, Germantown and Monmouth, he continued 
aid-de-camp; but becoming desirous to regain his 
position in the army, he exerted himself to collect a 
regiment for the Virginia line. This scheme failed 
owing to the exhausted condition of the State. Upon 
this failure he entered the office of Mr. Jefferson, at 
that period Governor, and pursued, with considerable 
ardor, the study of common law. He did not, however, 
entirely lay aside the knapsack for the green bag; 
but on the invasions of the enemy, served as a volun- 
teer, during the two years of his legal pursuits. 

In 1782, he was elected from King George county, 
a member of the Legislature of Virginia, and by that 
body he was elevated to a seat in the Executive 
Council. He was thus honored with the confidence 
of his fellow citizens at 23 years of age ; and having 
at this early period displayed some of that ability 
and aptitude for legislation, which were afterwards 
employed with unremitting energy for the public good, 

* to 


- .. - 



he was in the succeeding year chosen a member of 
the Congress of the United States. 

Deeply as Mr. Monroe felt the imperfections of the old 
Confederacy, he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
thinking, with many others of the Republican party, 
that it gave too much power to the Central Government, 
and not enough to the individual States. Still he re- 
tained the esteem of his friends who were its warm 
supporters, and who, notwithstanding his opposition 
secured its adoption. In 1789, he became a member 
of the United States Senate; which office he held for 
four years. Every month the line of distinction be- 
tween the two great parties which divided the nation, 
the Federal and the Republican, was growing more 
distinct. The two prominent ideas which now sep- 
arated them were, that the Republican party was in 
sympathy with France, and also in favor of such a 
strict construction of the Constitution as to give the 
Central Government as little power, and the State 
Governments as much power, as the Constitution would 
warrant. The Federalists sympathized with England, 
and were in favor of a liberal construction of the Con- 
stitution, which would give as much power to the 
Central Government as that document could possibly 

The leading Federalists and Republicans were 
alike noble men, consecrating all their energies to the 
good of the nation. Two more honest men or more 
pure patriots than John Adams the Federalist, and 
James Monroe the Republican, never breathed. In 
building up this majestic nation, which is destined 
to eclipse all Grecian and Assyrian greatness, the com- 
bination of their antagonism was needed to create the 
right equilibrium. And yet each in his day was de- 
nounced as almost a demon. 

Washington was then President. England had es- 
poused the cause of the Bourbons against the princi- 
ples of the French Revolution. All Europe was drawn 
into the conflict. We were feeble and far away. 
Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending powers. France had helped 
us in the struggle for our liberties. All the despotisms 
of Europe were now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from a tyranny a thousand-fold worse 
than that which we had endured Col. Monroe, more 
magnanimous than prudent, was anxious that, at 
whatever hazard, we should help our old allies in 
their extremity. It was the impulse of a generous 
and noble nature. He violently opposed the Pres- 
ident's proclamation as ungrateful and wanting in 

Washington, who could appreciate such a character, 
developed his calm, serene, almost divine greatness, 
by appointing that very James Monroe, who was de- 
nouncing the policy of the Government, as the minister 
of that Government to the Republic of France. Mr. 
Monroe was welcomed by the National Convention 
in France with the most enthusiastic demonstrations. 

-/> VX; 

Shortly after his return to this country, Mr. Mon- 
roe was elected Governor of Virginia, and held the 
office for three yeais. He was again sent to France to 
co-operate with Chancellor Livingston in obtaining 
the vast territory then known as the Province of 
Louisiana, which France had but shortly before ob- 
tained from Spain. Their united efforts were suc- 
cessful. For the comparatively small sum of fifteen 
millions of dollars, the entire territory of Orleans and 
district of Louisiana were added to the United States. 
This was probably the largest transfer of real estate 
which was ever made in all the history of the world. 

From France Mr. Monroe went to England to ob- 
tain from that country some recognition of our 
rights as neutrals, and to remonstrate against those 
odious impressments of our seamen. But Eng- 
land was unrelenting. He again returned to Eng- 
land on the same mission, but could receive no 
redress. He returned to his home and was again 
chosen Governor of Virginia. This he soon resigned 
to accept the position of Secretary of State under 
Madison. While in this office war with England was 
declared, the Secretary of War resigned, and during 
these trying times, the duties of the War Department 
were also put upon him. He was truly the armor- 
bearer of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. Upon the return of 
peace he resigned the Department of War, but con- 
tinued in the office of Secretary of State until the ex- 
piration of Mr. Madison's adminstration. At the elec- 
tion held the previous autumn Mr. Monroe himself had 
been chosen President with but little opposition, and 
upon March 4, 1817, was inaugurated. Four years 
later he was elected for a second term. 

Among the important measures of his Presidency 
were the cession of Florida to the United States; the 
Missouri Compromise, and the " Monroe doctrine."' 

This famous doctrine, since known as the " Monroe 
doctrine," was enunciated by him in 1823. At that 
time the United States had recognized the independ- 
ence of the South American states, and did not wish 
to have European powers longer attempting to sub- 
due portions of the American Continent. The doctrine 
is as follows: "That we should consider any attempt 
on the part of European powers to extend their sys- 
tem to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous 
to our peace and safety," and "that we could not 
view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing 
or controlling American governments or provinces in 
any other light than as a manifestation by European 
powers of an unfriendly disposition toward the United 
States." This doctrine immediately affected the course 
of foreign governments, and has become the approved 
sentiment of the United States. 

At the end of his ? econd term Mr. Monroe retired 
to his home in Virginia, where he lived until 18-50, 
when he went to New York to live with his son-in- 
law. In that city he died,on the 4th of July, 1831. 





J, oL. 


sixth President of the United 
States, was born in the rural 
home of his honored father, 
John Adams, in Quincy, Mass., 
T||!, on the i i th cf July, 1767. His 
mother, a woman of exalted 
worth, watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant ab- 
sence of his father. When but 
eight years of age, he stood with 
his mother on an eminence, listen- 
ing to the booming of the great bat- 
tle on Bunker's Hill, and gazing on 
upon the smoke and flames billow- 
ing up from the conflagration of 

When but eleven years old he 
took a tearful adieu of his mother, 
to sail with his father for Europe, 
through a fleet of hostile British cruisers. The bright, 
animated boy spent a year and a half in Paris, where 
his father was associated with Franklin and Lee as 
minister plenipotentiary. His intelligence attracted 
the notice of these distinguished men, and he received 
from them flattering marks of attention. 

Mr. John Adams had scarcely returned to this 
country, in 1779, ere he was again sent abroad. Again 
John Quincy accompanied his father. At Paris he 
applied himself with great diligence, for six months, 
to study; then accompained his father to Holland, 
where he entered, first a school in Amsterdam, then 
the University at Leyden. About a year from this 
time, in i78r, when the manly boy was but fourteen 
years of age, he was selected by Mr. Dana, our min- 
ister to the Russian court, as his private secretary. 

In this school of incessant labor and of .enobling 
culture he spent fourteen months, and then returned 
to Holland through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. This long journey he took alone, in the 
winter, when in his sixteenth year. Again he resumed 
his studies, under a private tutor, at Hague, Thence, 

in the spring of 1782, he accompanied his father to 
Paris, traveling leisurely, and forming acquaintance 
with the most distinguished men on the Continent; 
examining architectural remains, galleries of paintings, 
and all renowned works of art. At Paris he again 
became associated with the most illustrious men of 
all lands in the contemplations of the loftiest temporal 
themes which can engross the human mind. After 
a short visit to England he returned to Paris, and 
consecrated all his energies to study until May, 1785, 
when he returned to America. To a brilliant young 
man of eighteen, who had seen much of the world, 
and who was familiar with the etiquette of courts, a 
residence with his father in London, under such cir- 
cumstances, must have been extremely attractive; 
but with judgment very rare in one of his age, he pre- 
ferred to return to America to complete his education 
in an American college. He wished then to study 
law, that with an honorable profession, he might be 
able to obtain an independent support. 

Upon leaving Harvard College, at the age of twenty, 
he studied law for three years. In June, 1794, be- 
ing then but twenty-seven years of age, he was ap- 
pointed by Washington, resident minister at the 
Netherlands. Sailing from Boston in July, he reached 
London in October, where he was immediately admit- 
ted to the deliberations of Messrs. Jay and Pinckney, 
assisting them in negotiating a commercial treaty with 
Great Britian. After thus spending a fortnight in 
London, he proceeded to the Hague. 

In July, 1797, he left the Hague to go to Portugal as 
minister plenipotentiary. On his way to Portugal, 
upon arriving in London, he met with despatches 
directing him to the court of Berlin, but requesting 
him to remain in London until he should receive his 
instructions. While waiting he was married to an 
American lady to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged, Miss Louisa Catherine Johnson, daughter 
of Mr. Joshua Johnson, American consul in London; 
a lady endownd with that beauty and those accom- 
plishment which eminently fitted her to move in the 
elevated sphere for which she was destined. 

: v? 




He reached Berlin with his wife in November, 1797 ; 
where he remained until July, 1799, when, having ful- 
filled all the purposes of his mission, he solicited his 

Soon after his return, in 1802, he was chosen to 
the Senate of Massachusetts, from Boston, and then 
was elected Senator of the United States for six years, 
from the 4th of March, 1804. His reputation, his 
ability and his experience, placed him immediately 
among the most prominent and influential members 
of that body. Especially did he sustain the Govern- 
ment in its measures of resistance to the encroach- 
ments of England, destroying our commerce and in- 
sulting our flag. There was no man in America more 
familiar with the arrogance of the British court upon 
these points, and no one more resolved to present 
a firm resistance. 

In 1809, Madison succeeded Jefferson in the Pres- 
idential chair, and he immediately nominated John 
Quincy Adams minister to St. Petersburg. Resign- 
ing his professorship in Harvard College, he embarked 
at Boston, in August, 1809. 

While in Russia, Mr. Adams was an intense stu- 
dent. He devoted his attention to the language and 
history of Russia; to the Chinese trade; to the 
European system of weights, measures, and coins ; to 
the climate and astronomical observations ; while he 
kept up a familiar acquaintance with the Greek and 
Latin classics. In all the universities of Europe, a 
more accomplished scholar could scarcely be found. 
All through life the Bible constituted an important 
part of his studies. It was his rule to read five 
chapters every day. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, Mr. Monroe took the 
Presidential chair, and immediately appointed Mr. 
Adams Secretary of State. Taking leave of his num- 
erous friends in public and private life in Europe, he 
sailed in June, 1819, for the United States. On the 
i8th of August, he again crossed the threshold of his 
home in Quincy. During the eight years of Mr. Mon- 
roe's administration, Mr. Adams continued Secretary 
of State. 

Some time before the close of Mr. Monroe's second 
term of office, new candidates began to be presented 
for the Presidency. The friends of Mr. Adams brought 
forward his name. It was an exciting campaign. 
Party spirit was never more bitter. Two hundred and 
sixty electoral votes were cast. Andrew Jackson re- 
ceived ninety. nine; John Quincy Adams, eighty-four; 
William H. Crawford, forty -one; Henry Clay, thirty- 
seven. As there was no choice by the people, the 
question went to the House of Representatives. Mr. 
Clay gave the vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and 
he was elected. 

The friends of all the disappointed candidates now 
combined in a venomous and persistent assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more disgraceful in 
the past history of our country than the abuse which 

was poured in one uninterrupted stream, upon this 
high-minded, upright, patriotic man. There never was 
an administration more pure in principles, more con- 
scientiously devoted to the best interests of the coun- 
try, than that of John Quincy Adams; and never, per- 
haps, was there an administration more unscrupu- 
lously and outrageously assailed. 

Mr. Adams was, to a very remarkable degree, ab- 
stemious and temperate in his habits; always rising 
early, and taking much exercise. When at his home in 
Quincy, he has been known to walk, before breakfast, 
seven miles to Boston. In Washington, it was said 
that he was the first man up in the city, lighting his 
own fire and applying himself to work in his library 
often long before dawn. 

On the 4th of March, 1829, Mr. Adams retired 
from the Presidency, and was succeeded by Andrew 
Jackson. John C. Calhoun was elected Vice Presi- 
dent. The slavery question now began to assume 
portentous magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy and to his studies, which he pursued with un- 
abated zeal. But he was not long permitted to re- 
main in retirement. In November, 1830, he was 
elected representative to Congress. For seventeen 
years, until his death, he occupied the post as repre- 
sentative, towering above all his peers, ever ready to 
do brave battle' for freedom, and winning the title of 
"the old man eloquent." Upon taking his seat in 
the House, he announced that he should hold him- 
self bound to no party. Probably there never was a 
member more devoted to his duties. He was usually 
the first in his place in the morning, and the last to 
leave his seat in the evening. Not a measure could 
be brought forward and escape his scrutiny. The 
battle which Mr. Adams fought, almost singly, against 
the proslavery party in the Government, was sublime 
in its moral dating and heroism. For persisting in 
presenting petitions for the abolition of slavery, he 
was threatened with indictment by the grand jury, 
with expulsion from the House, with assassination ; 
but no threats could intimidate him, and his final 
triumph was complete. 

It has been said of President Adams, that when his 
body was bent and his hair silvered by the lapse of 
fourscore years, yielding to the simple faith of a little 
child, he was accustomed to repeat every night, before 
he slept, the player which his mother taught him in 
his infant years. 

On the 2istof February, 1848, he rose on the floor 
of Congress, with a paper in his hand, to address the 
speaker. Suddenly he fell, again stricken by paraly- 
sis, and was caught in the arms of those around him. 
For a time he was senseless, as he was conveyed to 
the sofa in the rotunda. With reviving conscious- 
ness, he opened his eyes, looked calmly around and 
said " This is the end of earth /'then after a moment's 
pause he added, "I am content" These were the 
last words of the grand "Old Man Eloquent." 

B *&* 



seventh President of the 
United States, was born in 
VVaxhaw settlement, N. C., 
March 15, 1767, a few days 
after his father's death. His 
parents were poor emigrants 
from Ireland, and took up 
their abode in Waxhaw set- 
tlement, where they lived in 
deepest poverty. 
Andrew, or Andy, as he was 
universally called, grew up a very 
rough, rude, turbulent boy. His 
features were coarse, his form un- 
gainly; and there was but very 
little in his character, made visible, which was at- 

When only thirteen years old he joined the volun- 
teers of Carolina against the British invasion. In 
1781, he and his brother Robert were captured and 
imprisoned for a time at Camden. A British officer 
ordered him to brush his mud-spattered boots. " I am 
a prisoner of war, not your servant," was the reply of 
the dauntless boy. 

The brute drew his sword, and aimed a desperate 
blow at the head of the helpless young prisoner. 
Andrew raised his hand, and thus received two fear- 
ful gashes, one on the hand and the other upon the 
head. The officer then turned to his brother Robert 
with the same demand. He also refused, and re- 
ceived a blow from the keen-edged sabre, which quite 
diiabled him, and which probably soon after caused 
his death. They suffered much other ill-treatment, and 
were finally stricken with the small-pox. Their 
mother was successful in obtaining their exchange, 

and took her sick boys home. After a long illness 
Andrew recovered, and the death of his mother soon 
left him entirely friendless. 

Andrew supported himself in various ways, such as 
working at the saddler's trade, teaching school and 
clerking in a general store, until 1784, when he 
entered a law office at Salisbury, N. C. He, however, 
gave more attention to the wild amusements of the 
times than to his studies. In 1788, he was appointed 
solicitor for the western district of North Carolina, of 
which Tennessee was then a part. This involved 
many long and tedious journeys amid dangers of 
every kind, but Andrew Jackson never knew fear, 
and the Indians had no desire to repeat a skirmish 
with the Sharp Knife. 

In 1791, Mr. Jackson was married to a woman who 
supposed herself divorced from her former husband. 
Great was the surprise of both parties, two years later, 
to find that the conditions of the divorce had just been 
definitely settled by the first husband. The marriage 
ceremony was performed a second time, but the occur- 
rence was often used by his enemies to bring Mr. 
Jackson into disfavor. 

During these years he worked hard at his profes- 
sion, and frequently had one or more duels on hand, 
one of which, when he killed Dickenson, was espec- 
ially disgraceful. 

In January, 1796, the Territory of Tennessee then 
containing nearly eighty thousand inhabitants, the 
people met in convention at Knoxville to frame a con- 
stitution. Five were sent from each of the eleven 
counties. Andrew Jackson was one of the delegates. 
The new State was entitled to but one member in 
the National House of Representatives. Andrew Jack- 
son was chosen that member. Mounting his horse he 
rode to Philedelphia, where Congress then held its 



sessions, a distance of about eight hundred miles. 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the Demo- 
cratic party. Jefferson was his idol. He admired 
Bonaparte, loved France and hated England. As Mr. 
Jackson took his seat, Gen. Washington, whose 
second term of office was then, delivered his 
last speech to Congress. A committee drew up a 
complimentary address in reply. Andrew Jackson 
did not approve of the address, and was one of the 
twelve who voted against it. He was not willing to 
say that Gen. Washington's adminstration had been 
" wise, firm and patriotic." 

Mr. Jackson was elected to the United States 
Senate in 1797, but soon resigned and returned home. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Supreme Court 
of his State, which position he held for six years. 

Wheu the war of 1812 with Great Britian com- 
menced, Madison occupied the Presidential chair. 
Aaron Burr sent word to the President that there was 
an unknown man in the West, Andrew Jackson, who 
would do credit to a commission if one were con- 
ferred upon him. Just at that time Gen. Jackson 
offered his services and those of twenty-five hurdred 
volunteers. His offer was accepted, and the troops 
were assembled at Nashville. 

As the British were hourly expected to make an at- 
tack upon New Orleans, where Gen. Wilkinson was 
in command, he was ordered to descend the river 
with fifteen hundred troops to aid Wilkinson. The 
expedition reached Natchez ; and after a delay of sev 
eral weeks there, without accomplishing anything, 
the men were ordered back to their homes. But the 
energy Gen. Jackson had displayed, and his entire 
devotion to the comrfort of his soldiers, won him 
golden opinions ; and he became the most popular 
man in the State. It was in this expedition that his 
toughness gave him the nickname of " Old Hickory." 

Soon after this, while attempting to horsewhip Col. 
Thomas H. Beriton, for a remark that gentleman 
made about his taking a part as second in a duel, in 
which a younger brother of Benton's was engaged, 
he received two severe pistol wounds. While he was 
lingering upon a bed of suffering news came that the 
Indians, who had combined under Tecumseh from 
Florida to the Lakes, to exterminate the white set- 
tlers, were committing the most awful ravages. De- 
cisive action became necessary. Gen. Jackson, with 
his fractured bone just beginning to heal, his arm in 
a sling, and unable to mount his horse without assis- 
tance, gave his amazing energies to the raising of an 
army to rendezvous at Fayettesville, Alabama. 

The Creek Indians had established a strong fort on 
one of the bends of the Tallapoosa River, near the cen- 
ter of Alabama, about fifty miles below Fort Strother. 
With an army of two thousand men, Gen. Jackson 
traversed the pathless wilderness in a march of eleven 
days. He reached their fort, called Tohopeka or 
Horse-shoe, on the 27th of March. 1814. The bend 

of the river enclosed nearly one hundred acres of 
tangled forest and wild ravine. Across the narrow 
neck the Indians had constructed a formidable breast- 
work of logs and brush. Here nine hundred warriors, 
with an ample suplyof arms were assembled. 

The fort was stormed. The fight was utterly des- 
perate. Not an Indian would accept of quarter. When 
bleeding and dying, they would fight those who en- 
deavored to spare their lives. From ten in the morn- 
ing until dark, the battle raged. The carnage was 
awful and revolting. Some threw themselves into the 
river; but the unerring bullet struck their heads as 
they swam. Nearly everyone of the nine hundred war- 
rios were killed A few probably, in the night, swam 
the river and escaped. This ended the war. The 
[xjwer of the Creeks was broken forever. This bold 
plunge into the wilderness, with its terriffic slaughter, 
so appalled the savages, that the haggard remnants 
of the bands caiiie to the camp, begging for peace. 

This closing of the Creek war enabled us to con- 
centrate all our militia upon the British, who were the 
allies of the Indians No man of less resolute will 
than Gen. Jackson could have conducted this Indian 
campaign to so successful an issue Immediately he 
was appointed major-general. 

Late in August, with an army of two thousand 
men, on a rushing march, Gen. Jackson came to 
Mobile. A British fleet came from Pensacola, landed 
a force upon the beach, anchored near the little fort, 
and from both ship and shore commenced a furious 
assault The battle was long and doubtful. At length 
one of the ships was blown up and the rest retired. 

Garrisoning Mobile, where he had taken his little 
army, he moved his troops to New Orleans, 
And the battle of New Orleans w hich soon ensued, 
was in reality a very arduous campaign. This won 
for Gen. Jackson an imperishable name. Here his 
troops, which numbered about four thousand men, 
won a signal victory over the British army of about 
nine thousand. His loss was but thirteen, while the 
loss of the British was two thousand six hundred. 

The name of Gen. Jackson soon began to be men- 
tioned in connection with the Presidency, but, in 1824, 
he was defeated by Mr. Adams. He was, however, 
successful in the election of 1828, and was re-elected 
for a second term in 1832. In 1829, just before he 
assumed the reins of the government, he met with 
the most terrible affliction of his life in the death of 
his wife, whom he had loved with a devotion which has 
perhaps never been surpassed. From the shock of 
her death he never recovered. 

His administration was one of the most memorable 
in the annals of our country; applauded by one party, 
condemned by the other. No man had more bitter 
enemies or warmer friends. At the expiration of his 
two terms of office he retired to the Hermitage, where 
he died June 8, 1845. The last years of Mr. Jack- 
son's life were that of a devoted Christian man. 

I rr-r ' -v 


' 7/1? 06 


eighth President of the 
United States, was born at 
Kinderhook, N. Y., Dec. 5, 
1782. He died at the same 
place, July 24, 1862. His 
body rests in the cemetery 
at Kinderhook. Above it is 
a plain granite shaft fifteen feet 
high, bearing a simple inscription 
about half way up on one face. 
The lot is unfenced, unbordered 
or unbounded by shrub or flower. 

There is but little in the life of Martin Van Buren 
of romantic interest. He fought no battles, engaged 
in no wild adventures. Though his life was stormy in 
political and intellectual conflicts, and he gained many 
signal victories, his days passed uneventful in those 
incidents which give zest to biography. His an- 
cestors, as his name indicates, were of Dutch origin, 
and were among the earliest emigrants from Holland 
to the banks of the Hudson. His father was a farmer, 
residing in the old town of Kinderhook. His mother, 
also of Dutch lineage, was a woman of superior intel- 
ligence and exemplary piety. 

He was decidedly a precocious boy, developing un- 
usual activity, vigor and strength of mind. At the 
age of fourteen, he had finished his academic studies 
in his native village, and commenced the study of 
law. As he had not a collegiate education, seven 
years of study in a law-office were required of him 
before he could be admitted to the bar. Inspired with 
a lofty ambition, and conscious of his powers, he pur- 
sued his studies with indefatigable industry. After 
spending six years in an office in his native village, 

he went to the city of New York, and prosecuted his 
studies for the seventh year. 

In 1803, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty-one years of 
age, commenced the practice of law in his native vil- 
lage. The great conflict between the Federal and 
Republican party was then at its height. Mr. Van 
Buren was from the beginning a politician. He had, 
perhaps, imbibed that spirit while listening to the 
many discussions which had been carried on in his 
father's hotel. He was in cordial sympathy with 
Jefferson, and earnestly and eloquently espoused the 
cause of State Rights ; though at that time the Fed- 
eral party held the supremacy both in his town 
and State. 

His success and increasing ruputation led him, 
after six years of practice, to remove to Hudson, the 
county seat of his county. Here he spent seven years, 
constantly gaining strength by contending in the 
courts with some of the ablest men who have adorned 
the bar of his State. 

Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mr. 
Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for 
beauty and accomplishments. After twelve short 
years she sank into the grave, the victim of consump- 
tion, leaving her husband and four sons to weep over 
her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. Van Buren was 
an earnest, successful, assiduous lawyer. The record 
of those years is barren in items of public interest. 
In 1812, when thirty years of age, he was chosen to 
the State Senate, and gave his strenuous support to 
Mr. Madison's adminstration. In 1815, he was ap- 
pointed Attorney-General, and the next year moved 
to Albany, the capital of the State. 

While he was acknowledged as one of the most 
prominent leaders of the Democratic party, he had 




the moral courage to avow that true democracy did 
not require that " universal suffrage" which admits 
the vile, the degraded, the ignorant, to the right of 
governing the State. In true consistency with his 
democratic principles, he contended that, while the 
path leading to the privilege of voting should be open 
to every man without distinction, no one should be 
invested with that sacred prerogative, unless he were 
in some degree qualified for it by intelligence, virtue 
and some property interests in the welfare of the 

In 1821 he was elected a member of the United 
States Senate; and in the same year, he took a seat 
in the convention to revise the constitution of his 
native State. His course in this convention secured 
the approval of men of all parties. No one could 
doubt the singleness of his endeavors to promote the 
interests of all classes in the community. In the 
Senate of the United States, he rose at once to a 
conspicuous position as an active and useful legislator. 

In 1827, John Quincy Adams being then in the 
Presidential chair, Mr. Van Buren was re-elected to 
the Senate. He had been from the beginning a de- 
termined opposer of the Administration, adopting the 
"State Rights" view in opposition to what was 
deemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. 

Soon after this, in 1828, he was chosen Governorof 
the State of New York, and accordingly resigned his 
seat in the Senate. Probably no one in the United 
States contributed so much towards ejecting John Q. 
Adams from the Presidential chair, and placing in it 
Andrew Jackson, as did Martin Van Buren. Whether 
entitled to the reputation or not, he certainly was re- 
garded throughout the United States as 'one of the 
most skillful, sagacious and cunning of politicians. 
It was supposed that no one knew so well as he how 
to touch the secret springs of action; how to pull all 
the wires to put his machinery in motion ; and how to 
organize a political army which would, secretly and 
stealthily accomplish the most gigantic results. By 
these powers it is said that he outwitted Mr. Adams, 
Mr. Clay, Mr. Webster, and secured results which 
few thought then could be accomplished. 

When Andrew Jackson was elected President he 
appointed Mr. Van Buren Secretary of State. This 
position he resigned in 1831, and was immediately 
appointed Minister to England, where he went the 
same autumn. The Senate, however, when it met, 
ratify the nomination, and he returned 


home, apparently untroubled ; was nominated Vice 
President in the place of Calhoun, at the re-election 
of President Jackson ; and with smiles for all and 
frowns for none, he took his place at the head of that 
Senate which had refused to confirm his nomination 
as ambassador. 

His rejection by the Senate roused all the zeal of 
President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated favor- 
ite; and this, probably more than any other cause, 
secured his elevation to the chair of the Chief Execu- 
tive. On the 2oth of May, 1836, Mr. Van Buren re- 
ceived the Democratic nomination to succeed Gen. 
Jackson as President of the United States. He was 
elected by a handsome majority, to the delight of the 
retiring President. " Leaving New York out of the 
canvass," says Mr. Parton, "the election of Mr. Van 
Buren to the Presidency was as much the act of Gen. 
Jackson as though the Constitution had conferred 
upon him the power to appoint a successor." 

His administration was filled with exciting events. 
The insurrection in Canada, which threatened to in 
volve this country in war with England, the agitation 
of the slavery question, and finally the great commer- 
cial panic which spread over the country, all were 
trials to his wisdom. The financial distress was at- 
tributed to the management of the Democratic party, 
and brought the President into such disfavor that he 
failed of re-election. 

With the exception of being nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Free Soil" Democrats, in 1848, 
Mr. Van Buren lived quietly upon his estate until 
his death. 

He had ever been a prudent man, of frugal habits, 
and living within his income, had now fortunately a 
competence for his declining years. His unblemished 
character, his commanding abilities, his unquestioned 
patriotism, and the distinguished positions which he 
had occupied in the government of our country, se- 
cured to him not only the homage of his party, but 
the respect ot ihe whole community. It was on the 
4th of March, 1841, that Mr. Van Buren retired from 
the presidency. From his fine estate at Lindenwald, 
he still exerted a powerful influence upon the politics 
of the country. From this time until his death, on 
the 24th of July, 1862, at the age of eighty years, he 
resided at Lindenwald, a gentleman of leisure, of 
culture and of wealth; enjoying in a healthy old 
' age, probably far more happiness than he had before 
experienced amid the stormy scenes of his active life. 

;"-.--. -^ 

-^^ 6veGo>>^- 



K fTS33<ViS' 


SON, the ninth President of 
the United States, was born 
at Berkeley, Va., Feb. 9, 1773. 
His father, Benjamin Harri- 
son, was in comparatively op- 
ulent circumstances, and was 
one of the most distinguished 
men of his day. He was an 
intimate friend of George 
Washington, was early elected 
a member of the Continental 
Congress, and was conspicuous 
among the patriots of Virginia in 
resisting the encroachments of the 
British crown. In the celebrated 
Congress of 1775, Benjamin Har- 
rison and John Hancock were 
both candidates for the office of 

Mr Harrison was subsequently 
chosen Governor of Virginia, and 
was twice re-elected. His son, 
i William Henry, of course enjoyed 

in childhood all the advantages which wealth and 
intellectual and cultivated society could give. Hav- 
ing received a thorough common-school education, he 
entered Hampden Sidney College, where he graduated 
with honor soon after the death of his father. He 
then repaired to Philadelphia to study medicine under 
the instructions of Dr. Rush and the guardianship of 
Robert Morris, both of whom were, with his father, 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

Upon the outbreak of the Indian troubles, and not- 
withstanding the remonstrances of his friends, he 
abandoned his medical studies and entered the army, 
having obtained a commission of Ensign from Presi- 

dent Washington. He was then but 19 years old. 
From that time he passed gradually upward in rank 
until he became aid to General Wayne, after whose 
death he resigned his commission. He was then ap- 
pointed Secretary of the North-western Territory. This 
Territory was then entitled to but one member in 
Congress and Capt. Harrison was chosen to fill that 

In the sgring of 1800 the North-western Territory 
was divided by Congress into two portions. The 
eastern portion, comprising the region now embraced 
in the State of Ohio, was called " The Territory 
north-west of the Ohio." The western portion, which 
included what is now called Indiana, Illinois and 
Wisconsin, was called the "Indiana Territory." Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison; then 27 years of age, was ap- 
pointed by John Adams, Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and immediately after, also Governor of 
Upper Louisiana. He was thus ruler over almost as 
extensive a realm as any sovereign upon the globe. He 
was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and was in- 
vested with powers nearly dictatorial over the now 
rapidly increasing white population. The ability and 
fidelity with which he discharged these responsible 
duties may be inferred from the fact that he was four 
times appointed to this office first by John Adams, 
twice by Thomas Jefferson and afterwards by Presi- 
dent Madison. 

When he began his adminstration there were but 
three white settlements in that almost boundless region, 
now crowded with cities and resounding with all the 
tumult of wealth and traffic. One of these settlements 
was on the Ohio, nearly opposite Louisville; one at 
Vincennes, on the Wabash, and the third a French 

The vast wilderness over which Gov. Harrison 
reigned was filled with many tribes of Indians. About 



r -. 


S 2 


' the year 1806, two extraordinary men, twin brothers, 
of the Shawnese tribe, rose among them. One of 
these was called Tecumseh, or " The Crouching 
Panther;" the other, Olliwacheca, or " The Prophet." 
Tecumseh was not only an Indian warrior, but a man 
of great sagacity, far-reaching foresight and indomit- 
able perseverance in any enterprise in which he might 
engage. He was inspired with the highest enthusiasm, 
and had long regarded with dread and with hatred 
the encroachment of the whites upon the hunting- 
grounds of his fathers. His brother, the Prophet, was 
an orator, who could sway the feelings of the untutored 
Indian as the gale tossed the tree-tops beneath which 
they dwelt. 

But the Prophet was not merely an orator : he was, 
in the superstitious minds of the Indians, invested 
with the superhuman dignity of a medicine-man or a 
magician. With an enthusiasm unsurpassed by Peter 
the Hermit rousing Europe to the crusades, he went 
from tribe to tribe, assuming that he was specially sent 
by the Great Spirit. 

Gov. Harrison made many attempts to conciliate 
the Indians, but at last the war came, and at Tippe- 
) canoe the Indians were routed with great slaughter. 
October 28, 1812, his army began its march. When 
near the Prophet's town three Indians of rank made 



their appearance and inquired why Gov. Harrison was 
approaching them in so hostile an attitude. After a 
short conference, arrangements were made for a meet- 
ing the next day, to agree upon terms of peace. 

But Gov. Harrison was too well acquainted with 
the Indian character to be deceived by such protes- 
tations. Selecting a favorable spot for his night's en- 
campment, he took every precaution against surprise. 
His troops were posted in a hollow square, and slept 
upon their arms. 

The troops threw themselves upon the ground for 
rest; but every man had his accourtrements on, his 
loaded musket by his side, and his bayonet fixed. The 
wakeful Governor, between three and four o'clock in 
the morning, had risen, and was sitting in conversa- 
tion with his aids by the embers of a waning fire. It 
was a chill, cloudy morning with a drizzling rain. In 
the darkness, the Indians had crept as near as possi- 
ble, and just then, with a savage yell, rushed, with all 
the desperation which superstition and passion most 
highly inflamed could give, upon the left flank of the 
little army. The savages had been amply provided 
with guns and ammunition by the English. Their 
war-whoop was accompanied by a shower of bullets. 

The camp-fires were instantly extinguished, as the 
light aided the Indians in their aim. With hide- 
ous yells, the Indian bands rushed on, not doubting a 
speedy and an entire victory. But Gen. Harrison's 
troops stood as immovable as the rocks around them 
until day dawned : they then made a simultaneous 
charge with the bayonet, and swept every thing be- 
f them, and completely routing the foe. 

Gov. Harrison now had all his energies tasked 
to the utmost. The British descending from the Can - 
adas, were of themselves a very formidable force ; but 
with their savage allies, rushing like wolves from the 
forest, searching out every remote farm-house, burn- 
ing, plundering, scalping, torturing, the wide frontier 
was plunged into a state of consternation which even 
the most vivid imagination can but faintly conceive. 
The war-whoop was resounding everywhere in the 
forest. The horizon was illuminated with the conflagra- 
tion of the cabins of the settlers. Gen Hull had made 
the ignominious surrender of his forces at Detroit. 
Under these despairing circumstances, Gov. Harrison 
was appointed by President Madison commander-in- 
chief of the North-western army, with orders to retake 
Detroit, and to protect the frontiers. 

It would be difficult to place a man in a situation 
demanding more energy, sagacity and courage; but 
General Harrison was found equal to the position, 
and nobly and triumphantly did he meet all the re- 

He won the love of his soldiers by always sharing 
with them their fatigue. His whole baggage, while 
pursuing the foe up the Thames, was carried in a 
valise; and his bedding consisted of a single blanket 
lashed over his saddle. Thirty-five British officers, 
his prisoners of war, supped with him after the battle. 
The only fare he could give them was beef roasted 
before the fire, without bread or salt. 

In 1816, Gen. Harrison was chosen a member of 
the National House of Representatives, to represent 
the District of Ohio. In Congress he proved an 
active member; and whenever he spoke, it was with 
force of reason and power of eloquence, which arrested 
the attention of all the members. 

In 1819, Harrison was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio; and in 1824, as one of the presidential electors 
of that State, he gave his vote for Henry Clay. The 
same year he was chosen to the United States Senate. 

In 1836, the friends of Gen. Harrison brought him 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency against 
Van Buren, but he was defeated. At the close of 
Mr. Van Buren's term, he was re-nominated by his 
party, and Mr. Harrison was unanimously nominated 
by the Whigs, with John Tyler for the Vice Presidency. 
The contest was very animated. Gen. Jackson gave 
all his influence to prevent Harrison's election ; but 
his triumph was signal. 

The cabinet which he formed, with Daniel Webster 
at its head as Secretary of State,, was one of the most 
brilliant with which any President had ever been 
surrounded. Never were the prospects of an admin- 
istration more flattering, or the hopes of the country 
more sanguine. In the midst of these bright and 
joyous prospects, Gen. Harrison was seized by a 
pleurisy-fever and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died on the 4th of April ; just one month after 
his inauguration as President of the United States. 

X - 


f .- ., 


, uinuw 


OHN TYLER, the tenth 
Presidentof the United States. 
He was born in Charles-city 
Co., Va., March 29, 1790. He 
was the favored child of af- 
fluence and high social po- 
sition. At the early age of 
twelve, John entered William 
and Mary College and grad- 
uated with much honor when 
but seventeen years old. After 
graduating, he devoted him- 
self with great assiduity to the 
study of law, partly with his 
father and partly with Edmund 
Randolph, one of the most distin- 
guished lawyers of Virginia. 

At nineteen years of age, lie 
commenced the practice of law. 
His success was rapid and aston- 
ishing. It is said that three 
months had not elapsed ere there 
was scarcely a case on the dock- 
et of the court in which he was 
not retained. When but twenty-one years of age, he 
was almost unanimously elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He connected himself with the Demo- 
cratic party, and warmly advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. For five successive years he 
was elected to the Legislature, receiving nearly the 
unanimous vote or his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Here he acted earnestly and 
ably with the Democratic party, opposing a national 
bank, internal improvements by the General Govern- 

ment, a protective tariff, and advocating a strict con- 
struction of the Constitution, and the most careful 
vigilance over State rights. His labors in Congress 
were so arduous that before the close of his second 
term he found it necessary to resign and retire to his 
estate in Charles-city Co., to recruit his health. He, 
however, soon after consented to take his seat in the 
State Legislature, where his influence was powerful 
in promoting public works of great utility. With a 
reputation thus canstantly increasing, he was chosen 
by a very large majority of votes, Governor of his 
native State. His administration was signally a suc- 
cessful one. His popularity secured his re-election. 

John Randolph, a brilliant, erratic, half-crazed 
man, then represented Virginia in the Senate of the 
United States. A portion of the Democratic party 
was displeased with Mr. Randolph's wayward course, 
and brought forward John Tyler as his opponent, 
considering him the only man in Virginia of sufficient 
popularity to succeed against the renowned orator of 
Roanoke. Mr. Tyler was the victor. 

In accordance with his professions, upon taking his 
seat in the Senate, he joined the ranks of the opposi- 
tion. He opposed the tariff; he spoke against and 
voted against the bank as unconstitutional ; he stren- 
uously opposed all restrictions upon slavery, resist- 
ing all projects of internal improvements by the Gen- 
eral Government, and avowed his sympathy with Mr. 
Calhoun's view of nullification ; he declared that Gen. 
Jackson, by his opposition to the nullifiers, had 
abandoned the principles of the Democratic party. 
Such was Mr. Tyler's record in Congress, a record 
in perfect accordance with the principles which he 
had always avowed. 

Returning to Virginia, he resumed the practice of 
his profession. There was a split in the Democratic 








party. His friends still regarded him as a true Jef- 
fersonian, gave him a dinner, and showered compli- 
ments upon him. He had now attained the age of 
forty-six. His career had been very brilliant. In con- 
sequence of his devotion to public business, his pri- 
vate affairs had fallen into some disorder ; and it was 
not without satisfaction that he resumed the practice 
of law, and devoted himself to the culture of his plan- 
tation. Soon after this he remov ed to Williamsburg, 
for the better education of his children ; and he again 
took his seat in the Legislature of Virginia. 

By the Southern Whigs, he was sent to the national 
convention at Harrisburg to nominate a President in 
1839. The majority of votes were given to Gen. Har- 
rison, a genuine Whig, much to the disappointment of 
the South, who wished for Henry Clay. To concili- 
ate the Southern Whigs and to secure their vote, the 
convention then nominated John Tyler for Vice Pres- 
ident. It was well known that he was not in sympa- 
thy with the Whig party in the Noith : but the Vice 
President has but very little power in the Govern- 
ment, his main and almost only duty being to pre- 
side over the meetings of the Senate. Thus it hap- 
pened that a Whig President, and, in reality, a 
Democratic Vice President were chosen. 

In 1841, Mr. Tyler was inaugurated Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States. In one short month from 
that time, President Harrison died, and Mr. Tyler 
thus found himself, to his own surprise and 'that of 
the whole Nation, an occupant of the Presidential 
chair. This was a new test of the stability of our 
institutions, as it was the first time in the history of our 
country that such an event had occured. Mr. Tyler 
was at home in Williamsburg when he received the 
unexpected tidings of the death of President Harri- 
son. He hastened to Washington, and on the 6th of 
April was inaugurated to the high and responsible 
office. He was placed in a position of exceeding 
delicacy and difficulty. All his long life he had been 
opposed to the main principles of the party which had 
brought him into power. He had ever been a con- 
sistent, honest man, with an unblemished record. 
Gen. Harrison had selected a Whig cabinet. Should 
he retain them, and thus surround himself with coun- 
sellors whose views were antagonistic to his own? or, 
on the other hand, should he turn against the party 
which had elected him and select a cabinet in har- 
mony with himself, and which would oppose all those 
views which the Whigs deemed essential to the pub- 
lic welfare? This was his fearful dilemma. He in- 
vited the cabinet which President Harrison had 
selected to retain their seats. He reccomm ended a 
day of fasting and prayer, that God would guide and 
bless us. 

The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for the 
incorporation of a fiscal bank of the United States. 
The President, after ten days' delay, returned it with 
his veto. He suggested, however, that he would 

^^^ &*m 








approve of a bill drawn up upon such a plan as he 
proposed. Such a bill was accordingly prepared, and 
privately submitted to him. He gave it his approval. 
It was passed without alteration, and he sent it back 
with his veto. Here commenced the open rupture. 
It is said that Mr. Tyler was provoked to this meas- 
ure by a published letter from the Hon. John M. 
Botts, a distinguished Virginia Whig, who severely 
touched the pride of the President. 

The opposition now exultingly received the Presi- 
dent into their arms. The party which elected him 
denounced him bitterly. All the members of his 
cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, resigned. The Whigs 
of Congress, both the Senate and the House, held a 
meeting and issued an address to the people of the 
United States, proclaiming that all political alliance 
between the Whigs and President Tyler were at 
an end. 

Still the President attempted to conciliate. He 
appointed a new cabinet of distinguished Whigs and 
Conservatives, carefully leaving out all strong party 
men. Mr. Webster soon found it necessary to resign, 
forced out by the pressure of his Whig friends. Thus 
the four years of Mr. Tyler's unfortunate administra- 
tion passed sadly away. No one was satisfied. The 
land was filled with murmurs and vituperation. Whigs 
and Democrats alike assailed him. More and more, 
however, he brought himself into sympathy with his 
old friends, the Democrats, until at the close of his term, 
he gave his whole influence to the support of Mr. 
Polk, the Democratic candidate for his successor. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, he retired from the 
harassments of office, to the regret of neither party, and 
probably to his own unspeakable relief. His first wife, 
Miss Letitia Christian, died in Washington, in 1842; 
and in June, 1844, President Tyler was again married, 
at New York, to Miss Julia Gardiner, a young lady of 
many personal and intellectual accomplishments.' 

The remainder of his days Mr. Tyler passed mainly 
in retirement at his beautiful home, Sherwood For- 
est, Charles-city Co., Va. A polished gentleman in 
his manners, richly furnished with information from 
books and experience in the world, and possessing 
brilliant powers of conversation, his family circle was 
the scene of unusual attractions. With sufficient 
means for the exercise of a generous hospitality, he 
might have enjoyed a serene old age with the few 
friends who gathered around him, were it not for the 
storms of civil war which his own principles and 
policy had helped to introduce. 

When the great Rebellion rose, which the State- 
rights and nullifying doctrines of Mr. John C. Cal- 
houn had inaugurated, President Tyler renounced his 
allegiance to the United States, and joined the Confed- 
erates. He was chosen a member of their Congress; 
and while engaged in active measures to destroy, by 
force of arms, the Government over which he had 
once presided, he was taken sick and soon died. 





AMES K. POLK, the eleventh 
President of the United States, 
was bom in Mecklenburg Co., 
N. C., Nov. 2, 1795. His par- 

ents were ^ amue ' an d J ane 
(Knox) Polk, the former a son 

of Col. Thomas Polk, who located 
at the above place, as one of the 
first pioneers, in 1735. 

In the year 1006, with his wife 
and children, and soon after fol- 
lowed by most of the members of 
the Polk farnly, Samuel Polk emi- 
grated some two or three hundred 
miles farther west, to the rich valley 
of the Duck River. Here in the 
midst of the wilderness, in a region 
which was subsequently called Mau- 
ry Co., they reared their log huts, 
and established their homes. In the 
hard toil of a new farm in the wil- 
derness, James^ K. Polk spent the 
early years of his childhood and 
youth. His father, adding the pur- 
suit of a surveyor to that of a farmer, 
gradually increased in wealth until 
he became one of the leading men of the region. His 
mother was a superior woman, of strong common 
sense and earnest piety. 

Very early in life, James developed a taste for 
reading and expressed the strongest desire to obtain 
a liberal education. His mother's training had made 
him methodical in his habits, had taught him punct- 
uality and industry, and had inspired him with lofty 
principles of morality. His health was frail ; and his 
father, fearing that he might not be able to endure a 

sedentary life, got a situation for him behind the 
counter, hoping to fit him for commercial pursuits. 

This was to James a bitter disappointment. He 
had no taste for these duties, and his daily tasks 
were irksome in the extreme. He remained in this 
uncongenial occupation but a few weeks, when at his 
earnest solicitation his father removed him, and made 
arrangements for him to prosecute his studies. Soon 
after he sent him to Murfreesboro Academy. With 
ardor which could scarcely be surpassed, he pressed 
forward in his studies, and in less than two and a half 
years, in the autumn of 1815, entered the sophomore 
class in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel 
Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplary of 
scholars, punctual in every exercise, never allowing 
himself to be absent from a recitation or a religious 

He graduated in 1818, with the highest honors, be- 
ing deemed the best scholar of his class, both in 
mathematics and the classics. He was then twenty- 
three years of age. Mr. Folk's health was at this 
time much impaired by the assiduity with which he 
had prosecuted his studies. After a short season of 
relaxation he went to Nashville, and entered the 
office of Felix Grundy, to study law. Here Mr. Polk 
renewed his acquaintance with Andrew Jackson, who 
resided on his plantation, the Hermitage, but a few 
miles from Nashville. They had probably been 
slightly acquainted before. 

Mr. Folk's father was a Jeffersonian Republican, 
and James K. Polk ever adhered to the same politi- 
cal faith. He was a popular public speaker, and was 
constantly called upon to address the meetings of his 
party friends. His skill as a speaker was such that 
he was popularly called the Napoleon of the stump. 
He was a man of unblemished morals, genial and 



r 1 


xmrteous in his bearing, and with that sympathetic 
nature in the jo>s and griefs of others which ever gave 
him troops of friends. In 1823, Mr. Polk was elected 
to the Legislature of Tennessee. Here he gave his 
strong influence towards the election of his friend, 
Mr. Jackson, to the Presidency of the United States. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss Sarah 
Childress, of Rutherford Co., Tenn. His bride was 
altogether worthy of him, a lady of beauty and cul- 
ture. In the fall of 1825, Mr. Polk was chosen a 
member of Congress. The satisfaction which he gave 
to his constituents may be inferred from the fact, that 
for fourteen successive years, until 1839, he was con- 
tinued in that office. He then voluntarily withdrew, 
only that lie might accept the Gubernatorial chair 
of Tennessee. In Congress he was a laborious 
member, a frequent and a popular speaker. He was 
always in his seat, always courteous ; and whenever 
he spoke it was always to the point, and without any 
ambitious rhetorical display. 

During five sessions of Congress, Mr. Polk was 
Speaker of the House Strong passions were roused, 
and stormy scenes were witnessed ; but Mr Polk per- 
formed his arduous duties to a very general satisfac- 
tion, and a unanimous vote of thanks to him was 
passed by the House as he withdrew on the 4th of 
March, 1839. 

In accordance with Southern usage, Mr. Polk, as a 
candidate for Governor, canvassed the State. He was 
elected by a large majority, and on the 141)1 of Octo- 
ber, 1839, took the oath of office at Nashville. In 1841, 
his term of office expired, and he was again the can- 
didate of the Democratic party, but was defeated. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, Mr. Polk was inaugur- 
ated President of the United States. The verdict of 
the country in favor of the annexation of Texas, exerted 
its influence upon Congress ; and the last act of the 
administration of President Tyler was to affix his sig- 
nature to a joint resolution of Congress, passed on the 
3d of March, approving of the annexation of Texas to 
the American Union. As Mexico still claimed Texas 
as one of her provinces, the Mexican minister, 
Almonte, immediately demanded his passports and 
left the country, declaring the act of the annexation 
to be an act hostile to Mexico. 

In his first message, President Polk urged that 
Texas should immediately, by act of Congress, be re- 
ceived into the Union on the same footing with the 
other States. In the meantime, Gen. Taylor was sent 


with an army into Texas to hold the country. He was 
sent first to Nueces, which the Mexicans said was the 
western boundary of Texas. Then he was sent nearly 
two hundred miles further west, to the Rio Grande, 
where he erected batteries which commanded the 
Mexican city of Matamoras, which was situated on 
the western banks. 

The anticipated collision soon took place, and war 
was declared against Mexico by President Polk. The 
war was pushed forward by Mr. Polk's administration 
with great vigor. Gen. Taylor, whose army was first 
called one of " observation," then of " occupation," 
then of " invasion, "was sent forward to Monterey. The 
feeble Mexicans, in every encounter, were hopelessly 
and awfully slaughtered. The day of judgement 
alone can reveal the misery which this war caused. 
It was by the ingenuity of Mr. Polk's administration 
that the war was brought on. 

'To the victors belong the spoils." Mexico was 
prostrate before us. Her capital was in our hands. 
We now consented to peace upon the condition that 
Mexico should surrender to us, in addition to Texas, 
all of New Mexico, and all of Upper and Lower Cal- 
ifornia. This new demand embraced, exclusive of 
Texas, eight hundred thousand square miles. This 
was an extent of territory equal to nine States of the 
size of New York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen 
majestic States to be added to the Union. There were 
some Americans who thought it all right : there were 
others who thought it all wrong. In the prosecution 
of this war, we expended twenty thousand lives and 
more than a hundred million of dollars. Of this 
money fifteen millions were paid to Mexico. 

On the 3d of March, 1849, Mr. Polk retired from 
office, having served one term. The next day was 
Sunday. On the 5th, Gen'. Taylor was inaugurated 
as his successor. Mr Polk rode to the Capitol in the 
same carriage with Gen. Taylor; and the same even- 
ing, with Mrs. Polk, he commenced his return to 
Tennessee. He was then but fifty-four years of age. 
He had ever been strictly temperate in all his habits, 
and his health was good. With an ample fortune, 
a choice library, a cultivated mind, and domestic ties 
of the dearest nature, it seemed as though long years 
of tranquility and happiness were before him. But the 
cholera -that fearful scourge was then sweeping up 
the Valley of the Mississippi. This he contracted, 
and died on the isth of June, 1849,111 the fifty-fourth 
year of his age, greatly mourned by his countrymen. 

U --r " 
-I . 

UHiVERsirv or- 



,~r^ ^T^, 
few ~>. '- -5X 

President of the United States, 
was born on the 241)1 of Nov., 
1784, in Orange Co., Va. His 
father, Colonel Taylor, was 
a Virginian of note, and a dis- 
tinguished patriot and soldier of 
the Revolution. When Zachary 
was an infant, his father with his 
wife and two children, emigrated 
to Kentucky, where he settled in 
the pathless wilderness, a few 
miles from Louisville. In this front- 
ier home, away from civilization and 
all its refinements, young Zachary 
y could enjoy but few social and educational advan- 
tages. When six years of age he attended a common 
) school, and was then regarded as a bright, active boy, 
rather remarkable for bluntness and decision of char- 
acter He was strong, fearless and self-reliant, and 
manifested a strong desire to enter the army to fight 
the Indians who were ravaging the frontiers. There 
is little to be recorded of the uneventful years of his 
childhood on his father's large but lonely plantation. 
In 1808, his father succeeded in obtaining for him 
the commission of lieutenant in the United States 
army ; and he joined the troops which were stationed 
at New Orleans under Gen. Wilkinson. Soon after 
this he married Miss Margaret Smith, a young lady 
from one of the first families of Maryland. 

Immediately after the declaration of war with Eng- 
v land, in 1812, Capt. Taylor (for he had then been 
promoted to that rank) was put in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the Wabash, about fifty miles above 
Vincennes. This fort had been built in the wilder- 
ness by Gen. Harrison, on his march to Tippecanoe. 
It was one of the first points of attack by the Indians, 
led by Tecumseh. Its garrison consisted of a broken 

company of infantry numbering fifty men, many of 
whom were sick. 

Early in the autumn of 1812, the Indians, stealthily, 
and in large numbers, moved upon the fort. Their 
approach was first indicated by the murder of two 
soldiers just outside of the stockade. Capt. Taylor 
made every possible preparation to meet the antici- 
pated assault. On the 4th of September, a band of 
forty painted and plumed savages came to the fort, 
waving a white flag, and informed Capt. Taylor that 
in the morning their chief would come to have a talk 
with him. It was evident that their object was merely 
to ascertain the state of things at the fort, and Capt. 
Taylor, well versed in the wiles of the savages, kept 
them at a distance. 

The sun went down ; the savages disappeared , the 
garrison slept upon their arms. One hour before 
midnight the war whoop burst from a thousand lips 
in the forest around, followed by the discharge of 
musketry, and the rush of the foe. Every man, sick 
and well, sprang to his post. Every man knew that 
defeat was not merely death, but in the case of cap- 
ture, death by the most agonizing and prolonged tor- 
ture. No pen can describe, no. immagination can 
conceive the scenes which ensued. The savages suc- 
ceeded in setting fire to one of the block-houses- 
Until six o'clock in the morning, this awful conflict 
continued. The savages then, baffled at every point, 
and gnashing their teeth with rage, retired. Capt. 
Taylor, for this gallant defence, was promoted to the 
rank of major by brevet. 

Until the close of the war, Major Taylor was placed 
in such situations that he saw but little more of active 
service. He was sent far away into the depths of the 
wilderness, to Fort Crawford, on Fox River, which 
empties into Green Bay. Here there was but little 
to be done but to wear away the tedious hours as one 
best could. There were no books, no society, no in- 

6 4 

s_^ V .V- H H <L H H y V 




tellectual stimulus. Thus with him the uneventful 
years rolled on Gradually he rose to the rank of 
colonel. In the Black-Hawk war, which resulted in 
the capture of that renowned chieftain, Col Taylor 
took a subordinate but a brave and efficient part. 

For twenty-four years Col. Taylor was engaged in 
the defence of the frontiers, in scenes so remote, and in 
employments so obscure, that his name was unknown 
beyond the limits of his own immediate acquaintance. 
In the year 1836, he was sent to Florida to compel 
the Seminole Indians to vacate that region and re- 
tire beyond the Mississippi, as their chiefs by treaty, 
had promised they should do. The services rendered 
here secured for Col. Taylor the high appreciation of 
the Government; and as a reward, he was elevated 
to the rank of brigadier-general by brevet ; and soon 
after, in May, 1838, was appointed to the chief com- 
mand of the United States troops in Florida. 

After two years of such wearisome employment 
amidst the everglades of the peninsula, Gen. Taylor 
obtained, at his own request, a change of command, 
and was stationed over the Department of the South- 
west. This field embraced Louisiana, Mississippi, 
Alabama and Georgia. Establishing his headquarters 
at Fort Jessup, in Louisiana, he removed his family 
to a plantation which he purchased, near Baton Rogue. 
Here he remained for five years, buried, as it were, 
from the world, but faithfully discharging every duty 
imposed upon him. 

In 1846, Gen. Taylor was sent to guard the land 
between the Nueces and Rio Grande, the latter river 
being the boundary of Texas, which was then claimed 
by the United States. Soon the war with Mexico 
was brought on, and at Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma, Gen. Taylor won brilliant victories over the 
Mexicans. The rank of major-general by brevet 
was then conferred upon Gen. Taylor, and his name 
was received with enthusiasm almost everywhere in 
the Nation. Then came the battles of Monterey and 
Buena Vista in which he won signal victories over 
forces much larger than he commanded. 

His careless habits of dress and his unaffected 
simplicity, secured for Gen. Taylor among his troops, 
the sobriquet of "Old Rough and Ready." 

The tidings of the brilliant victory of Buena Vista 
spread the wildest enthusiasm over the country. The 
name of Gen. Taylor was on every one's lips. The 
Whig party decided to take advantage of this wonder- 
ful popularity in bringing forward the unpolished, un- 
lettered, honest soldier as their candidate for the 
Presidency. Gen. Taylor was astonished at the an- 
nouncement, and for a time would not listen to it; de- 
claring that he was not at all qualified for such an 
office. So little interest had he taken in politics that, 
for forty years, he had not cast a vote. It was not 
without chagrin that several distinguished statesmen 
who had been long years in the public service found 
their claims set aside in behalf of one whose name 

Gen. Scott, who was thoroughly acquainted with 
Gen. Taylor, gave the following graphic and truthful 
description of his character: " With a good store of 
common sense, Gen. Taylor's mind had not been en- 
larged and refreshed by reading, or much converse 
with the world. Rigidity of ideas was the conse- 
quence. The frontiers and small military posts had 
been his home. Hence he was quite ignorant for his 
rank, and quite bigoted in his ignorance. His sim- 
plicity was child-like, and with innumerable preju- 
dices, amusing and incorrigible, well suited to the 
tender age. Thus, if a man, however respectable, 
chanced to wear a coat of an unusual color, or his hat 
a little on one side of his head; or an officer to leave 
a corner of his handkerchief dangling from an out- 
side pocket, in any such case, this critic held the 
offender to be a coxcomb (perhaps something worse), 
whom he would not, to use his oft repeated phrase, 
' touch with a pair of tongs.' 

"Any allusion to literature beyond good old Dil- 
worth's spelling-book, on the part of one wearing a 
sword, was evidence, with the same judge, of utter 
unfitness for heavy marchings and combats. In short, 
few men have ever had a more comfortable, labor- 
saving contempt for learning of every kind." 

had never been heard of, s-ave in connection with Palo ^ 
Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey and Buena /$ 
Vista. It Is said that Daniel Webster, in his haste re- 2 *_ 
marked, " It is a nomination not fit to be made." 

Gen. Taylor was not an eloquent speaker nor a fine 
writer His friends took possession of him, and pre- 
pared such few communications as it was needful 
should be presented to the public. The popularity of 
the successful warrior swept the land. He was tri- 
umphantly elected over two opposing candidates, 
Gen. Cass and Ex-President Martin Van Buren. 
Though he selected an excellent cabinet, the good 
old man found himself in a very uncongenial position, 
and was, at times, sorely perplexed and harassed. 
His mental sufferings were very severe, and probably 
tended to hasten his death. The pro-slavery party 
was pushing its claims with tireless energy , expedi- 
tions were fitting out to capture Cuba ; California was 
pleading for admission to the Union, while slavery 
stood at the door to bar her out. Gen. Taylor found 
the political conflicts in Washington to be far more 
trying to the nerves than battles with Mexicans or 

In the midst of all these troubles, Gen. Taylor, 
after he had occupied the Presidential chair but little 
over a year, took cold, and after a brief sickness of 
but little over five days, died on the gth of July, 1850. 
His last words were, " I am not afraid to die. I am 
ready. I have endeavored to do my duty." He died 
universally respected and beloved. An honest, un- 
pretending man, he had been steadily growing in the 
affections of the people ; and the Nation bitterly la- 
mented his death. 

UNIVthi>!!> -< ,L 

'i ><> 







teenth President of the United 
States, was born at Summer 
Hill, Cayuga Co., N. Y ., on 
the yth of January, 1800. His 
father was a farmer, and ow- 
ing to misfortune, in humble cir- 
cumstances. Of his mother, the 
daughter of Dr. AbiatharMillard, 
of Pittsfield, Mass., it has been 
said that she possessed an intellect 
of very high order, united with much 
personal loveliness, sweetness of dis- 
position, graceful manners and ex- 
quisite sensibilities. She died in 
1831 ; having lived to see her son a 
young man of distinguished prom- 
ise, though she was not permitted to witness the high 
dignity which he finally attained. 

In consequence of the secluded home and limited 
means of his father, Millard enjoyed but slender ad- 
vantages for education in his early years. The com- 
mon schools, which he occasionally attended were 
very imperfect institutions; and books were scarce 
and expensive. There was nothing then in his char- 
acter to indicate the brilliant career upon which he 
was about to enter. He was a plain farmer's boy ; 
intelligent, good-looking, kind-hearted. The sacred 
influences of home had taught him to revere the Bible, 
and had laid the foundations of an upright character. 
When fourteen years of age, his father sent him 
some hundred miles from home, to the then wilds of 
Livingston County, to learn the trade of a clothier. 
Near the mill there was a small villiage, where some 

enterprising man had commenced the collection of a 
village library. This proved an inestimable blessing 
to young Fillmore. His evenings were spent in read- 
ing. Soon every leisure moment was occupied with 
books. His thirst for knowledge became insatiate; 
and the selections which he made were continually 
more elevating and instructive. He read history, 
biography, oratory, and thus gradually there was en- 
kindled in his heart a desire to be something more 
than a mere worker with his hands; and he was be- 
coming, almost unknown to himself, a well-informed, 
educated man. 

The young clothier had now attained the age of 
nineteen years, and was of fine personal appearance 
and of gentlemanly demeanor. It so happened that 
there was a gentleman in the neighborhood of ample 
pecuniary means and of benevolence, Judge Walter 
Wood, who was struck with the prepossessing ap- 
pearance of young Fillmore. He made his acquaint- 
ance, and was so much impressed with his ability and 
attainments that he advised him to abandon his 
trade and devote himself to the study of the law. The 
young man replied, that he had no means of his own, 
r.o friends to help him and that his previous educa- 
tion had been very imperfect. But Judge Wood had 
so much confidence in him that he kindly offered to 
take him into his own office, and to loan him such 
money as he needed. Most gratefully the generous 
offer was accepted. 

There is in many minds a strange delusion about 
a collegiate education. A young man is supposed to 
be liberally educated if he has graduated at some col- 
lege. But many a boy loiters through university halls 
and then enters a law office, who is by no means as 


*. *. 


well prepared to prosecute his legal studies as was 
Millard Fillmore when he graduated at the clothing- 
mill at the end of four years of manual labor, during 
which every leisure moment had been devoted to in- 
tense mental culture. 

In 1823, when twenty-three years of age, he was 
admitted to the Court of Common Pleas. He then 
went to the village of Aurora, and commenced the 
practice of law. In this secluded, peaceful region, 
his practice of course was limited, and there was no 
opportunity for a sudden rise in fortune or in fame. 
Here, in the year 1826, he married a lady of great 
moral worth, and one capable of adorning any station 
she might be called to fill, Miss Abigail Powers. 

His elevation of character, his untiring industry, 
his legal acquirements, and his skill as an advocate, 
gradually attracted attention ; and he was invited to 
enter into partnership under highly advantageous 
circumstances, with an elder member of the bar in 
Buffalo. Just before removing to Buffalo, in 1829, 
he took his seat in the House of Assembly, of the 
State of New York, as a representative from Erie 
County. Though he had never taken a very active 
part in politics, his vote and his sympathies were with 
the Whig party. The State was then Democratic, 
and he found himself in a helpless minority in the 
Legislature , still the testimony comes from all parties, 
that his courtesy, ability and integrity, won, to a very 
unusual degn e the respect of his associates. 

In the autumn of 1832, he was elected to a seat in 
the United States Congress He entered that troubled 
arena in some of the most tumultuous hours of our 
national history. The great conflict respecting the 
national bank and the removal of the deposits, was 
then raging. 

His term of two years closed ; and he returned to 
his profession, which he pursued with increasing rep- 
utation and success. After a lapse of two years 
he again became a candidate for Congress ; was re- 
elected, and took his seat in 1837. His past expe- 
rience as a representative gave him strength and 
confidence. The first term of service in Congress to 
any man can be but little more than an introduction. 
He was now prepared for active duty. All his ener- 
gies were brought to bear upon the public good. Every 
measure received his impress. 

Mr. Fillmore was now a man of wide repute, and 
his popularity filled the State, and in the year 1847, 
he was elected Comptroller of the State. 

Mr. Fillmore had attained the age of forty-seven 
years. His labors at the bar, in the Legislature, in 
Congress and as Comptroller, had given him very con- 
siderable fame. The Whigs were casting about to 
find suitable candidates for President and Vice-Presi- 
dent at the approaching election. Far away, on the 
waters of the Rio Grande, there was a rough old 
soldier, who had fought one or two successful battles 
with the Mexicans, which had caused his name to be 
proclaimed in trumpet-tones all over the land. But 
it was necessary to associate with him on the same 
ticket some man of reputation as a statesman. 

Under the influence of these considerations, the 
namesof Zachary Taylor.and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying-cry of the Whigs, as their candidates for 
President and Vice-Peesident. The Whig ticket was 
signally triumphant. On the 4th of March, 1849, 
Gen. Taylor was inaugurated President, and Millard 
Fillmore Vice-President, of the United States. 

On the gth of July, 1850, President Taylor, but 
about one year and four months after his inaugura- 
tion, was suddenly taken sick and died. By the Con- 
stitution, Vice-President Fillmore thus became Presi- 
dent. He appointed a very able cabinet, of which 
the illustrious Daniel Webster was Secretary of State. 

Mr. Fillniore had very serious difficulties to contend 
with, since the opposition had a majority in both 
Houses. He did everything in his power to conciliate 
the South ; but the pro-slavery party in the South felt 
the inadequacy of all measuresof transient conciliation. 
The population of the free States was so rapidly in- 
creasing over that of the slave States that it was in- 
evitable that the power of the Government should 
soon pass into the hands of the free States. The 
famous com promise measures were adopted under Mr. 
Fillmcre's adminstration, and the Japan Expedition 
was sent out. On the 4th of March, 1853, Mr. Fill- 
more, having served one term, retired. 

In 1856, Mr. Fillmore was nominated for the Pres- 
idency by the ' Know Nothing " party, but was beaten 
by Mr. Buchanan. After that Mr. Fillmore lived in 
retirement. During the terrible conflict of civil war, 
he was mostly silent. It was generally supposed that 
his sympathies were rather with those who were en- 
deavoring to overthrow our institutions. President 
Fillmore kept aloof from the conflict, without any 
cordial words of cheer to the one party or the other. 
He was thus forgotten by both. He lived to a ripe 
old age, and died in Buffalo. N. Y., March 8, 1874. 

UNIVERSITY ft ii.Liw.iiii 



&X&&g/G\\ J'i^l 
f*^ YVtSfctf .1 


fourteenth President of the 
United States, was born in 
Hillsborough, N. H., Nov. 
23, 1864. His father was a 
Revolutionary soldier, who, 
with his own strong arm, 
hewed out a home in the 
wilderness. He was a man 
of inflexible integrity; of 
strong, though uncultivated 
mind, and an uncompromis- 
ing Democrat. The mother of 
Franklin Pierce was all that a son 
could desire, an intelligent, pru- 
dent, affectionate, Christian wom- 
an. Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 

Franklin was a very bright and handsome boy, gen- 
erous, warm-hearted and brave. He won alike the 
love of old and young. The boys on the play ground 
loved him. His teachers loved him. The neighbors 
looked upon him with pride and affection. He was 
by instinct a gentleman; always speaking kind words, 
doing kind deeds, with a peculiar unstudied tact 
which taught him what was agreeable. Without de- 
veloping any precocity of genius, or any unnatural 
devotion to books, he was a good scholar; in body, 
in mind, in affections, a finely-developed boy. 

When sixteen years of age, in the year 1820, he 
entered Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Me He was 
one of the most popular young men in the college. 
The purity of his moral character, the unvarying 
courtesy of his demeanor, his rank as a scholar, and 

^^^ ^A^O n 

genial nature, rendered him a universal favorite. 
There was something very peculiarly winning in his 
address, and it was evidently not in the slightest de- 
gree studied : it was the simple outgushing of his 
own magnanimous and loving nature. 

Upon graduating, in the year 1824, Franklin Pierce 
commenced the study of law in the office of Judge 
Woodbury, one of the most distinguished lawyers of 
the State, and a man of great private worth. The 
eminent social qualities of the young lawyer, his 
father's prominence as a public man, and the brilliant 
political career into which Judge Woodbury was en- 
tering, all tended to entice Mr. Pierce into the faci- 
nating yet perilous path of political life. With all 
the ardor of his nature he espoused the cause of Gen. 
Jackson for the Presidency. He commenced the 
practice of law in Hillsborough, and was soon elected 
to represent the town in the State Legislature. Here 
he served for four yeais. The last two years he was 
chosen speaker of the house by a very large vote. 

In 1833, at the age of twenty-nine, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Without taking an active 
part in debates, he was faithful and laborious in duty, 
and ever rising in the estimation of those with whom 
he was associatad. 

In 1837, being then but thirty-three years of age, 
he was elected to the Senate of the United States; 
taking his seat just as Mr. Van Buren commenced 
his administration. He was the youngest member in 
the Senate. In the year 1834, he married Miss Jane 
Means Appleton, a lady of rare beauty and accom- 
plishments, and one admirably fitted to adorn every 
station with which her husband was honoied. Of the 


' _ 



three sons who were bom to them, all now sleep with 
their parents in the grave. 

In the year 1838, Mr. Pierce, with growing fame 
and increasing business as a lawyer, took up his 
residence in Concord, the capital of New Hampshire. 
President Polk, upon his accession to office, appointed 
Mr. Pierce attorney-general of the United States; but 
the offer was declined, in consequence of numerous 
professional engagements at home, and the precariuos 
state of Mrs. Pierce 's health. He also, about the 
same time declined the nomination for governor by the 
Democratic party. The war with Mexico called Mr. 
Pierce in the army. Receiving the appointment of 
brigadier-general, he embarked, with a portion of his 
troops, at Newport, R. I., on the 27th of May, 1847. 
He took an important part in this war, proving him- 
self a brave and true soldier. 

When Gen. Pierce reached his home in his native 
State, he was received enthusiastically by the advo- 
cates of the Mexican war, and coldly by his oppo- 
nents. He resumed the practice of his profession, 
very frequently taking an active part in political ques- 
tions, giving his cordial support to the pro-slavery 
wing of the Democratic party. The compromise 
measures met cordially with his approval ; and he 
strenuously advocated the enforcement of the infa- 
mous fugitive-slave law, which so shocked the religious 
sensibilities of the North. He thus became distin- 
guished as a " Northern man with Southern principles.'' 
The strong partisans of slavery in the South conse- 
quently regarded him as a man whom they could 
safely trust in office to carry out their plans. 

On the 1 2th of June, 1852, the Democratic conven- 
tion met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the 
Presidency. For four days they continued in session, 
and in thirty-five ballotings no one had obtained a 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote thus far had been thrown 
for Gen. Pierce. Then the Virginia delegation 
brought forward his name. There were fourteen 
more ballotings, during which Gen. Pierce constantly 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth ballot, he 
received two hundred and eighty-two votes, and all 
other candidates eleven. Gen. Winfield Scott was 
the Whig candidate. Gen. Pierce was chosen with 
great unanimity. Only four States Vermont, Mas- 
sachusetts, Kentucky and Tennessee cast their 
electoral votes against him Gen. Franklin Pierce 
was therefore inaugurated President of the United 
States on the 4th of March, 1853. 

His administration proved one of the most stormy our 
country had ever experienced. The controversy be- 
tween slavery and freedom was then approaching its 
culminating point. It became evident that there was 
an " irrepressible conflict " between them, and that 
this Nation could not long exist " half slave and half 
free." President Pierce, during the whole of his ad- 
ministration, did every thing he could to conciliate 
the South ; but it was all in vain. The conflict every 
year grew more violent, and threats of the dissolution 
of the Union were borne to the North on every South- 
ern breeze. 

Such was the condition of affairs when President 
Pierce approached the close of his four-years' term 
of office. The North had become thoroughly alien- 
ated from him. The anti-slavery sentiment, goaded 
by great outrages, had been rapidly increasing; all 
the intellectual ability and social worth of President 
Pierce were forgotten in deep reprehension of his ad- 
ministrative acts. The slaveholders of the South, also, 
unmindful of the fidelity with which he had advo- 
cated those measures of Government which they ap- 
proved, and perhaps, also, feeling that he had 
rendered himself so unpopular as no longer to be 
able acceptably to serve them, ungratefully dropped 
him, and nominated James Buchanan to succeed him. 

On the 4th of March, 1857, President Pierce re- 
tired to his home in Concord. Of three children, two 
had died, and his only surviving child had been 
killed before his eyes by a railroad accident ; and his 
wife, one of the most estimable and accomplished of 
ladies, was rapidly sinking in consumption. The 
hour of dreadful gloom soon came, and he was left 
alone in the world, without wife or child. 

When the terrible Rebellion burst forth, which di- 
vided our country into two parties, and two only, Mr. 
Pierce remained steadfast in the principles which he 
had always cherished, and gave his sympathies to 
that pro-slavery party with which he had ever been 
allied. He declined to do anything, either by voice 
or pen, to strengthen the hand of the National Gov- 
ernment. He continued to reside in Concord until 
the time of his death, which occurred in October, 
1869. He was one of the most genial and social of 
men, an honored communicant of the Episcopal 
Church, and one of the kindest of neighbors. Gen- 
erous to a fault, he contributed liberally for the al- 
leviation of suffering and want, and many of his towns- 
people were often gladened by his material bounty. 

< tvy 

; v ; i 1 ; i' . ,' .--,' ; ,' ; i 1 ; v ; v ; .' ; ><:,<: i'.;j:-:. . v..v.,v..v.,'i . ...'. -..'. .. | i--.. 1 .". v.-vvv..,' 

AMES BUCHANAN, the fif- 
teenth President of the United 
States, was born in a small 
frontier town, at the foot of the 
eastern ridge of the Allegha- 
nies, in Franklin Co., Penn., on 
the 23d of April, 1791. The place 
where the humble cabin of his 
father stood was called Stony 
Batter. It was a wild and ro- 
mantic spot in a gorge of the moun- 
tains, with towering summits rising 
grandly all around. His father 
was a native of the north of Ireland ; 
a poor man, who had emigrated in 
1783, with little property save his 
Five years afterwards he married 
Elizabeth Spear, the daughter of a respectable farmer, 
and, with his young bride, plunged into the wilder- 
ness, staked his claim, reared his log-hut, opened a 
clearing with his axe, and settled down there to per- 
form his obscure part in the drama of life. In this se- 
cluded home, where James was born, he remained 
for eight years, enjoying but few social or intellectual 
advantages. When James was eight years of age, his 
father removed to the village of Mercersburg, where 
his son was placed at school, and commenced a 
course of study in English, Latin and Greek. His 
progress was rapid, and at the age of fourteen, he 
entered Dickinson College, at Carlisle. Here he de- 
veloped remarkable talent, and took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution. His application 
to study was intense, and yet his native powers en- 

V2cSsi8 ^nJMkar' 

own strong arms. 

abled him to master the most abstruse subjects with 

In the year 1809, he graduated with the highest 
honors of his class. He was then eighteen years of 
age; tall and graceful, vigorous in health, fond of 
athletic sport, an unerring shot, and enlivened with 
an exuberant flow of animal spirits. He immediately 
commenced the study of law in the city of Lancaster, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1812, when he was 
but twenty-one years of age. Very rapidly he rose 
in his profession, and at once took undisputed stand 
with the ablest lawyers of the State. When but 
twenty-six years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate ore of the 
judges of the State, who was tried upon articles of 
impeachment. At the age of thirty it was generally 
admitted that he stood at the head of the bar; and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had a more lu- 
crative practice. 

In 1820, he reluctantly consented to run as a 
candidate for Congress. He was elected, and for 
ten years he remained a member of the Lower House. 
Daring the vacations of Congress, he occasionally 
tried some important case. In 1831, he retired 
altogether from the toils of his profession, having ac- 
quired an ample fortune. 

Gen. Jackson, upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
ap]x>inted Mr. Buchanan minister to Russia. The 
duties of his mission he performed with ability, which 
gave satisfaction to all parties. Upon his return, in 
1833, he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met, as his associates, Webster, 
Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He advocated the meas- 
ures proposed by President Jackson, of making repri. 




"V ^^ 


sals against France, to enforce the payment of our 
claims against that country ; and defended the course 
of the President in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removal from office of those who were not the sup- 
porters of his administration. Upon this question he 
was brought into direct collision with Henry Clay. 
He also, with voice and vote, advocated expunging 
from the journal of the Senate the vote of censure 
against Gen. Jackson for removing the deposits. 
Earnestly he opposed the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia, and urged the prohibition of the 
circulation of anti-slavery documents by the United 
States mails. 

As to petitions on the subject of slavery, he advo- 
cated that they should be respectfully received ; and 
that the reply should be returned, that Congress had 
no power to legislate upon the subject. " Congress," 
said he, " might as well undertake to interfere with 
slavery under a foreign government as in any of the 
States where it now exists." 

Upon Mr. Folk's accession to the Presidency, Mr. 
Buchanan became Secretary of State, and 'as such, 
took his share of the responsibility in the conduct of 
the Mexican War. Mr. Polk assumed that crossing 
the Nueces by the American troops into the disputed 
territory was not wrong, but for the Mexicans to cross 
the Rio Grande into that territory was a declaration 
of war. No candid man cap read with pleasure the 
account of the course our Government pursued in that 

Mr. Buchanan identified himself thoroughly with 
the party devoted to the perpetuation and extension 
of slavery, and brought all the energies of his mind 
to bear against the Wilmot Proviso. He gave his 
cordial approval to the compromise measures of 1050, 
which included the fugitive-slave law. Mr. Pierce, 
upon his election to the Presidency, honored Mr. 
Buchanan with the mission to England. 

In the year 1856, a national Democratic conven- 
tion nominated Mr. Buchanan forthe Presidency. The- 
political conflict was one of the most severe in which 
our country has ever engaged. All the friends of 
slavery were on one side; all the advocates of its re- 
striction and final abolition, on the other. Mr. Fre- 
mont, the candidate of the enemies of slavery, re- 
ceived 1 14 electoral votes. Mr. Buchanan received 
174, and was elected. The popular vote stood 
1,340,618, for Fremont, 1,224,750 for Buchanan. On 
March 4th, 1857, Mr. Buchanan was inaugurated. 
Mr. Buuhanan was far advanced in life. Only four 
years were wanting to fill up his threescore years and 
ten. His own friends, those with whom he had been 
allied in political principles and action for years, were 
seeking the destruction of the Government, that they 
might rear upon the ruins of our free institutions a 
nation whose corner-stone should be human slavery. 
In this emergency, Mr. Buchanan was hopelessly be- 
wildered. He could not, with his long-avowed prin- 

ciples, consistently oppose the State-rights party in 
their assumptions. As President of the United States, 
bound by his oath faithfully to administer the laws, 
he could not, without perjury of the grossest kind, 
unite with those endeavoring to overthrow the repub- 
lic. He therefore did nothing. 

The opponents of Mr. Buchanan's administration 
nominated Abraham Lincoln as their standard bearer 
in the next Presidential canvass. The pro-slavery 
party declared, that if he were elected, and (he con- 
trol of the Government were thus taken from their 
hands, they would secede from the Union, taking 
with them, as they retired, the National Capitol at 
Washington, and the lion's share of the territory of 
the United States. 

Mr. Buchanan's sympathy with the pro-slavery 
party was such, that he had been willing to offer them 
far more than they had ventured to claim. All the 
South had professed to ask of the North was non- 
intervention upon the subject of slavery. Mr. Bu- 
chanan had been ready to offer them the active co- 
operation of the Government to defend and extend 
the institution. 

As the storm increased in violence, the slaveholders 
claiming the right to secede, and Mr. Buchanan avow- 
ing that Congress had no power to prevent it, one of 
the most pitiable exhibitions of governmental im- 
becility was exhibited the world has ever seen. He 
declared that Congress had no power to enforce its 
laws in any State which had withdrawn, or which 
was attempting to withdraw from the Union. This 
was not the doctrine of Andrew Jackson, when, with 
his hand upon his sword hilt, he exclaimed, "The 
Union must and shall be preserved!" 

South Carolina seceded in December, 1860; nearly 
three months before the inauguration of President 
Lincoln. Mr. Buchanan looked on in listless despair. 
The rebel flag was raised in Charleston: Fort Sumpter 
was besieged ; our forts, navy-yards and arsenals 
were seized; our depots of military stores were plun- 
dered ; and our custom-houses and post-offices were 
appropriated by the rebels. 

The energy of the rebels, and the imbecility of our 
Executive, were alike marvelous. The Nation looked 
on in agony, waiting for the slow weeks to glide away, 
and close the administration, so terrible in its weak- 
ness At length the long-looked-for hour of deliver- 
ance came, when Abraham Lincoln was to receive the 

The administration of President Buchanan was 
certainly the most calamitous our country has ex- 
perienced. His best friends cannot recall it with 
pleasure. And still more deplorable it is for his fame, 
that in that dreadful conflict which rolled its billows 
of flame and blood over our whole land, no word came 
from his lips to indicate his wish that our country's 
banner should triumph over the flag of the rebellion. 
He died at his Wheatland retreat, June i, 1868. 

L." :;.-.?'; 
yf , LUIWj(S 


& < LINCOLN. > 

sixteenth President of the 
United States, was born in 
Hardin Co., Ky., Feb. 12, 
1809. About the year 1780, a 
man by the name of Abraham 
Lincoln left Virginia with his 
family and moved into the then 
wilds of Kentucky. Only two years 
after this emigration, still a young 
man, while working one day in a 
field, was stealthily approached by 
an Indian and shot dead. His widow 
was left in extreme poverty with five 
little children, three boys and two 
girls. Thomas, the youngest of the 
boys, was four years of age at his 
father's death. This Thomas was 
the father of Abraham Lincoln, the 
President of the United States 
whose name must henceforth forever be enrolled 
with the most prominent in the annals of our world. 
Of course no record has been kept of the life 
of one so lowly as Thomas Lincoln. He was among 
the poorest of the poor. His home was a wretched 
log-cabin ; his food the coarsest and the meanest. 
Education he had none; he could never either read 
or write. As soon as he was able to do anything for 
himself, he was compelled to leave the cabin of his 
starving mother, and push out into the world, a friend- 
less, wandering boy, seeking work. He hired him- 
self out, and thus spent the whole of his youth as a 
laborer in the fields of others. 

' When twenty-eight years of age he built a log- 
cabin of his own, and married Nancy Hanks, the 
daughter of another family of poor Kentucky emi- 
grants, who had also come from Virginia. Their 
second child was Abraham Lincoln, the subject of 
this sketch. The mother of Abraham was a noble 
woman, gentle, loving, pensive, created to adorn 
a palace, doomed to toil and pine, and die in a hovel. 
"All that I am, or hope to be," exclaims the grate- 
ful son " I owe to my angel-mother. 

When he was eight years of age, his father sold his 

cabin and small farm, and moved to Indiana. Where 
two years later his mother died. 

Abraham soon became the scribe of the uneducated 
community around him. He could not have had a 
better school than this to teach him to put thoughts 
into words. He also became an eager reader. The 
books he could obtain were few ; but these he read 
and re-read until they were almost committed to 

As the years rolled on, the lot of this lowly family 
was the usual lot of humanity. There were joys and 
griefs, weddings and funerals. Abraham's sister 
Sarah, to whom he was tenderly attached, was mar- 
ried when a child of but fourteen years of age, and 
soon died. The family was gradually scattered. Mr. 
Thomas Lincoln sold out his squatter's claim in 1830, 
and emigrated to Macon Co., 111. 

Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one years of age. 
With vigorous hands he aided his father in rearing 
another log-cabin. Abraham worked diligently at this 
until he saw the family comfortably settled, and their 
small lot of enclosed prairie planted with corn, when 
he announced to his father his intention to leave 
home, and to go out into the world and seek his for- 
tune. Little did he or his friends imagine how bril- 
liant that fortune was to be. He saw the value of 
education and was intensely earnest to improve his 
mind to the utmost of his power. He saw the ruin 
which ardent spirits were causing, and became 
strictly temperate; refusing to allow a drop of intoxi- 
cating liquor to pass his lips. And he had read in 
God's word, " Thou shall not take the name of the 
Lord thy God in vain ;" and a profane expression he 
was never heard to utter. Religion he revered. His 
morals were pure, and he was uncontaminated by a 
single vice. 

Young Abraham worked for a time as a hired laborer 
among the farmers. Then he went to Springfield, 
where he was employed in building a large flat-boat. 
In this he took a herd of swine, floated them down 
the Sangamon to the Illinois, and thence by the Mis- 
sissippi to New Orleans. Whatever Abraham Lin- 
coln undertook, he performed so faithfully as to give 
great satisfaction to his employers. In this adven- 








; ' 

ture his employers were so well pleased, that upon 
his return they placed a store and mill under his care. 

In 1832, at the outbreak of the Black Hawk war, he 
enlisted and was chosen captain of a company. He 
returned to Sangamon County, and although only 23 
years of age, was a candidate for the Legislature, but 
was defeated. He soon after received from Andrew 
Jackson the appointment of Postmaster of New Salem, 
His only post-office was his hat. All the letters he 
received he carried there ready to deliver to those 
he chanced to meet. He studied surveying, and soon 
made this his business. In 1834 he again became a 
candidate for the Legislature, and was elected Mr. 
Stuart, of Springfield, advised him to study law. He 
walked from New Salem to Springfield, borrowed of 
Mr. Stuart a load of books, carried them back and 
began his legal studies. When the Legislature as- 
sembled he trudged on foot with his pack on his back 
one hundred miles to Vandalia, then the capital. In 
1836 he was re-elected to the Legislature. Here it 
was he first met Stephen A. Douglas. In 1839 he re- 
moved to Springfield and began the practice of law. 
His success with the jury was so great that he was 
soon engaged in almost every noted case in the circuit. 

In 1854 the great discussion began between Mr. 
Lincoln and Mr. Douglas, on the slavery question. 
In the organization of the Republican party in Illinois, 
in 1856, he took an active part, and at once became 
one of the leaders in that party. Mr. Lincoln's 
speeches in opposition to Senator Douglas in the con- 
test in 1858 for a seat in the Senate, form a most 
notable part of his history. The issue was on the 
slavery question, and he took the broad ground of 
the Declaration of Independence, that all men are 
created equal. Mr. Lincoln was defeated in this con- 
test, but won a far higher prize. 

The great Republican Convention met at Chicago 
on the i6th of June, 1860. The delegates and 
strangers who crowded the city amounted to twenty- 
five thousand. An immense building called " The 
Wigwam," was reared to accommodate the Conven- 
tion. There were eleven candidates for whom votes 
were thrown. William H. Seward, a man whose fame 
as a statesman had long filled the land, was the most 
prominent. It was generally supposed he would be 
the nominee. Abraham Lincoln, however, received 
the nomination on the third ballot. Little did he then 
dream of the weary years of toil and care, and the 
bloody death, to which that nomination doomed him : 
and as little did he dream that he was to render services 
to his country, which would fix upon him the eyes of 
the whole civilized world, and which would give him 
a place in the affections of his countrymen, second 
only, if second, to that of Washington. 

Election day came and Mr. Lincoln received 180 
electoral votes out of 203 cast, and was, therefore, 
constitutionally elected President of the United States. 
The tirade of abuse that was poured upon this good 

and merciful man, especially by the slaveholders, was 
greater than upon any other man ever elected to this 
high position. In February, 1861, Mr. Lincoln started 
for Washington, stopping in all the large cities on his 
way making speeches. The whole journey was fraught 
with much danger. Many of the Southern States had 
already seceded, and several attempts at assassination 
were afterwards brought to light. A gang in Balti- 
more had arranged, upon his arrival to "get up a row," 
and in the confusion to make sure of his death with 
revolvers and hand-grenades. A detective unravelled 
the plot. A secret and special train was provided to 
take him from Harrisburg, through Baltimore, at an 
unexpected hour of the night. The train started at 
half-past ten ; and to prevent any possible communi- 
cation on the part ol the Secessionists with their Con- 
federate gang in Baltimore, as soon as the train had 
started the telegraph-wires were cut. Mr. Lincoln 
reached Washington in safety and was inaugurated, 
although great anxiety was felt by all loyal people. 

In the selection of his cabinet Mr. Lincoln gave 
to Mr. Seward the Department of State, and to other 
prominent opponents before the convention he gave 
important positions. 

During no other administration have the duties 
devolving upon the President been so manifold, and 
the responsibilities so great, as those which fell to 
the lot of President Lincoln. Knowing this, and 
feeling his own weakness and inability to meet, and in 
his own strength to cope with, the difficulties, he 
learned early to seek Divine wisdom and guidance in 
determining his plans, and Divine comfort in all his 
trials, both personal and national. Contrary to his 
own estimate of himself, Mr. Lincoln was one of the 
most courageous of men. He went directly into the 
rebel capital just as the retreating foe was leaving, 
with no guard but a few sailors. From the time he 
had left Springfield, in 1861, however, plans had been 
made for his assassination, and he at last fell a victim 
to one of them. April 14, 1865, he, with Gen. Grant, 
was urgently invited to attend Fords' Theater. It 
was announced that they would Le present. Gen. 
Grant, however, left the city. President Lincoln, feel- 
ing, with his characteristic kindliness of heart, that 
it would be a disappointment if he should fail them, 
very reluctantly consented to go. While listening to 
the play an actor by the name of John Wilkes Booth 
entered the box where the President and family were 
seated, and fired a. bullet into his brains. He died the 
next morning at seven o'clock. 

Never before, in the history of the world was a nation 
plunged into such deep grief by the death of its ruler. 
Strong men met in the streets and wept in speechless 
anguish. It is not too much to say that a nation was 
in tears. His was a life which will fitly become a 
model. His name as the savior of his country will 
live with that of Washington's, its father; his country- 
men being unable to decide which is the greater. 

[ ',... 


^ V 



teenth President of the United 
States. The early life of 
Andrew Johnson contains but 
,_^ the record of poverty, destitu- 
|fy tion and friendlessness. He 
v was born December 29, 1808, 
in Raleigh, N. C. His parents, 
belonging to the class of the 
"poor whites " of the South, were 
in such circumstances, that they 
could not confer even the slight- 
est advantages of education upon 
their child. When Andrew was five 
years of age, his father accidentally 
lost his life while herorically endeavoring to save a 
friend from drowning. Until ten years of age, Andrew 
was a ragged boy about the streets, supported by the 
labor of his mother, who obtained her living with 
her own hands. 

He then, having never attended a school one day, 
and being unable either to read or write, was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor in his native town. A gentleman 
was in the habit of going to the tailor's shop occasion- 
ally, and reading to the boys at work there. He often 
read from the speeches of distinguished British states- 
men. Andrew, who was endowed with a mind of more 
than ordinary native ability, became much interested 
in these speeches ; his ambition was roused, and he 
was inspired with a strong desire to learn to read. 

He accordingly applied himself to the alphabet, and 
with the assistance of some of his fellow- workmen, 
learned his letters. He then called upon the gentle- 
man to borrow the book of speeches. The owner, 

pleased with his zeal, not only gave him the book, 
but assisted him in learning to combine the letters 
into words. Under such difficulties he pressed on- 
ward laboriously, spending usually ten or twelve hours 
at work in the shop, and then robbing himself of rest 
and recreation to devote such time as he could to 

He went to Tennessee in 1826, and located at 
Greenville, where he married a young lady who pos- 
sessed some education. Under her instructions he 
learned to write and cipher. He became prominent 
in the village debating society, and a favorite with 
the students of Greenville College. In 1828, he or- 
ganized a working man's party, which elected him 
alderman, and in 1830 elected him mayor, which 
position he held three years. 

He now began to take a lively interest in political 
affairs ; identifying himself with the working-classes, 
to which he belonged. In" 1835, ne was elected a 
member of the House of Representatives of Tennes- 
see. He was then just twenty-seven years of age. 
He became a very active member of the legislature, 
gave his adhesion to the Democratic party, and in 
1840 " stumped the State," advocating Martin Van 
Buren's claims to the Presidency, in opposition to those 
of Gen. Harrison. In this campaign he acquired much 
readiness as a speaker, and extended and increased 
his reputation. 

In 1841, he was elected State Senator; in 1843, he 
was elected a member of Congress, and by successive 
elections, held that important post for ten years. In 
1853, he was elected Governor of Tennessee, and 
was re-elected in 1855. In all these responsible posi- 
tions, he discharged his duties with distinguished abil- 





ity, and proved himself the warm friend of the work- 
ing classes. In 1857, Mr. Johnson was elected 
United States Senator. 

Years before, in 1845, he had warmly advocated 
the annexation of Texas, stating however, as his 
reason, that he thought this annexation would prob- 
ably prove " to be the gateway out of which the sable 
sons of Africa are to pass from bondage to freedom, 
and become merged in a population congenial to 
themselves." In 1850, he also supported the. com- 
promise measures, the two essential features of which 
were, that the white people of the Territories should 
be permitted to decide for themselves whether they 
would enslave the colored people or not, and that 
the free States of the North should return to the 
South persons who attempted to escape from slavery. 

Mr. Johnson was never ashamed of his lowly origin: 
on the contrary, he often took pride in avowing that 
he owed his distinction to his own exertions. "Sir," 
said he on the floor of the Senate, " I do not forget 
that I am a mechanic ; neither do I forget that Adam 
was a tailor and sewed fig-leaves, and that our Sav- 
ior was the son of a carpenter." 

In the Charleston-Baltimore convention of 1860, he 
was the choice of the Tennessee Democrats for the 
Presidency. In 1861, when the purpose of the South- 
ern Democracy became apparent, he took a decided 
stand in favor of the Union, and held that " slavery 
must be held subordinate to the Union at whatever 
cost." He returned to Tennessee, and repeatedly 
imperiled his own life to protect the Unionists of 
Tennesee. Tennessee having seceded from the 
Union, President Lincoln, on March 4th, 1862, ap- 
pointed him Military Governor of the State, and he 
established the most stringent military rule. His 
numerous proclamations attracted wide attention. In 

1864, he was elected Vice-President of the United 
States, and upon the death of Mr. Lincoln, April 15, 

1865, became President. In a speech two days later 
he said, " The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a crime and 
must be punished ; that the Government will not 
always bear with its enemies ; that it is strong not 
only to protect, but to punish. * * The people 
must understand that it (treason) is the blackest of 
crimes, and will surely be punished." Yet his whole 
administration, the history of which is so well known, 
was in utter inconsistency with, and the most violent 

opposition to, the principles laid down in that speech. 

In his loose policy of reconstruction and general 
amnesty, he was opposed by Congress ; and he char- 
acterized Congress as a new rebellion, and lawlessly 
defied it, in everything possible, to the utmost. In 
the beginning of 1868, on account of "high crimes 
and misdemeanors," the principal of which was the 
removal of Secretary Stanton, in violation of the Ten- 
ure of Office Act, articles of impeachment were pre- 
ferred against him, and the trial began March 23. 

It was very tedious, continuing for nearly three 
months. A test article of the impeachment was at 
length submitted to the court for its action. It was 
certain that as the court voted upon that article so 
would it vote upon all. Thirty-four voices pronounced 
the President guilty. As a two-thirds vote was neces- 
sary to his condemnation, he was pronounced ac- 
quitted, notwithstanding the great majority against 
him. The change of one vote from the not guilty 
side would have sustained the impeachment. 

The President, for the remainder of his term, was 
but little regarded. He continued, though im potently, 
his conflict with Congress. His own party did not 
think it expedient to renominate him for the Presi- 
dency. The Nation rallied, with enthusiasm unpar- 
alleled since the days of Washington, around the name 
of Gen. Grant. Andrew Johnson was forgotten. 
The bullet of the assassin introduced him to the 
President's chair. Notwithstanding this, never was 
there presented to a man a better opportunity to im- 
mortalize his name, and to win the gratitude of a 
nation. He failed utterly. He retired to his home 
in Greenville, Tenn., taking no very active part in 
politics until 1875. On Jan. 26, after an exciting 
struggle, he was chosen by the Legislature of Ten- 
nessee, United States Senator in the forty-fourth Con- 
gress, and took his seat in that body, at the special 
session convened by President Grant, on the 5th of 
March. On the 27th of July, 1875, the ex-President 
made a visit to his daughter's home, near Carter 
Station, Tenn. When he started on his journey, he was 
apparently in his usual vigorous health, but on reach- 
ing the residence of his child the following day, was 
stricken with paralysis, rendering him unconscious. 
He rallied occasionally, but finally passed away at 
2 A.M., July 31, aged sixty-seven years. His fun- 
eral was attended at Geenville, on the 3d of August, 
with every demonstration of respect. 




eighteenth President of the 
United States, was born on 
the 29111 of April, 1822, of 
Christian parents, in a humble 
home, at Point Pleasant, on the 
banks of the Ohio. Shortly after 
his father moved to George- 
town, Brown Co., O. In this re- 
mote frontier hamlet, Ulysses 
received a common-school edu- 
cation. At the age of seven- 
teen, in the year 1839, he entered 
the Military Academy at West 
Point. Here he was regarded as a 
solid, sensible young man of fair abilities, and of 
sturdy, honest character. He took respectable rank 
as a scholar. In June, 1843, he graduated, about the 
middle in his class, and was sent as lieutenant of in- 
fantry to one of the distant military posts in the Mis- 
souri Territory. Two years he past in these dreary 
solitudes, watching the vagabond and exasperating 

The war with Mexico came. Lieut. 'Grant was 
sent with his regiment to Corpus Christi. His first 
battle was at Palo Alto. There was no chance here 
for the exhibition of either skill or heroism, nor at 
Resaca de la Palma, his second battle. At the battle 
of Monterey, his third engagement, it is said that 
he performed a signal service of daring and .skillful 
horsemanship. His brigade had exhausted its am- 
munition. A messenger must be sent for more, along 
a route exposed to the bullets of the foe. Lieut. 
Grant, adopting an expedient learned of the Indians, 
grasped the mane of his horse, and hanging upon one 
side of the animal, ran the gauntlet in entire safety. 

From Monterey he was sent, with the fourth infantry, 
to aid Gen. Scott, at the siege of Vera Cruz. In 
preparation for the march to the city of Mexico, he 
was appointed quartermaster of his regiment. At the 
battle of Molino del Rey, he was promoted to a 
first lieutenancy, and was brevetted captain at Cha- 

At the close of the Mexican War, Capt. Grant re- 
turned with his regiment to New York, and was again 
sent to one of the military posts on the frontier. The 
discovery of gold in California causing an immense 
tide of emigration to flow to the Pacific shores, Capt. 
Grant was sent with a battalion to Fort Dallas, in 
Oregon, for the protection of the interests of the im- 
migrants. Life was wearisome in those wilds. Capt. 
Grant resigned his commission and returned to the 
States; and having married, entered upon the cultiva- 
tion of a small farm near St. Louis, Mo. He had but 
little skill as a farmer. Finding his toil not re- 
munerative, he turned to mercantile life, entering into 
the leather business, with a younger brother, at Ga- 
lena, 111. This was in the year 1860. As the tidings 
of the rebels firing on Fort Sumpter reached the ears 
of Capt. Grant in his counting-room, he said, 
"Uncle Sam has educated me for the army; though 
I have served him through one war, I do not feel that 
I have yet repaid the debt. I am still ready to discharge 
my obligations. I shall therefore buckle on my sword 
and see Uncle Sam through this war too." 

He went into the streets, raised a company of vol- 
unteers, and led them as their captain to Springfield, 
the capital of the State, where their services were 
offered to Gov. Yates. The Governor, impressed by 
the zeal and straightforward executive ability of Capt. 
Grant, gave him a desk in his office, to assist in the 
volunteer organization that was being formed in the 
State in behalf of the Government. On the 1 5th of 


- - 



June, 1 86 1, Capt. Grant received a commission as 
Colonel of the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Vol- 
unteers. His merits as a West Point graduate, who 
had served for 15 years in the regular army, were such 
that he was soon promoted to the rank of Brigadier- 
General and was placed in command at Cairo. The 
rebels raised their banner at Paducah, near the mouth 
of the Tennessee River. Scarcely had its folds ap- 
peared in the breeze ere Gen. Grant was there. The 
rebels fled. Their banner fell, and the star and 
stripes were unfurled in its stead. 

He entered the service with great determination 
and immediately began active duty. This was the be- 
ginning, and until the surrender of Lee at Richmond 
he was ever pushing the enemy with great vigor and 
effectiveness. At Belmont, a few days later, he sur- 
prised and routed the rebels, then at Fort Henry 
won another victory. Then came the brilliant fight 
at Fort Donelson. The nation was electrified by the 
victory, and the brave leader of the boys in blue was 
immediately made a Major-General, and the military 
district of Tennessee was assigned to him. 

Like all great captains, Gen. Grant knew well how 
to secure the results of victory. He immediately 
pushed on to the enemies' lines. Then came the 
terrible battles of Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, and the 
siege of Vicksburg, where Gen. Pemberton made an 
unconditional surrender of the city with over thirty 
thousand men and one-hundred and seventy-two can- 
non. The fall of Vicksburg was by far the most 
severe blow which the rebels had thus far encountered, 
and opened up the Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf. 

Gen. Grant was next ordered to co-operate with 
Gen. Banks in a movement upon Texas, and pro- 
ceeded to .New Orleans, where he was thrown from 
his horse, and received severe injuries, from which he 
was laid up for months. He then rushed to the aid 
of Gens. Rosecrans and Thomas at Chattanooga, and 
by a wonderful series of strategic and tactical meas- 
ures put the Union army in fighting condition. Then 
followed the bloody battles at Chattanooga, Lookout 
Mountain and Missionary Ridge, in which the rebels 
were routed with great loss. This won for him un- 
bounded praise in the North. On the 4th of Febru- 
ary, 1864, Congress revived the grade of lieutenant- 
general, and the rank was conferred on Gen. Grant. 
He repaired to Washington to receive his credentials 
and enter upon the duties of his new office. 

Gen. Grant decided as soon as he took charge of 
the army to concentrate the widely-dispersed National 
troops for an attack upon Richmond, the nominal 
capital of the Rebellion, and endeavor there to de- 
stroy the rebel armies which would be promptly as- 
sembled from all quarters for its defence. The whole 
continent seemed to tremble under the tramp of these 
majestic armies, rushing to the decisive battle field. 
Steamers were crowded with troops. Railway trains 
were burdened with closely packed thousands. His 
plans were comprehensive and involved a series of 
campaigns, which were executed with remarkable en- 
ergy and ability, and were consummated at the sur- 
render of Lee, April 9, 1865. 

The war was ended. The Union was saved. The 
almost unanimous voice of the Nation declared Gen. 
Grant to be the most prominent instrument in its sal- 
vation. The eminent services he had thus rendered 
the country brought him conspicuously forward as the 
Republican candidate for the Presidential chair. 

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago, 
May 21, 1868, he was unanimously nominated for the 
Presidency, and at the autumn election received a 
majority of the popular vote, and 214 out of 294 
electoral votes. 

The National Convention of the Republican party 
which met at Philadelphia on the 5th of June, 1872, 
placed Gen. Grant in nomination for a second term 
by a unanimous vote. The selection was emphati- 
cally indorsed by the people five months later, 292 
electoral votes being cast for him. 

Soon after the close of his second term, Gen. Grant 
started upon his famous trip around the world. He 
visited almost every country of the civilized world, 
and was everywhere received with such ovations 
and demonstrations of respect and honor, private 
as well as public and official, as were never before 
bestowed upon any citizen of the United States. It 
is not too much to say that his modest, courteous, and 
dignified demeanor in the presence of the most dis- 
tinguished men in the different nations in the world, 
reflected honor upon the Republic which he so long 
and so faithfully served. The country felt a great 
pride in his reception. Upon his arrival in San Fran- 
cisco, Sept. 20, 1879, the city authorities gave him a 
fine reception. After lingering in the Golden State 
for a while, he began his tour through the States, 
which extended North and South, everywhere mark- 
ed by great acclamation and splendid ovations. 

>^9 : *^ 



VVr. H H 2> H H ' S\^^' 


the nineteenth President of 
the United States, was born in 
Delaware, O., Oct. 4, 1822, al- 
most three months after the 
death of his father, Rutherford 
Hayes. His ancestry on both 
the paternal and maternal sides, 
was of the most honorable char- 
acter. It can be traced, it is said, 
as farbackas 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish chief- 
tains, righting side by side with 
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert 
Bruce. Both families belonged to the 
nobility, owned extensive estates, 
and had a. large following. Misfor- 
tune overtaking the family, George Hayes left Scot- 
land in 1680, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His son 
George was born in Windsor, and remained there 
during his life. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, mar- 
ried Sarah Lee, and lived from the time of his mar- 
riage until his death in Simsbury, Conn. Ezekiel, 
son of Daniel, was born in 1724, and was a manufac- 
turer of scythes at Bradford, Conn. Rutherford Hayes, 
son of Ezekiel and grandfather of President Hayes, was 
born in New Haven, in August, 1756. He was a farmer, 
blacksmith and tavern-keeper. He emigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in Brattleboro, 
where he established a hotel. Here his son Ruth- 
erford Hayes, the father of President Hayes, was 

born. He was married, in September, 1813, to Sophia 
Birchard, of Wilmington, Vt., whose ancestors emi- 
grated thither from Connecticut, they having been 
among the wealthiest and best famlies of Norwich. 
Her ancestry on the male side are traced back to 
1635, to John Birchard, one of the principal founders 
of Norwich. Both of her grandfathers were soldiers 
in the Revolutionary War. 

The father of President Hayes was an industrious, 
frugal and opened-hearted man. He was of a me- 
chanical turn, and could mend a plow, knit a stock- 
ing, or do almost anything else that he choose to 
undertake. He was a member of the Church, active 
in all the benevolent enterprises of the town, and con- 
ducted his business on Christian principles. After 
the close of the war of 1812, for reasons inexplicable 
to his neighbors, he resolved to emigrate to Ohio. 

The journey from Vermont to Ohio in that day, 
when there were no canals, steamers, nor railways, 
was a very serious affair. A tour of inspection was 
first made, occupying four months. Mr. Hayes deter- 
mined to move to Delaware, where the family arrived 
in 1817. He died July 22, 1822, a victim of malarial 
fever, less than three months before the birth of the 
son, of whom we now write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore be- 
reavement, found the support she so much needed in 
her brother Sardis, who had been a member of the 
household from the day of its departure from Ver- 
mont, and in an orphan girl whom she had adopted 
some time before as an act of charity. 

Mrs. .Hayes at this period was very weak, and the 







subject of this sketch was so feeble at birth that he 
was not expected to live beyond a month or two at 
most. As the months went by he grew weaker and 
weaker, so that the neighbors were in the habit of in- 
quiring from time to time " if Mrs. Hayes' baby died 
last night." On one occasion a neighbor, who was on 
familiar terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head, and the mother's assiduous care of 
him, said in a bantering way, " That's right ! Stick to 
him. You have got him along so far, and I shouldn't 
wonder if he would really come to something yet." 

" You need not laugh," said Mrs. Hayes. " You 
wait and see. You can't tell but I shall make him 
President of the United States yet." The boy lived, 
in spite of the universal predictions of his speedy 
death; and when, in 1825, his older brother was 
drowned, he became, if possible, still dearer to his 

The boy was seven years old before he went to 
school. His education, however, was not neglected. 
He probably learned as much from his mother and 
sister as he would have done at school. His sports 
were almost wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circumstances 
tended, no doubt, to foster that gentleness of dispo- 
sition, and that delicate consideration for the feelings 
of others, which are marked traits of his character. 

His uncle Sardis Birchard took the deepest interest 
in his education ; and as the boy's health had im- 
proved, and he was making good progress in his 
studies, he proposed to send him to college. His pre- 
paration commenced with a tutor at home; but he 
was afterwards sent for one year to a professor in the 
Wesleyan University, in Middletown, Conn. He en- 
tered Kenyon College in 1838,31 the age of sixteen, 
and was graduated at the head of his class in 1842. 

Immediately after his graduation he began the 
study of law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, Esq., 
in Columbus. Finding his opportunities for study in 
Columbus somewhat limited, he determined to enter 
the Law School at Cambridge, Mass., where he re- 
mained two years. 

In 1845, after graduating at the Law School, he was 
admitted to the bar at Marietta, Ohio, and shortly 
afterward went into practice as an attorney-at-law 
with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he re- 
mained three years, acquiring but a limited practice, 
and apparently unambitious of distinction in his pro- 

In 1849 he moved to Cincinnati, where his ambi- 
tion found a new stimulus. For several years, how- 
ever, his progress was slow. Two events, occurring at 
this period, had a powerful influence upon his subse- 
quent life. One of these was his marrage with Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James Webb, of 
Chilicothe; the other was his introduction to the Cin- 
cinnati Literary Club, a body embracing among its 
members such men as Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, 

Gen. John Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many 
others hardly less distinguished in after life. The 
marriage was a fortunate one in every respect, as 
everybody knows. Not one of all the wives of our 
Presidents was more universally admired, reverenced 
and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and no one did 
more than she to reflect honor upon American woman- 
hood. The Literary Club brought Mr. Hayes into 
constant association with young men of high char- 
acter and noble aims, and lured him to display the 
qualities so long hidden by his bashfulness and 

In 1856 he was nominated to the office of Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas ; but he declined to ac- 
cept the nomination. Two years later, the office of 
city solicitor becoming vacant, the City Council 
elected him for the unexpired term. 

In 1861, when the Rebellion broke out, he was at 
the zenith of his professional life. His rank at the 
bar was among the the first. But the news of the 
attack on Fort Sumpter found him eager to take up 
arms for the defense of his country. 

His military record was bright and illustrious. In 
October, 1861, he was made Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of the ygth Ohio 
regiment, but he refused to leave his old comrades 
and go among strangers. Subsequently, however, he 
was made Colonel of his old regiment. At the battle 
of South Mountain he received a wound, and while 
faint and bleeding displayed courage and fortitude 
that won admiration from all. 

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment, after 
his recovery, to act as Brigadier-General, and placed 
in command of the celebrated Kanawha division, 
and for gallant and meritorious services in the battles 
of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, he was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also brevetted 
Major-General, "for gallant and distinguished services 
during the campaigns of 1864, in West Virginia." In 
the course of his arduous services, four horses were 
shot from under him, and he was wounded four times. 

In 1864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress, from 
the Second Ohio District, which had long been 1 >em- 
ocratic. He was not present during the campaign, 
and after his election was importuned to resign his 
commission in the army ; but he finally declared, " I 
shall never come to Washington until I can come by 
the way of Richmond." He was re-elected in 1866. 

In 1867, Gen Hayes was elected Governor of Ohio, 
over Hon. Allen G. Thurman, a popular Democrat. 
In 1869 was re-elected over George H. Pendleton. 
He was elected Governor for the third term in 1875. 

In 1876 he was the standard bearer of the Repub- 
lican Party in the Presidential contest, and after a 
hard long contest was chosen President, and was in 
auguratcd Monday, March 5, 1875. He served his 
full term, not, however, with satisfaction to his party, 
but his administration was an average one 

s-\ <v. 




tieth President of the United 
States, was born Nov. 19, 
1831, in the woods of Orange, 
Cuyahoga Co., O His par- 
ents were Abram and Eliza 
(Ballou) Garfield, both of New 
England ancestry and from fami- 
lies well known in the early his- 
tory of that section of our coun- 
try, but had moved to the Western 
Reserve, in Ohio, early in its settle- 

The house in which James A. was 
born was not unlike the houses of 
\ poor Ohio farmers of that day. It 
was about 20x30 feet, built of logs, with the spaces be- 
tween the logs filled with clay. His father was a 
hard working farmer, and he soon had his fields 
cleared, an orchard planted, and a log barn built. 
The household comprised the father and mother and 
their four children Mehetabel, Thomas, Mary and 
James. In May, 1823, the father, from a cold con- 
tracted in helping to put out a forest fire, died. At 
this time James was about eighteen months old, and 
Thomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps, can 
tell how much James was indebted to his biother's 
toil and self-sacrifice during the twenty years suc- 
ceeding his father's death, but undoubtedly very 
much. He now lives in Michigan, and the two sis- 
ters live in Solon, O., near their birthplace. 

The early educational advantages young Garfield 
enjoyed were very limited, yet he made the most of 
them. He labored at farm work for others, did car- 
penter work, chopped wood, or did anything that 
would bring in a few dollars to aid his widowed 
mother in her struggles to keep the little family to- 

gether. Nor was Gen. Garfield ever ashamed of his 
origin, and he never forgot the friends of his strug- 
gling childhood, youth and manhood, neither did they 
ever forget him. When in the highest seats of honor, 
the humblest fiiend of his boyhood was as kindly 
greeted as ever. The poorest laborer was sureof the 
sympathy of one who had known all the bitterness 
of want and the sweetness of bread earned by the 
sweat of the brow. He was ever the simple, plain, 
modest gentleman. 

The highest ambition of young Garfield until he 
was about sixteen years old was to be a captain of 
a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious to go aboard 
a vessel, which his mother strongly opposed. She 
finally consented to his going to Cleveland, with the 
understanding, however,'that he should try to obtain 
some other kind of employment. He walked all the 
way to Cleveland. This was his first visit to the city. 
After making many applications for work, and trying 
to get aboard a lake vessel, and not meeting with 
success, he engaged as a driver for his cousin, Amos 
Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal. He re- 
mained at this work but a short time when he went 
home, and attended the seminary at Chester for 
about three years, when he entered Hiram and the 
Eclectic Institute, teaching a few terms of school in 
the meantime, and doing other work. This school 
was started by the Disciples of Christ in 1850, of 
which church he was then a member. He became 
janitor and bell-ringer in order to help pay his way. 
He then became both teacher and pupil. He soon 
" exhausted Hiram " and needed more ; hence, in the 
fall of 1854, he entered Williams College, from which 
he graduated in 1856, taking one of the highest hon- 
ors of his class. He afterwards returned to Hiram 
College as its President. As above stated, he early 
united with the Christian or Diciples Church at 
Hiram, and was ever after a devoted, zealous mem- 
ber, often preaching in its pulpit and places where 
he happened to be. Dr. Noah Porter, President of 
Yale College, says of him in reference to his religion : 







" President Garfield was more than a man of 
strong moral and religious convictions. His whole 
history, from boyhood to the last, shows that duty to 
man and to God, and devotion to Christ and life and 
faith and spiritual commission were controlling springs 
of his being, and to a m6re than usual degree. In 
my judgment there is no more interesting feature of 
his character than his loyal allegiance to the body of 
Christians in which he was trained, and the fervent 
sympathy which he ever showed in their Christian 
communion. Not many of the few 'wise and mighty 
and noble who are called" show a similar loyalty to 
the less stately and cultured Christian communions 
in which they have been reared. Too often it is true 
that as they step upward in social and political sig- 
nificance they step upward from one degree to 
another in some of the many types of fashionable 
Christianity. President Garfield adhered to the 
church of his mother, the church in which he was 
trained, and in which he served as a pillar and an 
evangelist, and yet with the largest and most unsec- 
tarian charity for all 'who loveour Lord in sincerity.'" 

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage with Miss 
Lucretia Rudolph, Nov. 1 1, 1858, who proved herself 
worthy as the wife of one whom all the world loved and 
mourned. To them were born seven children, five of 
whom are still living, four boys and one girl. 

Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in 1 85 6 , 
in Hiram and the neighboring villages, and three 
years later he began to speak at county mass-meet- 
ings, and became the favorite speaker wherever he 
was. During this year he was elected to the Ohio 
Senate. He also began to study law at Cleveland, 
and in 1861 was admitted to the bar. The great 
Rebellion broke out in the early part of this year, 
and Mr. Garfield at once resolved to fight as he had 
talked, and enlisted to defend the old flag. He re- 
ceived his commission as Lieut. -Colonel of the Forty- 
second Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Aug. 
14, i86r. He was immediately put into active ser- 
vice, and before he had ever seen a gun fired in action, 
was placed in command of four regiments of infantry 
and eight companies of cavalry, charged with the 
work of driving out of his native State the officer 
(Humphrey Marshall) reputed to be the ablest of 
those, not educated to war whom Kentucky had given 
to the Rebellion. This work was bravely and speed- 
ily accomplished, although against great odds. Pres- 
ident Ligcoln, on his success commissioned him 
Brigadier-General, Jan. ro, 1862; and as "he had 
been the youngest man in the Ohio Senate two years 
before, so now he was the youngest General in the 
army." He was with Gen. Buell's army at Shiloh, 
in its operations around Corinth and its march through 
Alabama. He was then detailed as a member of the 
General Court-Martial for the trial ef Gen. Fitz-John 
Porter. He was then ordered to report to Gen. Rose- 
crans, and was assigned to the "Chief of Staff." 

The military history of Gen. Garfield closed with 


his brilliant services at Chickamauga, where he won 
the stars of the Major-General. 

Without an effort on his part Gen. Garfield was 
elected to Congress in the fall of 1862 from the 
Nineteenth District of Ohio. This section of Ohio 
had been represented in Congress for sixty years 
mainly by two men Elisha Whittlesey and Joshua 
R. Giddings. It was not without a struggle that he 
resigned his place in the army. At the time he en- 
tered Congress he was the youngest member in that 
body. There he remained by successive re- 
elections until he was elected President in 1880. 
Of his labors in Congress Senator Hoar says : " Since 
the year 1864 you cannot think of a question which 
has been debated in Congress, or discussed before a 
tribunel of the American people, in regard to which 
you will not find, if you wish instruction, the argu- 
ment on one side stated, in almost every instance 
better than by anybody else, in some speech made in 
the House of Representatives or on the hustings by 
Mr. Garfield." 

Upon Jan. 14, r88o, Gen. Garfield was elected to 
the U. S. Senate, and on the eighth of June, of the 
same year, was nominated as the candidate of his 
party for President at the great Chicago Convention. 
He was elected in the following November, and on 
March 4, 1881, was inaugurated. Probably no ad- 
ministration ever opened its existence under brighter 
auspices than that of President Garfield, and every 
day it grew in favor with the people, and by the first 
of July he had completed all the initiatory and pre- 
liminary work of his administration and was prepar- 
ing to leave the city to meet his friends at Williams 
College. While on his way and at the depot, in com- 
pany with Secretary Elaine, a man stepped behind 
him, drew a revolver, and fired directly at his back. 
The President tottered and fell, and as he did so the 
assassin fired a second shot, the bullet cutting the 
left coat sleeve of his victim, but in.1i< '.ing no further 
injury. It has been very truthfully said that this was 
" the shot that was heard round the world " Never 
before in the history of the Nation had anything oc- 
curred which so nearly froze the blood of the people 
for the moment, as this awful deed. He was smit- 
ten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his life, and 
was at the summit of his power and hope. For eighty 
days, all during the hot months of July and August, 
he lingered and suffered. He, however, remained 
master of himself till the last, and by his magnificent 
bearing was teaching the country and the world the 
noblest of human lessons how to live grandly in the 
very clutch of death. Great in life, he was surpass- 
ingly great in death. He passed serenely away Sept. 
19, 1883, at Elberon, N. J., on the very bank of the 
ocean, where he had been taken shortly previous. The 
world wept at his death, as it never had done on the 
death of any other man who had ever lived upon it. 
The murderer was duly tried, found guilty and exe- 
cuted, in one year after he committed the foul deed. 

<* lum 




twenty-first President of the 
United States, was born in 
F ranklin County, Vermont, on 
the fifthof October, 1830, and is 
the oldest of a family of two 
sons and five daughters. His 
father was the Rev. Dr. William 
Arthur, a Baptist clergyman, who 
emigrated to this country' from 
the county Antrim, Ireland, in 
his 1 8th year, and died in 1875, in 
Newton ville, near Albany, after a 
long and successful ministry. 

Young Arthur was educated at 
Union College, Schenectady, where 
he excelled in all his studies. Af- 
ter his graduation he taught school 
h in Vermont for two years, and at 
J the expiration of that time came to 
New York, with $500 in his pocket, 
and entered the office of ex-Judge 
E. D. Culver as student. After 
being admitted to the bar he formed 
a partnership with his intimate friend and room-mate, 
Henry D. Gardiner, with the intention of practicing 
in the West, and for three months they roamed about 
in the Western States in search of an eligible site, 
but in the end returned to New York, where they 
hung out their shingle, and entered upon a success- 
ful career almost from the start. General Arthur 
soon afterward married the daughter of Lieutenant 

Herndon, of the United States Navy, who was lost at 
sea. Congress voted a gold medal to his widow in 
recognition of the bravery he displayed on that occa- 
sion. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before Mr. Arthur's 
nomination to the Vice Presidency, leaving two 

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celebrity 
jn his first great case, the famous Lemmon suit, 
brought to recover possession of eight slaves who had 
been declared free by Judge Paine, of the Superior 
Court of New York City. It was in 1852 that Jon- 
athan Lemmon, of Virginia, went to New York with 
his slaves, intending to ship them to Texas, when 
they were discovered and freed. The Judge decided 
that they could not be held by the owner under the 
Fugitive Slave Law. A howl of rage went up from 
the South, and the Virginia Legislature authorized the 
Attorney General of that State to assist in an appeal. 
Wm. M. Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were employed 
to represent the People, and they won their case, 
which then went to the Supreme Court of the United 
States. Charles O'Conor here espoused the cause 
of the slave-holders, but he too was beaten by Messrs 
Evarts and Arthur, and a long step was taken toward 
the emancipation of the black race. 

Another great service was rendered by General 
Arthur in the same cause in 1856. Lizzie Jennings, 
a respectable colored woman, was put off a Fourth 
Avenue car with violence after she had paid her fare. 
General Arthur sued on her behalf, and secured a 
verdict of $500 damages. The next day the compa- 
ny issued an order to admit colored persons to ride 
on their cars, and the other car companies quickK 



* V- Vx 






followed their example. Before that the Sixth Ave- 
nue Company ran a few special cars for colored per- 
sons and the other lines refused to let them ride at all. 

General Arthur was a delegate to the Convention 
at Saratoga that founded the Republican party. 
Previous to the war he was Judge-Advocate of the 
Second Brigade of the State of New York, and Gov- 
ernor Morgan, of that State, appointed him Engineer- 
in-Chief of his staff. In 1861, he was made Inspec- 
tor General, and soon afterward became Quartermas- 
ter-General. In each of these offices he rendered 
great service to the Government during the war. At 
the end of Governor Morgan's term he resumed the 
practice of the law, forming a partnership with Mr. 
Ransom, and then Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney 
of New York, was added to the firm. The legal prac- 
tice of this well-known firm was very large and lucra- 
tive, each of the gentlemen composing it were able 
lawyers, and possessed a splendid local reputation, if 
not indeed one of national extent. 

He always took a leading part in State and city 
politics. He was appointed Collector of the Port of 
New York by President Grant, Nov. 21 1872, to suc- 
ceed Thomas Murphy, and held the office until July, 
20, 1 878, when he was succeeded by Collector Merritt. 

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential 
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the famous 
National Republican Convention held at Chicago in 
June, 1 880. This was perhaps the greatest political 
convention that ever assembled on thecontinent. It 
was composed of the leading politicians of the Re- 
publican party, all able men, and each stood firm and 
fought vigorously and with signal tenacity for their 
respective candidates that were before the conven- 
tion for the Domination. Finally Gen. Garfield re- 
ceived the nomination for President and Gen. Arthur 
for Vice-President. The campaign which followed 
was one of the most animated known in the history of 
our country. Gen. Hancock, the standard-bearer of 
the Democratic party, was a popular man, and his 
party made a valiant fight for his election. 

Finally the election came and the country's choice 
was Garfield and Arthur. They were inaugurated 
March 4, 1881, as President and Vice-President. 
A few months only had passed ere the newly chosen 
President was the victim of the assassin's bullet. Then 
came terrible weeks of suffering, those moments of 
anxious suspense, when the hearts of all civilized na- 

^^^ ^XMim: 


tions were throbbing in unison, longing for the re- 
covery of the noble, the good President. The remark- 
able patience that he manifested during those hours <R 
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible suf- 
fering man has often been called upon to endure, was iSf 
seemingly more than human. It was certainly God- 
like. During all this period of deepest anxiety Mr. 
Arthur's every move was watched, and be it said to his 
credit that his every action displayed only an earnest 
desire that the suffering Garfield might recover, to 
serve the remainder of the term he had so auspi- 
ciously begun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested 
in deed or look of this man, even though the most 
honored ]X>sition in the world was at any moment 
likely to fall to him. 

At last God in his mercy relieved President Gar- 
field from further suffering, and the world, as never 
before in its history over the death of any other 
man, wept at his bier. Then it became the duty of ( 
the Vice President to assume the responsibilities of 
the high office, and he took the oath in New York, 
Sept. 20, 1881. The position was an embarrassing 
one to him, made doubly so from the facts that all 
eyes were on him, anxious to know what he would do, 
what policy he would pursue, and who he would se- 
lect as advisers. The duties of the office had been 
greatly neglected during the President's long illness, 
and many important measures were to be immediately 
decided by him ; and still farther to embarrass him he 
did not fail to realize under what circumstances he 
became President, and knew the feelings of many on 
this point. Under these trying circumstances President 
Arthur took the reins of the Government in his own 
hands ; and, as embarrassing as were the condition of V 
affairs, he happily surprised the nation, acting so 
wisely that but few criticised his administration, f 
He served the nation well and faithfully, until the 
close of his administration, March 4, 1885, and was 
a popular candidate before his party for a second 
term. His name was ably presented before the con- 
vention at Chicago, and was received with great 
favor, and doubtless but for the personal popularity f 
of one of the opposing candidates, he would have 
been selected as the standard-bearer of his party ,A, \ 
for another campaign. He retired to private life car- ( 
rying with him the best wishes of the American peo- < 
pie, whom he had served in a manner satisfactory ( 
to them and with credit to himself. */ 







LAND, the twenty- second Pres- 
ident of the United States, was 
born in 1837, in the obscure 
town of Caldwell, Essex Co., 
N. ]., and in a little two-and-a- 
half-story white house which is still 
standing, characteristically to mark 
the humble birth-place of one of 
America's great men in striking con- 
trast with the Old World, where all 
men high in office must be high in 
origin and born in the cradle of 
wealth. When the subject of this 
sketch was three years of age, his 
father, who was a Presbyterian min- 
ister, with a large family and a small salary, moved, 
by way of the Hudson River and Erie Canal, to 
Fayetteville, in search of an increased income and a 
larger field of work. Fayetteville was then the most 
straggling of country villages, about five miles from 
Pompey Hill, where Governor Seymour was born. 

At the last mentioned place young Grover com- 
menced going to school in the "good, old-fashioned 
way," and presumably distinguished himself after the 
manner of all village boys, in doing the things he 
ought not to do. Such is the distinguishing trait of 
all geniuses and independent thinkers. When he 
arrived at the age of 14 years, he had outgrown the 
capacity of the village school and expressed a most 

emphatic desire to be sent to an academy. To this 
his father decidedly objected. Academies in those 
days cost money; besides, his father wanted him to 
become self-supporting by the quickest possible 
means, and this at that time in Fayetteville seemed 
to be a position in a country store, where his father 
and the large family on his hands had considerable 
influence. Grover was to be paid $50 for his services 
the first year, and if he proved trustworthy he was to 
receive $100 the second year. Here the lad com- 
menced his career as salesman, and in two years he 
had earned so good a reputation for trustworthiness 
that his employers desired to retain him for an in- 
definite length of time. Otherwise he did not ex- 
hibit as yet any particular " flashes of genius " or 
eccentricities of talent. He was simply a good boy. 
But instead of remaining with this firm in Fayette- 
ville, he went with the family in their removal to 
Clinton, where he had an opportunity of attending a 
high school. Here he industriously pursued his 
studies until the family removed with him to a point 
on Black River known as the " Holland Patent," a 
village of 500 or 600 people, 15 miles north of Utica, 
N. Y. At this place his father died, after preaching 
but three Sundays. This event broke up the family, 
and Grover set out for New York City to accept, at a 
small salary, the position of " under-teacher " in an 
asylum for the blind. He taught faithfully for two 
years, and although he obtained a good reputation in 
this capacity, he concluded that teaching was not his 








calling for life, and, reversing the traditional order, 
he left the city to seek his fortune, instead of going 
to a city. He first thought of Cleveland, Ohio, as 
there was some charm in that name for him; but 
before proceeding to that place he went to Buffalo to 
ask the advice of his uncle, Lewis F. Allan, a noted 
stock-breeder of that place. The latter did not 
speak enthusiastically. " What is it you want to do, 
my boy?" he asked. "Well, sir, I want to study 
law," was the reply. " Good gracious ! " remarked 
the old gentleman; "do you, indeed ? What ever put 
that into your head? How much money have you 
got?" "Well, sir, to tell the truth, I haven't got 

After a long consultation, his uncle offered him a 
place temporarily as assistant herd-keeper, at $50 a 
year, while he could "look around." One day soon 
afterward he boldly walked into the office of Rogers, 
Bowen & Rogers, of Buffalo, and told them what he 
wanted. A number of young men were already en- 
gaged in the office, but Graver's persistency won, and 
he was finally permitted to come as an office boy and 
have the use of the law library, for the nominal sum 
of $3 or $4 a week. Out of this he had to pay for 
his board and washing. The walk to and from his 
uncle's was a long and rugged one; and, although 
the first winter was a memorably severe one, his 
shoes were out of repair and his overcoat he had 
none yet he was nevertheless prompt and regular. 
On the first day of his service here, his senior erii- 
ployer threw down a copy of Blackstone before him 
with a bang that made the dust fly, saying "That's 
where they all begin." A titter ran around the little 
circle of clerks and students, as they thought that 
was enough to scare young Grover out of his plans ; 
but in due time he mastered that cumbersome volume. 
Then, as ever afterward, however, Mr. Cleveland 
exhibited a talent for executiveness rather than for 
chasing principles through all their metaphysical 
possibilities. " Let us quit talking and go and do 
it," was practically his motto. 

The first public office to which Mr. Cleveland was 
elected was that of Sheriff of Erie Co., N. Y., in 
which Buffalo is situated; and in such capacity it fell 
to his duty to inflict capital punishment upon two 
criminals. In 1881 he was elected Mayor of the 
City of Buffalo, on the Democratic ticket, with es- 
pecial reference to the bringing about certain reforms 

in the administration of the municipal affairs of that 
city. In this office, as well as that of Sheriff, his 
performance of duty has generally been considered 
fair, with possibly a few exceptions which were fer- 
reted out and magnified during the last Presidential 
campaign. As a specimen of his plain language in 
a veto message, we quote from one vetoing an iniqui- 
tous street-cleaning contract : " This is a time for 
plain speech, and my objection to your action shall 
be plainly stated. I regard it as the culmination of 
a most bare-faced, impudent and shameless scheme 
to betray the interests of the people and to worse 
than squander the people's money." The New York 
Sun afterward very highly commended Mr. Cleve- 
land's administration as Mayor of Buffalo, and there- 
upon recommended him for Governor of the Empire 
State. To the latter office he was elected in 1882, 
and his administration of the affairs of State was 
generally satisfactory. The mistakes he made, if 
any, were made very public throughout the nation 
after he was nominated for President of the United 
States. For this high office he was nominated July 
n, 1884, by the National Democratic Convention at 
Chicago, when other competitors were Thomas F. 
Bayard, Roswell P. Flower, Thomas A. Hendricks, 
Benjamin F. Butler, Allen G. Thurman, etc.; and he 
was elected by the people, by a majority of about a 
thousand, over the brilliant and long-tried Repub- 
lican statesman, James G. Elaine. President Cleve- 
land resigned his office as Governor of New York in 
January, 1885, in order to prepare for his duties as 
the Chief Executive of the United States, in which 
capacity his term commenced at noon on the 4th of 
March, 1885. For his Cabinet officers he selected 
the following gentlemen: For Secretary of State, 
Thomas F. Bayard, of Delaware ; Secretary of the 
Treasury, Daniel Manning, of New York ; Secretary 
of War, William C. Endicott, of Massachusetts ; 
Secretary of the Navy, William C. Whitney, of New 
York; Secretary of the Interior, L. Q. C. Lamar, of 
Mississippi; Postmaster-General, William F. Vilas, 
of Wisconsin ; Attorney-General, A. H. Garland, of 

The silver question precipitated a controversy be- 
tween those who were in favor of the continuance of 
silver coinage and those who were opposed, Mr. 
Cleveland answering for the latter, even before his 



/ v" * 

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^n D $ n K>B 



.:- . 



HADRACH BOND, the first 
Governor of Illinois after its 
organization ns a State, serving 
from 1818 to 1822, was born in 
Frederick County, Maryland, 
in the year 1773, and was 
raised a farmer on his father's 
plantation, receiving only a plain 
English education. He emigrated 
to this State in 1794, when it was a 
part of the. "Northwest Territory," 
continuing in the vocation in which 
he had been brought up in his native 
State, in the " New Design," near 
Eagle Creek, in what is now Monroe 
County. He served several terms as 
a member of the General Assembly 
of Indiana Territory, after it was organized as such, 
and in 1812-14 ne was a Delegate to the Twelfth 
and Thirteenth Congresses, taking his seat Dec. 3, 
1812, and serving until Oct. 3, 1814. These were 
the times, the reader will recollect, when this Gov- 
ernment had its last struggle with Great Britain. 
The year 1812 is also noted in the history of this 
State as that in which the first Territorial Legislature 
was held. It convened at Kaskaskia, Nov. 25, and 
adjourned Dec. 26, following. 

While serving as Delegate to Congress, Mr. Bond 
was instrumental in procuring the right of pre-emp- 
tion on the public domain. On the expiration of his 
term at Washington he was appointed Receiver of 
Public Moneys at Kaskaskia, then the capital of the 
Territory. In company with John G. Comyges, 

Thomas H. Harris, Charles Slade, Michael Jones, 
Warren Brown, Edward Humphries and Charles W. 
Hunter, he became a proprietor of the site of the 
initial city of Cairo, which they hoped, from its favor- 
able location at the junction of the two great 
rivers near the center of the Great West, would 
rapidly develop into a metropolis. To aid the enter- 
prise, they obtained a special charter from the Legis- 
lature, incorporating both the City and the Bank of 

In 1818 Mr. Bond was elected the first Governor 
of the State of Illinois, being inaugurated Oct. 6, 
that year, which was several weeks before Illinois 
was actually admitted. The facts are these: In 
January, 1818, the Territorial Legislature sent a peti- 
tion to Congress for the admission of Illinois as a 
State, Nathaniel Pope being then Delegate. The 
petition was granted, fixing the northern line of the 
State on the latitude of the southern extremity of 
Lake Michigan; but the bill was afterward so amend- 
ed as to extend this line to its present latitude. In 
July a convention was called at Kaskaskia to draft a 
constitution, which, however, was not submitted to 
the people. By its provisions, supreme judges, pros- 
ecuting attorneys, county and circuit judges, record- 
ers and justices of the peace were all to be appointed 
by the Governor or elected by the Legislature. This 
constitution was accepted by Congress Dec. 30. At 
that time Illinois comprised but eleven counties, 
namely, Randolph, Madison, Gallatin, Johnson, 
Pope, Jackson, Crawford, Bond, Union, Washington 
and Franklin, the northern )x>rtion of the State be- 
ing mainly in Madison County. Thus it appears 
that Mr. Bond was honored by the naming of a 


" f 

x . 




county before he was elected Governor. The present 
county of Bond is of small limitations, about 60 to 80 
miles south of Springfield. For Lieutenant Governor 
the people chose Pierre Menard, a prominent and 
worthy Frenchman, after whom a county in this State 
is named. In this election there were no opposition 
candidates, as the popularity of these men had made 
their promotion to the chief offices of the State, even 
before the constitution was drafted, a foregone con- 

The principal points that excited the people in 
reference to political issues at this period were local 
or.." internal improvements," as they were called, 
State banks, location of the capital, slavery and the 
personal characteristics of the proposed candidates. 
Mr. Bond represented the " Convention party," for 
introducing slavery into the State, supported by Elias Kane, his Secretary of State, and John Mc- 
Lean, while Nathaniel Pope and John P. Cook led 
the anti-slavery element. The people, however, did 
not become very much excited over this issue until 
1820, when the>us Missouri Compromise was 
adopted by Congress, limiting slavery to the south 
of the parallel of 36 30' except in Missouri. While 
this measure settled the great slavery controversy, 
so far as the average public sentiment was tempor- 
arily concerned, until 1854, when it was repealed 
under the leadership of Stephen A. Douglas, the issue 
as considered locally in this State was not decided 
until 1824, after a most furious campaign. (See 
sketch of Gov. Coles.) The ticket of 1818 was a 
compromise one, Bond representing (moderately) the 
pro-slavery sentiment and Menard the anti-slavery. 

An awkward element in the State government 
under Gov. Bond's administration, was the imperfec- 
tion of the State constitution. The Convention 
wished to have Elijah C. Berry for the first Auditor 
of Public Accounts, but, as it was believed that the 
new Governor would not appoint him to the office, 
the Convention declared in a schedule that " an 
auditor of public accounts, an attorney general and 
such other officers of the State as may be necessary, 
may be appointed by the General Assembly." The 
Constitution, as it stood, vested a very large appoint- 
ing power in the Governor ; but for the purpose of 
getting one man into office, a total change was made, 
and the power vested in the Legislature. Of this 
provision the Legislature took advantage, and de- 

clared that State's attorneys, canal commissioners, 
bank directors, etc., were all " officers of the State " 
and must therefore be appointed by itself independ- 
ently of the Governor. 

During Gov. Bond's administration a general law 
was passed for the incorporation of academies and 
towns, and one authorizing lotteries. The session of 
1822 authorized the Governor to appoint commis- 
sioners, to act in conjunction with like commissioners 
appointed by the State of Indiana, to report on the 
practicability and expediency of improving the navi- 
gation of the Wabash River; also inland navigation 
generally. Many improvements were recommended, 
some of which have been feebly worked at even till 
the present day, those along the Wubash being of no 
value. Also, during Gov. Bond's term of office, the 
capital of the State was removed from Kaskaskia to 
Vandalia. In 1820 a law was passed by Congress 
authorizing this State to open a canal through the 
public lands. The State appointed commissioners 
to explore the route and prepare the necessary sur- 
veys and estimates, preparatory to its execution ; 
but, being unable out of its own resources to defray 
the expenses of the undertaking, it was abandoned 
until some time after Congress made the grant of 
land for the purpose of its construction. 

On the whole, Gov. Bond's administration was 
fairly good, not being open to severe criticism from 
any party. In 1824, two years after the expiration 
of his term of office, he was brought out as a candi- 
date for Congress against the formidable John P. 
Cook, but received only 4,374 votes to 7,460 for the 
latter. Gov. Bond was no orator, but had 'made 
many fast friends by a judicious bestowment of his 
gubernatorial patronage, and these worked zealously 
for him in the campaign. 

In 1827 ex-Gov. Bond was appointed by the Leg- 
islature, with Wm. P. McKee and Dr. Gershom 
Jayne, as Commissioners to locate a site for a peni- 
tentiary on the Mississippi at or near Alton. 

Mr. Bond was of a benevolent and convivial dis- 
position, a man of shrewd observation and clear ap- 
preciation of events. His person was erect, stand- 
ing six feet in height, and after middle life became 
portly, weighing 200 pounds. His features were 
strongly masculine, complexion dark, hair jet and 
eyes hazel ; was a favorite with the ladies. He died 
April 1 1, 1830, in peace and contentment. 






DWARD COLES, second 
Governor of Illinois, 1823- 
6, was born Dec. 15, 1786, 
in Albemarle Co., Va., on 
the old family estate called 
"Enniscorthy," on the 
Green Mountain. His fath- 
er, John Coles, was a Colonel in the 
Revolutionary War. Having been fit- 
ted for college by private tutors, he 
was sent to Hampden Sidney, where 
he remained until the autumn of 1805, 
when he was removed to William and 
Mary College, at Williamsburg, Va. 
This college he left in the summer of 
1807, a short time before the final and graduating 
examination. Among his classmates were Lieut. 
Gen. Scott, President John Tyler, Wm. S. Archer, 
United States Senator from Virginia, and Justice 
Baldwin, of the United States Supreme Court. The 
President of the latter college, Bishop Madison, was 
a cousin of President James Madison, and that cir- 
cumstance was the occasion of Mr. Coles becoming 
personally acquainted with the President and re- 
ceiving a position as his private secretary, 1809-15. 
The family of Coles was a prominent one in Vir- 
ginia, and their mansion was the seat of the old- 
fashioned Virginian hospitality. It was visited by 
such notables as Patrick Henry, Jefferson, Madison, 
Monroe, the Randolphs, Tazewell, Wirt, etc. At the 
age of 23, young Coles found himself heir to a plant- 
ation and a considerable number of slaves. Ever 
since his earlier college days his attention had been 
drawn to the question of slavery. He read every- 

thing on the subject that came in his way, and 
listened to lectures on the rights of man. The more 
he reflected upon the subject, the more impossible 
was it for hi;n to reconcile the immortal declaration 
"that all men are bom free and equal" with the 
practice of slave-holding. He resolved, therefore, to 
free his slaves the first opportunity, and even remove 
his residence to a free State. One reason which de- 
termined him to accept the appointment as private 
secretary to Mr. M idison was because he believed 
that through the acquaintances he could make at 
Washington he could better determine in what part 
of the non-slaveho'ding portion of the Union he would 
prefer to settle. 

The relations between Mr. Coles and President 
Madison, as well as Jefferson and other distinguished 
men, were of a very friendly character, arising from 
the similarity of their views on the question of slavery 
and their sympathy for each other in holding doc- 
trines so much at variance with the prevailing senti- 
ment in their own State. 

In 1857, he resigned his secretaryship and spent a 
portion of the following autumn in exploring the 
Northwest Territory, for the purpose of finding a lo- 
cation and purchasing lands on which to settle his 
negroes. He traveled with a horse and buggy, with 
an extra man and horse for emergencies, through 
many parts of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, 
determining finally to settle in Illinois. At this time, 
however, a misunderstanding arose between our 
Government and Russia, and Mr. Coles was selected 
to repair to St. Petersburg on a special mission, bear- 
ing important papers concerning the matter at issue. 
The result was a conviction of the Emperor (Alex- 

' -^V!>l 


! jp? 





ander) of the error committed by his min-ister at 
Washington, and the consequent withdrawal of the 
the latter from the post. On his return, Mr. Coles 
visited other parts of Europe, especially Paris, where 
he was introduced to Gen. Lafayette. 

In the spring of 1819, he removed with all his 
negroes from Virginia to Edwardsville, 111., with the 
intention of giving them their liberty. He did not 
make known to them his intention until one beautiful 
morning in April, as they were descending the Ohio 
River. He lashed all the boats together and called 
all the negroes on deck and made them a short ad- 
dress, concluding his remarks by so expressing him- 
self that by a turn of a sentence he proclaimed in 
the shortest and fullest manner that they were no 
longer slaves, but free as he was and were at liberty 
to proceed with him or go ashore at their pleas- 
ure. A description of the effect upon the negroes is 
best described in his own language : 

" The effect upon them was electrical. They stared 
at me and then at each other, as if doubting the ac- 
curacy or reality of what they heard. In breathless 
silence they stood before me, unable to utter a word, 
but with countenances beaming with expression which 
no words could convey, and which no language 
can describe. As they began to see the truth of 
what they had heard, and realize their situation, there 
came on a kind of hysterical, giggling laugh. After 
a pause of intense and unutterable emotion, bathed 
in tears, and with tremulous voices, they gave vent to 
their gratitude and implored the blessing of God 
on me." 

Before landing he gave them a general certificate 
of freedom, and afterward conformed more particu- 
larly with the law of this State requiring that each 
individual should have a certificate. This act of 
Mr. Coles, all the more noble and heroic considering 
the overwhelming pro-slavery influences surrounding 
him, has challenged the admiration df every philan- 
thropist of modern times. 

March 5, 1819, President Monroe appointed Mr. 
Coles Registrar of the Land Office at Edwardsville, 
at that time one of the principal land offices in the 
State. While acting in this capacity and gaining 
many friends by his politeness and general intelli- 
gence, the greatest struggle that ever occurred in 
Illinois on the slavery question culminated in the 
furious contest characterizing the campaigns and 
elections of 1822-4. In the summer of 1823, when a 
new Governor was to be elected to succeed Mr. 
Bond, the pro-slavery element divided into factions, 
putting forward for the executive office Joseph 
Phillips, Chief Justice of the State, Thomas C. 
Browne and Gen. James B. Moore, of the State Mil- 
itia. The anti-slavery element united upon Mr. 
Coles, and, after one of the most bitter campaigns, 
succeeded in electing him as Governor. His plural- 
ity over Judge Phillips was only 59 in a total vote of 

over 8,000. The Lieutenant Governor was elected 
by the slavery men. Mr. Coles' inauguration speech 
was marked by calmness, deliberation and such a 
wise expression of appropriate suggestions as to 
elicit the sanction of all judicious politicians. But 
he compromised not with evil. In his message to 
the Legislature, the seat of Government being then 
at Vandalia, he strongly urged the abrogation of the 
modified form of slavery which then existed in this 
State, contrary to the Ordinance of 1787. His posi- 
tion on this subject seems the more remarkable, when 
it is considered that he was a minority Governor, the 
population of Illinois being at that time almost ex- 
clusively from slave-holding States and by a large 
majority in favor of the perpetuation of that old relic 
of barbarism. The Legislature itself was, of course, 
a reflex of the popular sentiment, and a majority of 
them were led on by fiery men in denunciations of 
the conscientious Governor, and in curses loud and 
deep upon him and all his friends. Some of the 
public men, indeed, went so far as to head a sort of 
mob, or " shiveree " party, who visited the residence 
of the Governor and others at Vandalia and yelled 
and groaned and spat fire. 

The Constitution, not establishing or permitting 
slavery in this State, was thought therefore to be 
defective by the slavery politicians, and they desired 
a State Convention to be elected, to devise and sub- 
mit a new Constitution; and the dominant politics 
of the day was "Convention" and "anti-Conven- 
tion." Both parties issued addresses to the people, 
Gov. Coles himself being the author of the address 
published by the latter party. This address revealed 
the schemes of the conspirators in a masterly man- 
ner. It is difficult for us at this distant day to esti- 
mate the critical and extremely delicate situation in 
which the Governor was placed at that time. 

Our hero maintained himself honorably and with 
supreme dignity throughout his administration, and 
in his honor a county in this State is named. He 
was truly a great man, and those who lived in 
this State during his sojourn here, like those who 
live at the base of the mountain, were too near to see 
and recognize the greatness that overshadowed them. 

Mr. Coles was married Nov. 28, 1833, by Bishop 
De Lancey, to Miss Sally Logan Roberts, a daughter 
of Hugh Roberts, a descendant of Welsh ancestry, 
who cama to this country with Wm. Penn in 1682. 

After the expiration of his term of service, Gov. 
Coles continued his residence in Edwardsville, sup- 
erintending his farm in the vicinity. He was fond 
of agriculture, and was the founder of the first agft- 
cultural society in the State. On account of ill 
health, however, and having no family to tie him 
down, he spent much of his time in Eastern cities. 
About 1832 he changed his residence to Philadel- 
phia, where he died July 7, 1868, and is buried at 
Woodland, near that city. 

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' ' 1 'V. H H *JJ> H H ^ V 


i ni a n EdA\ 

from 1827 to 1830, was a son 
of Benjamin Edwards, and 
was born in Montgomery 
^ County, Maryland, in March, 
1775. "His domestic train- 
ing was well fitted to give 
his mind strength, firmness and 
honorable principles, an3 a good 
foundation was laid for the elevated 
character to which he afterwards 
attained. His parents were Bap- 
tists, and very strict in their moral 
principles. His education in early 
youth was in company with and 
partly under the tuition of Hon. Wm. 
Wirt, whom his father patronized 
and who was more than two years 
older. An intimacy was thus 
formed between them which was lasting for life. He 
was further educated at Dickinson College, at Car- 
lisle, Pa. He next commenced the study of law, but 
before completing his course he moved to Nelson 
County, Ky., to open a farm for his father and to 
purchase homes and locate lands for his brothers and 
sisters. Here he fell in the company of dissolute 
companions, and for several years led the life of a 
spendthrift. He was, however, elected to the Legis- 
lature of Kentucky as the Representative of Nelson 
County before he was 2 r years of age, and was re- 
elected by an almost unanimous vote. 

In 1798 he was licensed to practice law, and the 
following year was admitted to the Courts of Tennes- 
see. About this time he left Nelson County for 
Russellville, in Logan County, broke away from his 
dissolute companions, commenced a reformation and 
devoted himself to severe and laborious study. He 
then began to rise rapidly in his profession, and soon 
became an eminent lawyer, and inside of four years 
he filled in succession the offices of Presiding Judge 
of the General Court, Circuit Judge, fourth Judge of 
the Court of Appeals and Chief Justice of the State, 
all before he was 32 years of age! In addition, in 
1802, he received a commission as Major of a battal- 
ion of Kentucky militia, and in 1804 was chosen a 
Presidential Elector, on the Jefferson and Clinton 
ticket. In 1806 -he was a candidate for Congress, 
but withdrew on being promoted to the Court of 

Illinois was organized as a separate Territory in 
the spring of 1809, when Mr. Edwards, then Chief 
Justice of the Court of Appeals in Kentucky, received 
from President Madison the appointment as Gover- 
nor of the new Territory, his commission bearing date 
April 24, 1809. Edwards arrived at Kaskaskia in 
June, and on the i tth of that month took the oath of 
office. At the same time he was appointed Superin- 
tendent of the United States Saline, this Government 
interest then developing into considerable proportions 
in Southern Illinois. Although during the first three 
years of his administration he had the power to make 
new counties and appoint all the officers, yet he always 
allowed the people of each county, by an informal 









vote, to select their own officers, both civil and mili- 
tary. The noted John J. Crittenden, afterward 
United States Senator from Kentucky, was appointed 
by Gev. Edwards to the office of Attorney General of 
the Territory, which office was accepted for a short 
time only. 

The Indians in t8io committing sundry depreda- 
tions in the Territory, crossing the Mississippi from 
the Territory of Louisiana, a long correspondence fol- 
lowed between the respective Governors concerning 
the remedies, which ended in a council with the sav- 
ages at Peoria in 1812, and a fresh interpretation of 
the treaties. Peoria was depopulated by these de- 
predations, and was not re-settled for many .years 

As Gov. Edwards' term of office expired by law in 
1812, he was re-appointed for another term of three 
years, and again in 1815 for a third term, serving 
until the organization of the State in the fall of 1818 
and the inauguration of Gov. Bond. At this time 
ex-Gov. Edwards was sent to the United States 
Senate, his colleague being Jesse B. Thomas. As 
Senator, Mr. Edwards took a conspicuous part, and 
acquitted himself honorably in all the measures that 
came up in that body, being well posted, an able de- 
bater and a conscientious statesman. He thought 
seriously of resigning this situation in 1821, but was 
persuaded by his old friend, Wm. VVirt, and others to 
continue in office, which he did to the end of the 

He was then appointed Minister to Mexico by 
President Monroe. About this time, it appears that 
Mr. Edwards saw suspicious signs in the conduct of. 
Wm. H. Crawford, Secretary of the United States 
Treasury, and an ambitious candidate for the Presi- 
dency, and being implicated by the latter in some of 
his statements, he resigned his Mexican mission in 
order fully to investigate the charges. The result 
was the exculpation of Mr. Edwards. 

Pro-slavery regulations, often termed "Black Laws," 
disgraced the statute books of both the Territory and 
the State of Illinois during the whole of his career in 
this commonwealth, and Mr. Edwards always main- 
tained the doctrines of freedom, and was an important 
actor in the great struggle which ended in a victory 
for his party in 1824. 

In 1826-7 the Winnebago and other Indians com- 
mitted soire depredations in the northern part of the 

State, and the white settlers, who desired the lands 
and wished to exasperate the savages into an evacu- 
ation of the country, magnified the misdemeanors of 
the aborigines and thereby produced a hostility be- 
tween the races so great as to precipitate a little war, 
known in history as the "Winnebago War." A few 
chases and skirmishes were had, when Gen. Atkinson 
succeeded in capturing Red Bird, the Indian chief, 
arid putting him to death, thus ending the contest, at 
least until the troubles commenced which ended in 
the " Black Hawk War " of 1832. In the interpre- 
tation of treaties and execution of their provisions 
Gov. Edwards had much vexatious work to do. The 
Indians kept themselves generally within the juris- 
diction of Michigan Territory, and its Governor, 
Lewis Cass' was at a point so remote that ready cor- 
respondence with him was difficult or impossible. 
Gov. Edwards' administration, however, in regard to 
the protection of the Illinois frontier, seems to have 
been very efficient and satisfactory. 

For a considerable portion of his time after his re- 
moval to Illinois, Gov. Edwards resided upon his 
farm near Kaskaskia, which he had well stocked with 
horses, cattle and sheep from Kentucky, also with 
fruit-trees, grape-vines and shrubbery. He estab- 
lished saw and grist-mills, and engaged extensively 
in mercantile business, having no less than eightorten 
stores in this State and Missouri. Notwithstanding 
the arduous duties of his office, he nearly always pur- 
chased the goods himself with which to supply the 
stores. Although not a regular practitioner of medi- 
cine, he studied the healing art to a considerable ex- 
tent, and took great pleasure in prescribing for, and 
taking care of, the sick, generally without charge. 
He was also liberal to the poor, several widows and 
ministers of the gospel becoming indebted to him 
even for their homes. 

He married Miss Elvira Lane, of Maryland, in 
1803, and they became the affectionate parents of 
several children, one of whom, especially, is well 
known to the people of the " Prairie State," namely, 
Ninian Wirt Edwards, once the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction and still a resident of Springfield. 
Gov. Edwards resided at and in the vicinity of Kas- 
kaskia from 1809 to 1818; in Edwardsville (named 
after him) from that time to 1824; and from the lat- 
ter date at Belleville, St. Clair County, until his 
death, July 20, 1833, of Asiatic cholera. Edwards 
County is also named in his honor. 

H rt ' -"V ^. t^ *mJ&*^f!V' _*,&!?/? 

MM* :J -^f^9r *=*?fr 







LI. . 





|OHN REYNOLDS, Governor 1831- 
4, was born in Montgomery Coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, Feb. 26, 1788. 
His father, Robert Reynolds and 
his mother, nee Margaret Moore, 
were both natives of Ireland, from 
which country they emigrated to 
the United States in 1785, land- 
ing at Philadelphia. The senior 
Reynolds entertained an undying 
hostility to the British Govern- 
ment. When the subject of this 
sketch was about six months old, 
his parents emigrated with him to 
Tennessee, where many of their 
relatives had already located, at the base of the 
Copper Ridge Mountain, about 14 miles northeast of 
the present city of Knoxville. There they were ex- 
posed to Indian depredations, and were much molest- 
ed by them. In 1794 they moved into the interior 
of the State. They were poor, and brought up their 
children to habits of manual industry. 

In 1800 the family removed to Kaskaskia, 111., with 
eight horses and two wagons, encountering many 
hardships on the way. Here young Reynolds passed 
the most of his childhood, while his character began 
to develop, the most prominent traits of which were 
ambition and energy. He also adopted the principle 
and practice of total abstinence from intoxicating 
liquors. In 1807 the family made another removal, 

this time to the " Goshen Settlement," at the foot of 
the Mississippi bluffs three or four miles southwest 
of Edwardsville. 

On arriving at his 2oth year, Mr. Reynolds, seeing 
that he must look about for his own livelihood and 
not yet having determined what calling to pursue, 
concluded first to attend college, and he accordingly 
went to such an institution of learning, near Knox- 
ville, Tenn., where he had relatives. Imagine his 
diffidence, when, after passing the first 20 years of 
his life without ever having seen a carpet, a papered 
wall or a Windsor chair, and never having lived in a 
shingle-roofed house, he suddenly ushered himself 
into the society of the wealthy in the vicinity of 
Knoxville! He attended college nearly two years, 
going through the principal Latin authors; but it 
seems that he, like the rest of the world in modern 
times, had but very little use for his Latin in after 
life. He always failed, indeed, to exhibit any good 
degree of literary discipline. He commenced the 
study of law in Knoxville, but a pulmonary trouble 
came on and compelled him to change his mode 
of life. Accordingly he returned home and re- 
cuperated, and in 1812 resumed his college and 
law studies at Knoxville. In the fall of 1812 he was 
admitted to the Bar at Kaskaskia. About this time 
he also learned the French language, which he 
practiced with pleasure in conversation with his 
family for many years. He regarded this language 
as being superior to all others for social intercourse. 




From his services in the West, in the war of 1812, 
he obtained the sobriquet of the " Old Ranger." He 
was Orderly Sergeant, then Judge Advocate. 

Mr. Reynolds opened his first law office in the 
winter and spring of 1814, in the French village of 
Cahokia, then the capital of St. Glair County. 

In the fall of 1818 he was elected an Associate 
Justice upon the Supreme Bench by the General 
Assembly. In 1825 he entered more earnestly than 
ever into the practice of law, and the very next year 
was elected a member of the Legislature, where he 
acted independently of all cliques and private inter- 
ests. In 1828 the Whigs and Democrats were for 
the first time distinctively organized as such in Illi- 
nois, and the usual party bitterness grew up and 
raged on all sides, while Mr. Reynolds preserved a 
judicial calmness and moderation. The real animus 
of the campaign was " Jackson " and " anti-Jackson," 
the former party carrying the State. 

In August, 1830, Mr. Reynolds was elected Gov- 
ernor, amid great excitement. Installed in office, he 
did all within his power to advance the cause of edu- 
cation, internal improvements, the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal, the harbor at Chicago, settling the coun- 
try, etc.; also recommended the winding up of the 
State Bank, as its affairs had become dangerously 
complicated. In his national politics, he was a 
moderate supporter of General Jackson. But the 
most celebrated event of his gubernatorial admin- 
istration was the Black Hawk War, which occurred 
in 1832. He called out the militia and prosecuted 
the contest with commendable diligence, appearing 
in person on the battle-grounds during the most 
critical periods. He was recognized by the President 
as Major-General, and authorized by him to make 
treaties with the Indians. By the assistance of the 
general Government the war was terminated without 
much bloodshed, but after many serious fights. This 
war, as well as everything else, was materially re- 
tarded by the occurrence of Asiatic cholera in the 
West. This was its first appearance here, and was 
the next event in prominence during Gov. Reynolds' 

South Carolina nullification coming up at this time, 
it was heartily condemned by both President Jackson 
and Gov. Reynolds, who took precisely the same 
grounds as the Unionists in the last war. 

On the termination of his gubernatorial term in 
1834, Gov. Reynolds was elected a Member of Con- 
gress, still considering himself a backwoodsman, as 
he had scarcely been outside of the State since he 
became of age, and had spent nearly all his youthful 
days in the wildest region of the frontier. His first 
move in Congress was to adopt a resolution that in 
all elections made by the House for officers the votes 
should be given viva voce, each member in his place 
naming aloud the person for whom he votes. This 
created considerable heated discussion, but was es- 

sentially adopted, and remained the controlling prin- 
ciple for many years. The ex-Governor was scarcely 
absent from his seat a single day, during e^ht ses- 
sions of Congress, covering a period of seven years, 
and he never vacillated in a party vote; but he failed 
to get the Democratic party to foster his " National 
Road" scheme. He says, in " My Own Times " (a 
large autobiography he published), that it was only 
by rigid economy that he avoided insolvency while in 
YVashington. During his sojourn in that city he was 
married, to a lady of the place. 

In 1837, while out of Congress, and in company 
with a few others, he built the first railroad in the 
Mississippi Valley, namely, one about six miles long, 
leading from his coal mine in the Mississippi bluff to 
the bank of the river opposite St. Louis. Having not 
the means to purchase a locomotive, they operated it 
by horse-power. The next spring, however, the com- 
pany sold out, at great sacrifice. 

In 1839 the ex-Governor was appointed one of the 
Canal Commissioners, and authorized to borrow 
money to prosecute the enterprise. Accord 1 ' ugly, he 
repaired to Philadelphia and succeeding in obtaining 
a million dollars, which, however, was only a fourth 
of what was wanted. The same year he and his 
wife made at our of Europe. This year, also, Mr. 
Reynolds had the rather awkward little responsibility 
of introducing to President Van Buren the noted 
Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith, as a " Latter-Day 

In 1846 Gov. Reynolds was elected a member of 
the Legislature from St. Clair County, more particu- 
larly for the purpose of obtaining a feasible charter 
for a macadamized road from Belleville to St. Louis, 
a distance of nearly 14 miles. This was immediately 
built, and was the first road of the kind in the State. 
He was again elected to the Legislature in 1852, when 
he was chosen Speaker of the House. In 1860, aged 
and infirm, he attended the National Democratic 
Convention at Charleston, S. C.,--as an anti-Douglas 
Delegate, where he received more attention from the 
Southern Delegates than any other member. He 
supported Breckenridge for the Presidency. After 
the October elections foreshadowed the success of 
Lincoln, he published an address urging the Demo- 
crats to rally to the support of Douglas. Immedi- 
ately preceding and during the late war, his corre- 
spondence evinced a clear sympathy for the Southern 
secession, and about the first of March, 1861, he 
urged upon the Buchanan officials the seizure of the 
treasure and arms in the custom-house and arsenal 
at St. Louis. Mr. Reynolds was a rather talkative 
man, and apt in all the Western phrases and catch- 
words that ever gained currency, besides many cun- 
ning and odd ones of his own manufacture. 

He was married twice, but had no children. He 
died in Belleville, in May, 1865, just after the close 
of the war. 

- - 


. .. 



Governor of Illinois Nov. 3 
to 17, 1834, was a native 
of Kentucky, and probably 
of Scotch ancestry. He had 
a fine education, was a gentle- 
man of polished manners and 
refined sentiment. In 1830 John Rey- 
nolds was elected Governor of the State, 
and Zadok Casey Lieutenant Governor, 
and for the principal events that followed, 
and the characteristics of the times, see 
sketch of Gov. Reynolds. The first we 
see in history concerning Mr. Ewing, in- 
forms us that he was a Receiver of Public 
Moneys at Vandalia soon after the organization of 
this State, and that the public moneys in his hands 
were deposited in various banks, as they are usually 
at the present day. In 1823 the State Bank was 
robbed, by which disaster Mr. Ewing lost a thousand- 
dollar deposit. 

The subject of this sketch had a commission as 
Colonel in the Black Hawk War, and in emergencies 
he acted also as Major. In the summer of 1832, 
when it was rumored among the whites that Black 
Hawk and his men had encamped somewhere on 
Rock River, Gen. Henry was sent on a tour of 
reconnoisance, and with orders to drive the Indians 
from the State. After some opposition from his 
subordinate officers, Henry resolved to proceed up 
Rock River in search of the enemy. On the igth of 
July, early in the morning, five baggage wagons. 

camp equipage and all heavy and cumbersome arti- 
cles were piled up and left, so that the army might 
make speedy and forced marches. For some miles 
the travel was exceedingly bad, crossing swamps 
and the worst thickets ; but the large, fresh trail 
gave life and animation to the Americans. Gen. 
Dodge and Col. Ewing were both acting as Majors, 
and composed the " spy corps " or vanguard of the 
army. It is supposed the army inarched nearly 50 
miles this day, and the Indian trail they followed 
became fresher, and was strewed with much property 
and trinkets of the red-skins that they had lost or 
thrown away to hasten their inarch. During the 
following night there was a terrific thunder-storm, and 
the soldiery, with all- their appurtenances, were thor- 
oughly drenched. 

On approaching nearer the Indians the next day. 
Gen. Dodge and Major Ewing, each commanding a 
battalion of men, were placed in front to bring on the 
battle, but the savages were not overtaken this day 
Forced marches were continued until they reached. 
Wisconsin River, where a veritable battle ensued, 
resulting in the death of about 68 of Black Hawk's 
men. The next day they continued the chase, and 
as soon as he discovered the trail of the Indians 
leading toward the Mississippi, Maj. Ewing formed 
his battalion in order of battle and awaited the order 
of Gen. Henry. The latter soon appeared on the 
ground and ordered a charge, which directly resulted 
in chasing the red warriors across the great river. 
Maj. Ewing and his command proved particularly 
efficient in war, as it seems they were the chief actors 
in driving the main body of the Sacs and Foxes, in- 

* ' 


. ptsr 


eluding Black Hawk himself, across the Mississippi, 
while Gen. Atkinson, commander-in-chief of the ex- 
pedition, with a body of the army, was hunting for 
them in another direction. 

In the above affair Maj. Ewing is often referred to 
as a " General," which title he had derived from his 
connection with the militia. 

It was in the latter part of the same year (1832) 
that Lieutenant Governor Casey was elected to Con- 
gress and Gen. Ewing, who had been elected to the 
Senate, was chosen to preside over that body. At 
the August election of 1834, Gov. Reynolds was also 
elected to Congress, more than a year ahead of the 
time at which he could actually take his seat, as was 
then the law. His predecessor, Charles Slade, had 
just died of Asiatic cholera, soon after the elec- 
tion, and Gov. Reynolds was chosen to serve out his 
unexpired term. Accordingly he set out for Wash- 
ington in November of that year to take his seat in 
Congress, and Gen. Ewing, by virtue of his office as 
President of the Senate, became Governor of the 
State of Illinois, his term covering only a period of 
\$ days, namely, from the 3d to the xyth days, in- 
clusive, of November. On the i;th the Legislature 
met, and Gov. Ewing transmitted to that body his 
message, giving a statement of the condition of the 
affairs of the State at that time, and urging a contin- 
uance of the policy adopted by his predecessor ; and 
on the same day Governor elect Joseph Duncan 
was sworn into office, thus relieving Mr. Ewing from 

the responsible situation. This is the only time that 
such a juncture has happened in the history of Illi- 

On the 29111 of December, 1835, Gen. Ewing was 
elected a United States Senator to serve out the 
unexpired term of Elias Kent Kane, deceased. The 
latter gentleman was a very prominent figure in the 
early politics of Illinois, and a county in this State is 
named in his honor. The election of Gen. Ewing to 
the Senate was a protracted struggle. His competi- 
tors were James Semple, who afterwards held several 
important offices in this State, and Richard M. 
Young, afterward a United States Senator and a 
Supreme Judge and a man of vast influence. On 
the first ballot Mr. Semple had 25 votes, Young 19 
and Ewing 18. On the eighth ballot Young was 
dropped ; the ninth and tenth stood a tie ; but on 
the 1 2th Ewing received 40, to Semple 37, and was 
accordingly declared elected. In 1837 Mr. Ewing 
received some votes for a continuance of his term in 
Congress, when Mr. Young, just referred to, was 
elected. In 1842 Mr. Ewing was elected State 
Audit?r on the ticket with Gov. Ford. 

Gen. Ewing was a gentleman of culture, a lawyer 
by profession, and was much in public life. In person 
he was above medium height and of heavy build, 
with auburn hair, blue eyes, large-sized head and 
short face. He was genial, social, friendly and 
affable, with fair talent, though of no high degree of 
originality. He died March 25, 1846. 




SSS ^ Sr f^QfUWnv- 



1834-8, was born at Paris, 
Ky., Feb. 23, 1794. At the 
tender age of 19 years he en- 
listed in the war against Great 
Britain, and as a soldier he 
acquitted himself with credit. He 
was an Ensign under the daunt- 
less Croghan at Lower Sandusky, 
or Fort Stephenson. In Illinois 
lie first appeared in a public capa- 
city as Major-General of the Militia, 
a position which his military fame 
had procured him. Subsequently 
he became a State Senator from 
Jackson County, and is honorably 
mentioned for introducing the first bill providing for 
a free-school system. In 1826, when the redoubt- 
able John P. Cook, who had previously beaten such 
men as John McLean, Elias Kent Kane and ex- 
Gov. Bond, came up for the fourth time for Congress, 
Mr. Duncan was brought forward against him by his 
friends, greatly to the surprise of all the politicians. 
As yet lie was but little known in the State. He was 
an original Jackson man at that time, being attached 
to his political fortune in admiration of the glory of 
his militaiy achievements. His chances of success 
against Cook were generally regarded as hopeless, 
but he entered upon the campaign undaunted. His 
speeches, though short and devoid of ornament, were 
full of good sense. He made a diligent canvass of 
the State, Mr. Cook being hindered by the condition of 
his health. The most that was expected of Mr. 
Duncan, under the circumstances, was that he would 

obtain a respectable vote, but without defeating Mr. 
Cook. The result of the campaign, however, was a 
source of surprise and amazement to both friends 
and foes, as Mr. Duncan came out 641 votes ahead! 
He received 6,321 votes, and Mr. Cook 5,680. Un- 
til this denouement, the violence of party feeling 
smoldering in the breasts of the people on account 
of the defeat of Jackson, was not duly appreciated. 
Aside from the great convention struggle of 1824, no 
other than mere local and penonal considerations 
had ever before controlled an election in Illinois. 

From the above date Mr. Duncan retained his 
seat in Congress until his election as Governor in 
August, 1834. The first and bloodless year of the 
Black Hawk War he was appointed by Gov. Rey- 
nolds to the position of Brigadier-General of the 
volunteers, and he conducted his brigade to Rock 
Island. But he was absent from the State, in Wash- 
ington, during the gubernatorial campaign, and did 
not personally participate in it, but addressed circu- 
lars to his constituents. His election was, indeed, 
attributed to the circumstance of his absence, be- 
cause his estrangement from Jackson, formerly his 
political idol, and also from the Democracy, largely 
in ascendency in the State, was complete ; but while 
his defection was well known to his Whig friends, 
and even to the leading Jackson men of this State, 
the latter were unable to carry conviction of that fact 
to the masses, as mail and newspaper facilities at 
that day were far inferior to those of the present 
time. Of course the Governor was much abused 
afterward by the fossilized Jackson men who re- 
garded party ties and affiliations as above all 
other issues that could arise ; but he was doubtless 





sincere in his opposition to the old hero, as the latter 
had vetoed several important western measures 
which were dear to Mr. Duncan. In his inaugural 
message he threw off the mask and took a bold stand 
against the course of the President. The measures 
he recommended in his message, however, were so 
desirable that the Legislature, although by a large 
majority consisting of Jackson men, could not refrain 
from endorsing them. These measures related 
mainly to banks and internal improvements. 

It was while Mr. Duncan was Governor that the 
people of Illinois went whirling on with bank and in- 
ternal improvement schemes that well nigh bank- 
rupted the State. The hard times of 1837 came on, 
and the disasters that attended the inauguration of 
these plans and the operation of the banks were mu- 
tually charged upon the two political parties. Had 
any one man autocratic power to introduce and 
carry on any one of these measures, he would proba- 
bly have succeeded to the satisfaction of the public ; 
but as many jealous men had hold of the same plow 
handle, no success followed and each blamed the other 
for the failure. In this great vortex Gov. Duncan 
was carried along, suffering the ^like derogation of 
character with his fellow citizens. 

At the height of the excitement the Legislature 
" provided for " railroads from Galena to Cairo, Alton 
to Shawneetown, Alton to Mount Carmel, Alton to the 
eastern boundary of the State in the direction of 
Terre Haute, Quincy via Springfield to the Wabash, 
Bloomington to Pekin, and Peoria to Warsaw, in all 
about 1,300 miles of road. It also provided for the 
improvement of the navigation of the Kaskaskia, 
Illinois, Great and Little-Wabash and Rock Rivers ; 
also as a placebo, $200,000 in money were to be dis- 
tributed to the various counties wherein no improve- 
ments were ordered to be made as above. The 
estimate for the expenses for all these projects was 
placed at a little over $10,000,000, which was not 
more than half enough ! That would now be equal to 
saddling upon the State a debt of $225,000,000 ! It 
was sufficient to bankrupt the State several times 
over, even counting all the possible benefits. 

One of the most exciting events that ever occurred 
in this fair State was the murder of Elijah P. Love- 
joy in the fall of 1837, at Alton, during Mr. Duncan's 
term as Governor. Lovejoy was an " Abolitionist," 
editing the Observer at that place, and the pro- 
slavery slums there formed themselves into a mob, 

and after destroying successively three presses be- 
longing to Mr. Lovejoy, surrounded the warehouse 
where the fourth press was stored away, endeavoring 
to destroy it, and where Lovejoy and his friends 
were entrenching themselves, and shot and killed the 
brave reformer! 

About this time, also, the question of removing the 
State capital again came up, as the 20 years' limit for 
its existence at Vandalia was drawing to a close. 
There was, of course, considerable excitement over 
the matter, the two main points competing for it be- 
ing Springfield and Peoria. The jealousy of the lat- 
ter place is not even yet, 45 years afterward, fully 

Gov. Duncan's term expired in 1838. In 1842 
he was again proposed as a candidate for the Execu- 
tive chair, this time by the Whig party, against Adam 
W. Snyder, of St. Clair County, the nominee of the 
Democrats. Charles W. Hunter was a third candi- 
date for the same position. Mr. Snyder, however, died 
before the campaign had advanced very far, and his 
party substituted Thomas Ford, who was elected, 
receiving 46,901 votes, to 38,584 for Duncan, and 
909 for Hunter. The cause of Democratic success 
at this time is mainly attributed to the temporary 
support of the Mormons which they enjoyed, and the 
want of any knowledge, on the part of the masses, 
that Mr. Ford was opposed to any given policy en- 
tertained in the respective localities. 

Gov. Duncan was a man of rather limited educa- 
tion, but with naturally fine abilities he profited 
greatly by his various public services, and gathered 
a store of knowledge regarding public affairs which 
served him a ready purpose. He possessed a clear 
judgment, decision, confidence in himself and moral 
courage to carry out his convictions of right. In his 
deportment he was well adapted to gain the admira- 
tion of the people. His intercourse with them was 
both affable and dignified. His portrait at the Gov- 
ernor's mansion, from which the accompanying was 
made, represents him as having a swarthy complex- 
ion, high cheek bones, broad forehead, piercing black 
eyes and straight black hair. 

He was a liberal patron of the Illinois College at 
Jacksonville, a member of its Board of Trustees, and 
died, after a short illness, Jan. 15, 1844, a devoted 
member of the Presbyterian Church, leaving a wife 
but no children. Two children, born to them, had 
died in infancy. 


[HOMAS CARLIN, the sixth 
Governor of the State of 
Illinois, serving from 1838 
to 1842, was also a Ken- 
tuckian, being born near 
Frankfort, that State, July 
18, 1789, of Irish paternity. 
The opportunities for an education 
being very meager in his native 
place, he, on approaching years of 
judgment and maturity, applied 
himself to those branches of learn- 
ing that seemed most important, 
and thus became a self-made man ; 
and his taste for reading and 
study remained with him through 
life. In 1803 his father removed 
to Missouri, then a part of " New Spain," where he 
died in 1810. 

In 1812 young Carlin came to Illinois and partici- 
pated in all the "ranging" service incident to the 
war of that period, proving himself a soldier of un- 
daunted bravery. In 1814 he married Rebecca 
Huitt, and lived for four years on the bank of the 
Mississippi River, opposite the mouth of the Mis- 
souri, where he followed farming, and then removed 
to Greene County. He located the town site of Car- 
rollton, in that county, and in 1825 made a liberal 
donation of land for county building purposes. He 
was the first Sheriff of that county after its separate 
organization, and afterward was twice elected, as a 
Jackson Democrat, to the Illinois Senate. In the 
Black Hawk War he commanded a spy battalion, a 
post of considerable danger. In 1834 he was ap- 
pointed by President Jackson to the position of 
Receiver of Public Moneys, and to fulfill the office 

more conveniently he removed to the city of Quincy. 

While, in i838j the unwieldy internal improvement 
system of the State was in full operation, with all its 
expensive machinery, amidst bank suspensions 
throughout the United States, a great stringency in 
the money market everywhere, and Illinois bonds 
forced to sale at a heavy discount, and the " hardest 
times " existing that the people of the Prairie State 
ever saw, the general election of State officers was 
approaching. Discreet men who had cherished the 
hope of a speedy subsidence of the public infatua- 
tion, met with disappointment. A Governor and 
Legislature were to be elected, and these were now 
looked forward to for a repeal of the ruinous State 
policy. But the grand scheme had not yet lost its 
dazzling influence upon the minds of the people. 
Time and experience had not yet fully demonstrated 
its utter absurdity. Hence the question of arresting 
its career of profligate expenditures did not become 
a leading one with the dominant party during the 
campaign, and most of the old members of the Leg- 
islature were returned at this election. 

Under these circumstances the Democrats, in State 
Convention assembled, nominated Mr. Carlin for the 
office of Governor, and S. H. Anderson for Lieuten- 
ant Governor, while the Whigs nominated Cyrus Ed- 
wards, brother of Ninian Edwards, formerly Governor, 
and W. H. Davidson. Edwards came out strongly 
for a continuance of the State policy, while Carlin 
remained non-committal. This was the first time 
that the two main political parties in this State were 
unembarrassed by any third party in the field. The 
result of the ele-tion was: Carlin, 35,573 ; Ander- 
son, 30,335; Edwards, 29,629; and Davidson, 28,- 

Upon the meeting of the subsequent Legislature 
(1839), the retiring Governor (Duncan) in his rnes- 

j( J 

r. .-< 

sage spoke in emphatic terms of the impolicy of the 
internal improvement system, presaging the evils 
threatened, and uiged that body to do their utmost 
to correct the great error ; yet, on the contrary, the 
Legislature not only decided to continue the policy 
but also added to its burden by voting more appro- 
priations and ordering more improvements. Although 
the money market was still stringent, a further loan 
of $4,000,000 was ordered for the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal alone. Chicago at that time began to 
loom up and promise to be an important city, even 
the great emporium of the West, as it has since in- 
deed came to be. Ex-Gov. Reynolds, an incompe- 
tent financier, was commissioned to effect the loan, 
and accordingly hastened to the East on this respons- 
ible errand, and negotiated the loans, at considera- 
ble sacrifice to the State. Besides this embarrassment 
to Carlin's administration, the Legislature also de- 
clared that he had no authority to appoint a Secretary 
of State until a vacancy existed, and A. P. Field, a 
Whig, who had already held the post by appointment 
through three administrations, was determined to 
keep the place a while longer, in spite of Gov. Car- 
lin's preferences. The course of the Legislature in 
this regard, however, was finally sustained by the 
Supreme Court, in a quo warranty case brought up 
before it by John A. McClernand, whom the Gov- 
ernor had nominated for the office. Thereupon that 
dignified body was denounced as a "Whig Court!" 
endeavoring to establish the principle of life-tenure 
of office. 

A new law was adopted re-organizing the Judicu, 
ary, and under it five additional Supreme Judges 
were elected by the Legislature, namely, Thomas 
Ford (afterward Governor), Sidney Breese, Walter B. 
Scates, Samuel H. Treat and Stephen A. Douglas 
all Democrats. 

It was during Cov. Carlin's administration that the 
noisy campaign of "Tippecanoe and Tyler too " oc- 
curred, resulting in a Whig victory. This, however, 
did not affect Illinois politics very seriously. 

Another prominent event in the West during Gov. 
Carlin's term of office was the excitement caused by 
the Mormons and their removal from Independence, 
Mo., to Nauvoo, 111., in 1840. At the same time 
they began to figure somewhat in State politics. On 
account of their believing as they thought, accord- 
ing to the New Testament that they should have 


" all things common," and that consequently " all 
the earth " and all that is upon it were the" Lord's " 
and therefore the property of his " saints," they 
were suspected, and correctly, too, of committing 
many of the deeds of larceny, robbery, etc., that 
were so rife throughout this country in those days. 
Hence a feeling of violence grew up between the 
Mormons and "anti-Mormons." In the State of 
Missouri the Mormons always supported the Dem- 
ocracy until they were driven out by the Democratic 
government, when they turned their support to the 
Whigs. They were becoming numerous, and in the 
Legislature of 1840-1, therefore, it became a matter 
of great interest with both parties to conciliate these 
people. Through the agency of one John C. Ben- 
nett, a scamp, the Mormons succeeded in rushing 
through the Legislature (both parties not daring to 
oppose) a charter for the city of Nauvoo which vir- 
tually erected a hierarchy co-ordinate with the Fed- 
eral Government itself. In the fall of 1841 the 
Governor of Missouri made a demand upon Gov. 
Carlin for the body of Joe Smith, the Mormon leader, 
as a fugitive from justice. Gov. Carlin issued the 
writ, but for some reason it was returned unserved. 
It was again issued in 1842, and Smith was arrested, 
but was either rescued by his followers or discharged 
by the municipal court on a writ of habeas corpus. 

In December, r84i, the Democratic Convention 
nominated Adam W. Snyder, of Belleville, for Gov- 
ernor. As he had been, as a member of the Legisla- 
ture, rather friendly to the Mormons, the latter 
naturally turned their support to the Democratic 
party. The next spring the Whigs nominated Ex- 
Gov. Duncan for the same office. In the meantime 
the Mormons began to grow more odious to the 
masses of the people, and the comparative prospects 
of the respective parties for success became very 
problematical. Mr. Snyder died in May, and 
Thomas Ford, a Supreme Judge, was substituted as 
a candidate, and was elected. 

At the close of his gubernatorial term, Mr. Carlin 
removed back to his old home at Carrollton, where 
he spent the remainder of his life, as before his ele- 
vation to office, in agricultural pursuits. In 1849 
he served out the unexpired term of J. D. Fry in the 
Illinois House of Representatives, and died Feb. 4, 
1 85 2, at his residence at Carrollton, leaving a wife 
and seven children. 





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JHOMAS FORD, Governor 
from 1842 to 1846, and au- 
thor of a very interesting 
history of Illinois, was born 
at Uniontown, Pa., in the 
year 1 800. His mother, after 
the death of her first hus- 
band (Mr. Forquer), married Rob- 
ert Ford, who was killed in 1802, 
by the Indians in the mountains 
of Pennsylvania. She was conse- 
quently left in indigent circum- 
stances, with a large family, mostly 
girls. With a view to better her 
condition, she, in 1804, removed to 
Missouri, where it had been cus- 
tomary by the Spanish Govern- 
ment to give land to actual settlers ; but upon her 
arrival at St. Louis she found the country ceded to 
the United States, and the liberal policy toward set- 
tlers changed by the new ownership. After some 
sickness to herself and family, she finally removed to 
Illinois, and settled some three miles south of Water- 
loo, but the following year moved nearer the Missis- 
sippi bluffs. Here young Ford received his first 

schooling, under the instructions of a Mr. Humphrey, 
for which he had to walk three miles. His mother, 
though lacking a thorough education, was a woman 
of superior mental endowments, joined to energy 
and determination of character. She inculcated in 
her children those high-toned principles which dis- 
tinguished her sons in public life. She exercised a 
rigid economy to provide her children an education ; 
but George Forquer, her oldest son (six years older 
than Thomas Ford), at an early age had to quit 
school to aid by his labor in the support of the family. 
He afterward became an eminent man in Illinois 
affairs, and but for his early death would probably 
have been elected to the United States Senate. 

Young Ford, with somewhat better opportunities, 
received a better education, though limited to the 
curriculum of the common school of those pioneer 
times. His mind gave early promise of superior en- 
dowments, with an inclination for mathematics. His 
proficiency attracted the attention of Hon. Daniel P. 
Cook, who became his efficient patron and friend. 
The latter gentleman was an eminent Illinois states- 
man who, as a Member of Congress, obtained a grant 
of 300,000 acres of land to aid in completing the 
Illinois & Michigan Canal, and after whom the 
county of Cook was named. Through the advice of 







this gentleman, Mr. Ford turned his attention to the 
study of law; but Forquer, then merchandising, re- 
garding his education defective, sent him to Transyl- 
vania University, where, however, he remained but 
one term, owing. to Forquer's failure in business. On 
his return he alternated his law reading with teach- 
ing school for support. 

In 1829 Gov. Edwards appointed him Prosecuting 
Attorney, and in 1831 he was re-appointed by Gov. 
Reynolds, and after that he was four times elected a 
Judge by the Legislature, without opposition, twice a 
Circuit Judge, once a Judge of Chicago, and as As- 
sociate Judge of the Supreme Court, when, in 1841, 
the latter tribunal was re-organized by the addition 
of five Judges, all Democrats. Ford was assigned to 
the Ninth Judicial Circuit, and while in this capacity 
he was holding Court in Ogle County he received a 
notice of his nomination by the Democratic Conven- 
tion for the office of Governor. He immediately re- 
signed his place and entered upon the canvass. In 
August, 1842, he was elected, and on the 8th of De- 
cember following he was inaugurated. 

All the offices which he had held were unsolicited 
by him. He received them upon the true Jefferson- 
ian principle, Never to ask and never to refuse 
office. Both as a lawyer and as a Judge he stood 
deservedly high, but his cast of intellect fitted him 
rather for a writer upon law than a practicing advo- 
cate in the courts. In the latter capacity he was void 
of the moving power of eloquence, so necessary to 
success with juries. As a Judge his opinions were 
sound, lucid and able expositions of the law. In 
practice, he was a stranger to the tact, skill and in- 
sinuating address of the politician, but he saw through 
the arts of demagogues as well as any man. He was 
plain in his demeanor, so much so, indeed, that at 
one time after the expiration of his term of office, 
during a session of the Legislature, he was taken by 
a stranger to be a seeker for the position of door- 
keeper, and was waited upon at his hotel near mid- 
night by a knot of small office-seekers with the view 
of effecting a " combination ! " 

Mr. Ford had not the " brass " of the ordinary 
politician, nor that impetuosity which characterizes a 
political leader. He cared little for money, and 
hardly enough for a decent support. In person he 
was of small stature, slender, of dark complexion, 
with black hair, sharp features, deep-set eyes, a 
pointed, aquiline nose having a decided twist to one 
side, and a small mouth. 

The three most important events in Gov. Ford's 
administration were the establishment of the high 
financial credit of the State, the " Mormon War " and 
the Mexican War. 

In the first of these the Governor proved himself 
to be eminently wise. On coming into office he found 
the State badly paralyzed by the ruinous effects of 
the notorious " internal improvement " schemes of 

the preceding decade, with scarcely anything to 
show by way of "improvement." The enterprise 
that seemed to be getting ahead more than all the 
rest was the Illinois & Michigan Canal. As this 
promised to be the most important thoroughfare, 
feasible to the people, it was well under headway in 
its construction. Therefore the State policy was 
almost concentrated upon it, in order to rush it on to 
completion. The bonded indebtedness of the State 
was growing so large as to frighten the people, and 
they were about ready to entertain a proposition for 
repudiation. But the Governor had the foresight to 
recommend such measures as would maintain the 
public credit, for which every citizen to-day feels 

But perhaps the Governor is remembered more for 
his connection with the Mormon troubles than for 
anything else; for it was during his term of office 
that the " Latter-Day Saints " became so strong at 
Nauvoo, built their temple there, increased their num- 
bers throughout the country, committed misdemean- 
ors, taught dangerous doctrines, suffered the loss of 
their leader, Jo Smith, by a violent death, were driven 
out of Nauvoo to the far West, etc. Having been a 
Judge for so many years previously, Mr. Ford of 
course was non-committal concerning Mormon affairs, 
and was therefore claimed by both parties and also 
accused by each of sympathizing too greatly with the 
other side. Mormonism claiming to be a system of 
religion, the Governor no doubt was " between two 
fires," and felt compelled to touch the matter rather 
" gingerly," and doubtless felt greatly relieved when 
that pestilential people left the State. Such compli- 
cated matters, especially when religion is mixed up 
with them, expose every person participating in 
them to criticism from all parties. 

The Mexican War was begun in the spring of 
1845, and was continued into the gubernatorial term 
of Mr. Ford's successor. The Governor's connection 
with this war, however, was not conspicuous, as it 
was only administrative, commissioning officers, etc. 

Ford's " History of Illinois " is a very readable and 
entertaining work, of 450 small octavo pages, and is 
destined to increase in value with the lapse of time. 
It exhibits a natural flow of compact and forcible 
thought, never failing to convey the nicest sense. In 
tracing with his trenchant pen the devious operations 
of the professional politician, in which he is inimit- 
able, his account is open, perhaps, to the objection 
that all his contemporaries are treated as mere place- 
seekers, while many of them have since been judged 
by the people to be worthy statesmen. His writings 
seem slightly open to the criticism that they exhibit 
a little splenetic partiality against those of his con- 
temporaries who were prominent during his term of 
office as Governor. 

The death of Gov. Ford took place at Peoria, 111., 
Nov. 2, 1850. 


1 '*&*iK 


Augustus C, French 

Governor of Illinois from 
1846 to 1852, was born in 
the town of Hill, in the 
State of New Hampshire, 
Aug. 2, 1808. He was a 
descendant in the fourth 
generation ot Nathaniel 
French, who emigrated from England 
in 1687 and settled in Saybury, Mass. 
In early life young French lost his 
father, but continued to receive in- 
struction from an exemplary and 
Christian mother until he was 19 years 
old, when she also died, confiding to 
his care and trust four younger broth- 
ers and one sister. He discharged his trust with 
parental devotion. His education in early life was 
such mainly as a common school afforded. For a 
brief period he attended Dartmouth College, but 
from pecuniary causes and the care of his brothers 
and sister, he did not graduate. He subsequently 
read law, and was admitted to the Bar in 1831, and 
shortly afterward removed to Illinois, settling first at 
Albion, Edwards County, where he established him- 
self in the practice of law. The following year he 
removed to Paris, Edgar County. Here he attained 
eminence in his profession, and entered public life 
by representing that county in the Legislature. A 
strong attachment sprang up between him and Ste- 
phen A. Douglas. 

In 1839, Mr. French was appointed Receiver of 
the United States Land Office at Palestine, Craw- 
ford County, at which place he was a resident when 

elevated to the gubernatorial chair. In 1844 he was 
a Presidential Elector, and as such he voted for 
James K. Polk. 

The Democratic State Convention of 1846, meet- 
ing at Springfield Feb. 10, nominated Mr. French 
for Governor. Other Democratic candidates were 
Lyman Trumbull, John Calhoun (subsequently of 
Lecompton Constitution notoriety), Walter B. Scales, 
Richard M. Young and A. W. Cavarly, an array of 
very able and prominent names. Trumbull was per- 
haps defeated in the Convention by the rumor that 
he was opposed to the Illinois and Michigan Canal, 
as he had been a year previously. For Lieutenant 
Governor J. B. Wells was chosen, while other candi- 
dates were Lewis Ross, Win. McMurtry, Newton 
Cloud, J. B. Hamilton and W. W. Thompson. The 
resolutions declared strongly against the resuscita- 
tion of the old State Banks. 

The Whigs, who were in a hopeless minority, held 
their convention June 8, at Peoria, and selected 
Thomas M. Kilpatrick, of Scott County, for Governor, 
and Gen.' Nathaniel G. Wilcox, of Schuyler, for 
Lieutenant Governor. 

In the campaign the latter exposed Mr. French's 
record and connection with the passage of the in- 
ternal improvement system, urging it against his 
election ; but in the meantime the war with Mexico 
broke out, regarding which the Whig record was un- 
popular in this State. The war was the absorbing 
and dominating question of the period, sweeping 
every other political issue in its course. The elec- 
tion in August gave Mr. French 58,700 votes, and 
Kilpatrick only 36,775. Richard Eells, Abolitionist 
candidate for the same office, received 5,152 votes, 

* ' 


O M H " ^ >T 



By the new Constitution of 1848, a new election for 
State officers was ordered in November of that year, 
before Gov. French's term was half out, and he was 
re-elected for the term of four years. He was there- 
fore the incumbent for six consecutive years, the 
only Governor of this State who has ever served in 
that capacity so long at one time. As there was no 
organized opposition to his election, he received 67,- 
453 votes, to 5,639 for Pierre Menard (son of the 
first Lieutenant Governor), 4,748 for Charles V. 
Dyer, 3,834 for W. L. D. Morrison, and 1,361 for 
James L. D. Morrison. But Wm. McMurtry, of 
Knox County, was elected Lieutenant Governor, in 
place of Joseph B. Wells, who was before elected 
and did not run again. 

Governor French was inaugurated into office dur- 
ing the progress of the Mexican War, which closed 
during the summer of 1847, although the treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo was not made until Feb. 2, 
1848. The policy of Gov. French's party was com- 
mitted to that war, but in connection with that affair 
he was, of course, only an administrative officer. 
During his term of office, Feb. 19, 1847, tne Legisla- 
ture, by special permission of Congress, declared that 
all Government lands sold to settlers should be im- 
mediately subject to State taxation; before this they 
were exempt for five years after sale. . By this ar- 
rangement the revenue was materially increased. 
About the same time, the distribution of Government 
land warrants among the Mexican soldiers as bounty 
threw upon the market a great quantity of good 
lands, and this enhanced the settlement of the State. 
The same Legislature authorized, with the recom- 
mendation of the Governor, the sale of the Northern 
Cross Railroad (from Springfield to Meredosia, the 
first in the State and now a section of the Wabash, 
St. Louis & Pacific). It sold for $100,000 in bonds, 
although it had cost the State not less than a million. 
The salt wells and canal lands in the Saline reserve 
in Gallatin County, granted by the general Govern- 
ment to the State, were also authorized by the 
Governor to be sold, to apply on the State debt. In 
1850, for the first time since 1839, the accruing State 
revenue, exclusive of specific appropriations, was 
sufficient to meet the current demands upon the 
treasury. The aggregate taxable property of the 
State at this time was over $100,000,000, and the 
population 851,470. 

In 1849 the Legislature adopted the township or- __ 
ganization law, which, however, proved defective, \ 
and was properly amended in 1851. At its session 
in the latter year, the General Assembly also passed 
a law to exempt homesteads from sale on executions. 
This beneficent measure had been repeatedly urged 
upon that body by Gov. French. 

In 1850 some business men in St. Louis com- 
menced to build a dike opposite the lower part of 
their city on the Illinois side, to keep the Mississippi 
in its channel near St. Louis, instead of breaking 
away from them as it sometimes threatened to do. 
This they undertook without permission from the 
Legislature or Executive authority of this State ; and 
as many of the inhabitants there complained that 
the scheme would inundate and ruin much valuable 
land, there was a slight conflict of jurisdictions, re- 
sulting in favor of the St. Louis project ; and since 
then a good site has existed there for a city (East St. 
Louis), and now a score of railroads center there. 

It was in September, 1850, that Congress granted 
to this State nearly 3,000,000 acres of land in aid of 
the completion of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
which constituted the most important epoch in the 
railroad we might say internal improvement his- 
tory of the State. The road was rushed on to com- 
pletion, which accelerated the settlement of the in- 
terior of the State by a good class of industrious citi- 
zens, and by the charter a good income to the State 
Treasury is paid in from the earnings of the road. 

In 1851 the Legislature passed a law authorizing 
free stock banks, which was the source of much leg- 
islative discussion for a number of years. 

But we have not space further to particularize 
concerning legislation. Gov. French's administra- 
tion was not marked by any feature to .be criticised, 
while the country was settling up as never before. 

In stature, Gov. French was of medium height, 
squarely built, light complexioned, with ruddy face 
and pleasant countenance. In manners he was 
plain and agreeable. By nature he was somewhat 
diffident, but he was often very outspoken in his con- (Q) 
victions of duty. In public speech he was not an 
orator, but was chaste, earnest and persuasive. In 
business he was accurate and methodical, and in his 
administration he kept up the credit of the State. 

He died in 1865, at his home in Lebanon, St. 
Clair Co., 111. 



|:OEL A. MATTESON, Governor 
1 85 3-6, was bora Aug. 8, 1808, 
in Jefferson County, New York, 
to which place his father had re- 
moved from Vermont three years 
before. His father was a farmer 
in fair circumstances, but a com- 
mon English education was all 
that his only son received. Young 
Joel first tempted fortune as a 
small tradesman in Prescott, 
Canada, before he was of age. 
He returned from that place to 
his home, entered an academy, 
taught school, visited the prin- 
cipal Eastern cities, improved a farm his father had 
given him, made a tour in the South, worked there 
in building railroads, experienced a storm on the 
Gulf of Mexico, visited the gold diggings of Northern 
Georgia, and returned via Nashville to St. Louis and 
through Illinois to his father's home, when he mar- 
ried. In 1833, having sold his farm, he removed, 
with his wife and one child, to Illinois, and entered 
a claim on Government land near the head of Au 
Sable River, in what is now Kendall County. At 
that time there were not more than two neighbors 
within a range of ten miles of his place, and only 
three or four houses between him and Chicago. He 
opened a large farm. His family was boarded 12 

miles away while he erected a house on his claim, 
sleeping, during this time, under a rude pole shed. 
Here his life was once placed in imminent peril by 
a huge prairie rattlesnake sharing his bed. 

In 1835 he bought largely at the Government land 
sales. During the speculative real-estate mania which 
broke out in Chicago in 1836 and spread over the State, 
he sold his lands under the inflation of that period 
and removed to Joliet. In 1838 he became a heavy 
contractor on the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Upon 
the completion of his job in 1841, when hard times 
prevailed, business at a stand, contracts paid in State 
scrip; when all the public works except the canal 
were abandoned, the State offered for sale 700 tons 
of railroad iron, which was purchased by Mr. Mat- 
teson at a bargain. This he accepted, shipped and 
sold at Detroit, realizing a very handsome profit, 
enough to pay off all his canal debts and leave him a 
surplus of several thousand dollars. His enterprise 
next prompted him to start a woolen mill at Joliet, 
in which he prospered, and which, after successive 
enlargements, became an enormous establishment. 

In 1842 he was first elected a State Senator, but, 
by a bungling apportionment, John Pearson, a Senator 
holding over, was found to be in the same district, 
and decided to be entitled to represent it. Mat- 
teson's seat was declared vacant. Pearson, however, 
with a nobleness difficult to appreciate in this day of 



greed for office, unwilling to represent his district 
under the circumstances, immediately resigned his 
unexpired term of two years. A bill was passed in a 
few hours ordering a new election, and in ten days' 
time Mr. Matteson was returned re-elected and took 
his seat as Senator. From his well-known capacity 
as a business man, he was made Chairman of the 
Committee on Finance, a position he held during 
this half and two full succeeding Senatorial terms, 
discharging its important duties with ability and faith- 
fulness. Besides his extensive woolen-mill interest, 
when work was resumed on the canal under the new 
loan of $1,600,000 he again became a heavy con- 
tractor, and also subsequently operated largely in 
building railroads. Thus he showed himself a most 
energetic and thorough business man. 

He was nominated for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic State Convention which met at Springfield 
April 20, 1852. Other candidates before the Con- 
vention were D. L. Gregg and F. C. Sherman, of 
Cook ; John Dement, of Lee ; Thomas L. Harris, of 
Menard; Lewis W. Ross, of Fulton ; and D. P. Bush, 
of Pike. Gustavus Koerner, of St. Clair, was nom- 
inated for Lieutenant Governor. For the same offices 
the Whigs nominated Edwin B. Webb and Dexter A. 
Knowlton. Mr. Matteson received 80,645 v tes at 
the election, while Mr. Webb received 64,408. Mat- 
teson's forte was not on the stump; he had not cul- 
tivated the art of oily flattery, or the faculty of being 
all things to all men. His intellectual qualities took 
rather the direction of efficient executive ability. His 
turn consisted not so much in the adroit manage- 
ment of party, or the powerful advocacy of great gov- 
ernmental principles, as in those more solid and 
enduring operations which cause the physical devel- 
opment and advancement of a State, of commerce 
and business enterprise, into which he labored with 
success to lead the people. As a politician he was 
just and liberal in his views, and both in official and 
private life he then stood untainted and free from 
blemish. As a man, in active benevolence, social 
virtues and all the amiable qualities of neighbor or 
citizen, he had few superiors. His messages present 
a perspicuous array of facts as to the condition of the 
State, and are often couched in forcible and elegant 

The greatest excitement during his term of office 
was the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, by Con- 

/-> .Vv 

gress, under the leadership of Stephen A. Douglas in 
1854, when the bill was passed organizing the Terri- 
tory of Kansas and Nebraska. A large portion of 
the Whig parry of the North, through their bitter op- 
position to the Democratic party, naturally drifted 
into the doctrine of anti-slavery, and thus led to what 
was temporarily called the " Anti-Nebraska " party, 
while the followers of Douglas were known as " Ne- 
braska or Douglas Democrats." It was during this 
embryo stage of the Republican party that Abraham 
Lincoln was brought forward as the "Anti-Nebraska" 
candidate for the United States Senatorship, while 
Gen. James Shields, the incumbent, was re-nom- 
inated by the Democrats. But after a few ballotings 
in the Legislature (1855), these men were dropped, 
and Lyman Trumbull, an Anti-Nebraska Democrat, 
was brought up by the former, and Mr. Matteson, 
then Governor, by the latter. On the nth ballot 
Mr. Trumbull obtained one majority, and was ac- 
cordingly declared elected. Before Gov. Matteson's 
term expired, the Republicans were fully organized 
as a national party, and in 1856 put into the field a 
full national and State ticket, carrying the State, but 
not the nation. 

The Legislature of 1855 passed two very import- 
ant measures, the present free-school system and a 
submission of the Maine liquor law to a vote of the 
people. The latter was defeated by a small majority 
of the popular vote. 

During the four years of Gov. Matteson's admin- 
istration the taxable wealth of the State was about 
trebled, from $137,818,07910 $349,951,272; the pub- 
lic debt was reduced from $17,398,985 to $12,843,- 
144; taxation was at the same time reduced, and the 
State resumed paying interest on its debt in New 
York as fast as it fell due ; railroads were increased 
in their mileage from something less than 400 to 
about 3,000 ; and the population of Chicago was 
nearly doubled, and its commerce more than quad- 

Before closing this account, we regret that we have 
to say that Mr. Matteson, in all other respects an 
upright man and a good Governor, was implicated 
in a false re-issue of redeemed canal scrip, amount- 
ing to $224^82.66. By a suit in the Sangamon Cir- 
cuit Court the State recovered the principal and all 
the interest excepting $27,500. 

He died in the winter of 1872-3, at Chicago. 

. ," 

,!'V.i-'.,v..v..v.>v..v. v. '. ', '. . v.."v..~'i '.'<'. ':-:' :v :>>:;' .i'.. > v : <' : .' .' >' : >' : >' .' i 1 '.' >' :.>'^''>^ f 


. liiB 11. 

ernor 1857-60, was born 
April 25, 1811, in the 
State of New York, near 
Painted Post, Yates County. 
His parents were obscure, 
honest, God-fearing people, 
who reared their children under the daily 
example of industry and frugality, accord- 
ing to the custom of that class of Eastern 
society. Mr. Bissell received a respecta- 
ble but not thorough academical education. 
By assiduous application he acquired a 
knowledge of medicine, and in his early 
manhood came West and located in Mon- 
roe County, this State, where he engaged in the 
practice of that profession. But he was not enam- 
ored of his calling: he was swayed by a broader 
ambition, to such an extent that the mysteries of the 
healing art and its arduous duties failed to yield him 
further any charms. In a few years he discovered 
his choice of a profession to be a mistake, and when 
lie approached the age of 30 he sought to begin 
anew. Dr. Bissell, no doubt unexpectedly to him- 
self, discovered a singular facility and charm of 
speech, the exercise of which acquired for him a 
ready local notoriety. It soon came to be under- 

stood that he desired to abandon his profession and 
take up that of the law. During terms of Court he 
would spend his time at the county seat among the 
members of the Bar, who extended to him a ready 

It was not strange, therefore, that he should drift 
into public life. In 1840 he was elected as a Dem- 
ocrat to the Legislature from Monroe County, and 
was an efficient member of that body. On his re- 
turn home he qualified himself for admission to the 
Bar and speedily rose to the front rank as an advo- 
cate. His powers of oratory were captivating. With a 
pure diction, charming and inimitable gestures, 
clearness of statement, and a remarkable vein of sly 
humor, his efforts before a jury told with irresistible 
effect. He was chosen by the Legislature Prosecut- 
ing Attorney for the Circuit in which he lived, and 
in that position he fully discharged his duty to the 
State, gained the esteem of the Bar, and . seldom 
failed to convict the offender of the law. 

In stature he was somewhat tall and slender, and 
with a straight, military bearing, he presented a dis- 
tinguished appearance. His complexion was dark, 
his head well poised, though not large, his address 
pleasant and manner winning. He was exemplary 
in his habits, a devoted husband and kind parent. 
He was twice married, the first time to Miss James, 




X f 

of Monroe County, by whom he had two children, 
both daughters. She died soon after the year 1840, 
and Mr. B. married for his second wife a daughter 
of Elias K. Kane, previously a United States Senator 
from this State. She survived him but a short time, 
and died without issue. 

When the war with Mexico was declared in 1846, 
Mr. Bissell enlisted and was elected Colonel of his 
regiment, over Hon. Don Morrison, by an almost 
unanimous vote, 807 to 6. Considering the limited 
opportunities he had had, he evinced a high order of 
military talent. On the bloody field of Buena Vista 
he acquitted himself with intrepid and distinguished 
ability, contributing with his regiment, the Second 
Illinois, in no small degree toward saving the waver- 
ing fortunes of our arms during that long and fiercely 
contested battle. 

After his return home, at the close of the war, he 
was elected to Congress, his opponents being the 
Hons. P. B. Fouke and Joseph Gillespie. He served 
two terms in Congress. He was an ardent politician. 
During the great contest of 1850 he voted in favor 
of the adjustment measures; but in 1854 he opposed 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise act and 
therefore the Kansas-Nebraska bill of Douglas, and 
thus became identified with the nascent Republican 

During his first Congressional term, while the 
Southern members were following their old practice 
of intimidating the North by bullying language, 
and claiming most of the credit for victories in the 
Mexican War, and Jefferson Davis claiming for the 1 
Mississippi troops all the credit for success at Buena. 
Vista, Mr. Bissell bravely defended the Northern 
troops ; whereupon Davis challenged Bissell to a duel, 
which was accepted. This matter was brought up 
against Bissell when he was candidate for Governor 
and during his term of office, as the Constitution of 
this State forbade any duelist from holding a State 

In 1856, when the Republican party first put forth 
a candidate, John C. Fremont, for President of the 
United States, the same party nominated Mr. Bissell 
for Governor of Illinois, and John Wood, of Quincy, 
for Lieutenant Governor, while the Democrats nomi- 
nated Hon. W. A. Richardson, of Adams County, 
for Governor, and Col. R. J. Hamilton, of Cook 
County, for Lieutenant Governor. The result of the 

h ^^^ ^< 

election was a plurality of 4,729 votes over Richard- 
son. The American, or Know-Nothing, party had a 
ticket in the field. The Legislature was nearly bal- 
anced, but was politically opposed to the Governor. 
His message to the Legislature was short and rather 
ordinary, and was criticised for expressing the sup- 
posed obligations of the people to the incorporators 
of the Illinois Genual Railroad Company and for re- 
opening the slavery question by allusions to the 
Kansas troubles. Late in the session an apportion- 
ment bill, based upon the State census of 1855, was 
passed, amid much partisan strife. The Governor 
at first signed the bill and then vetoed it. A furious 
debate followed, and the question whether the Gov- 
ernor had the authority to recall a signature was 
referred to the Courts, that of last resort deciding in 
favor of the Governor. Two years afterward another 
outrageous attempt was made for a re-apportionment 
and to gerrymander the State, but the Legislature 
failed to pass the bill over the veto of the Governor. 

It was during Gov. Bissell's administration that 
the notorious canal scrip fraud was brought to light, 
implicating ex-Gov. Matteson and other prominent 
State officials. The principal and interest, aggregat- 
ing $255,500, was all recovered by the State except- 
ing $27,500. (See sketch of Gov. Matteson.) 

In 1859 an attempt was discovered to fraudu- 
lently refund the Macalister and Stebbins bonds and 
thus rob the State Treasury of nearly a quarter of a 
million dollars. The State Government was impli- 
cated in this affair, and to this day remains unex- 
plained or unatoned for. For the above, and other 
matters previously mentioned, Gov. Bissell has been 
severely criticised, and he has also been most shame- 
fully libelled and slandered. 

On account of exposure in the army, the remote 
cause of a nervous form of disease gained entrance 
into his system and eventually developed paraplegia, 
affecting his lower extremities, which, while it left 
his body in comparative health, deprived him of loco- 
motion except by the aid of crutches. While he was 
generally hopeful of ultimate recovery, this myste- 
rious disease pursued him, without once relaxing its 
stealthy hold, to the close of his life, March 18, 
1860, over nine months before the expiration of his 
gubernatorial term, at the early age of 48 years. He 
died in the faith of the Roman Catholic Church, of 
which he had been a member since 1854. 



n||:OHN WOOD, Governor 1 86o-r , and 
fife** the first settler of Quincy, 111., 
was born in the town of Serapro- 
nius (now Moravia), Cayuga Co., 
N. Y., Dec. 20, 1798. He was 
the second child and only son of 
Dr. Daniel Wood. His mother, 
nee Catherine Crause, wag of 
German parentage, and died 
while he was an infant. Dr. 
Wood was a learned and skillful 
physician, of classical attain- 
ments and proficient in several 
modern languages, who, after 
serving throughout the Revolu- 
tionary War as a Surgeon, settled on the land granted 
him by the Government, and resided there a re- 
spected and leading influence in his section until his 
death, at the ripe age of 92 years. 

The subject of this sketch, impelled by the spirit 
of Western adventure then pervading everywhere, 
left his home, Nov. 2, 1818, and'passed the succeed- 
ing winter in Cincinnati, Ohio. The following sum- 
mer he pushed on to Illinois, landing at Shawneetown, 
and spent the fall and following winter in Calhoun 
County. In 1820, in company with Willard Keyes, 
he settled in Pike County, about 30 miles southeast 
of Quincy, where for the next two years he pursued 
farming. In 1821 he visited "the Bluffs" (as the 
present site of Quincy was called, then uninhabited) 
and, pleased with its prospects, soon after purchased 
a quarter-section of land near by, and in the follow- 
ing fall (1822) erected near the river a small cabin, 

1 8 x 20 feet, the first building in Quincy, of which 
he then became the first and for some months the 
only occupant. 

About this time he visited his old friends in Pike 
County, chief of whom was William Ross, the lead- 
ing man in building up the village of Atlas, of that 
county, which was thought then to be the possible 
commencement of a city. One day they and others 
were traveling together over the country between the 
two points named, making observations on the com- 
parative merits of the respective localities. On ap- 
proaching the Mississippi near Mr. Wood's place, 
the latter told his companions to follow him and he 
would show them where he was going to build a city. 
They went about a mile off the main trail, to a high 
point, from which the view in every direction was 
most magnificent, as it had been for ages and as yet 
untouched by the hand of man. Before them swept 
by the majestic Father of Waters, yet unburdened by 
navigation. After Mr. Wood had expatiated at 
length on the advantages of the situation, Mr. Ross 
replied, " But it's too near Atlas ever to amount to 

Atlas is still a cultivated farm, and Quincy is a 
city of over 30,000 population. 

In 1824 Mr. Wood gave a newspaper notice, 
as the law then prescribed, of his intention to apply 
to the General Assembly for the formation of a new 
county. This was done the following winter, result- 
ing in the establishment of the present Adams 
County. During the next summer Quincy was se- 
lected as the county seat, it and the vicinity then 
containing but four adult male residents and half 


that number of females. Since that period Mr. 
Wood resided at the place of his early adoption un- 
til his death, and far more than any other man was 
he identified with every measure of its progress and 
history, and almost continuously kept in public posi- 

He was one of the early town Trustees, and after 
the place became a city he was often a member of 
the City Council, many times elected Mayor, in the 
face of a constant large opposition political majority. 
In 1850 he was elected to the State Senate. In 1856, 
on the organization of the Republican party, he was 
chosen Lieutenant Governor of the State, on the 
ticket with Wm. H. Bissell for Governor, and on the 
death of the latter, March 18, 1860, he succeeded to 
the Chief Executive chair, which he occupied until 
Gov. Yates was inaugurated nearly ten months after- 

Nothing very marked characterized the adminis- 
tration of Gov. Wood. The great anti-slavery cam- 
paign of 1860, resulting in the election of the honest 
Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the Presidency of the 
United States, occurred during the short period 
while Mr. Wood was Governor, and tiie excitement 
and issues of that struggle dominated over every 
other consideration, indeed, supplanted them in a 
great measure. The people of Illinois, during all 
that time, were passing the comparatively petty strifes 
under Bissell's administration to the overwhelming 
issue of preserving the whole nation from destruction. 

In 1861 ex-Gov. Wood was one of the five Dele- 
gates from Illinois to the " Peace Convention " at 
Washington, and in April of the same year, on the 
breaking out of the Rebellion, he was appointed 

Quartermaster-General of the State, which position 
he held throughout the war. In 1864 he took com- 
mand as Colonel of the I37th 111. Vol. Inf., with 
whom he served until the period of enlistment ex- 

Politically, Gov. Wood was always actively identi- 
fied with the Whig and Republican parties. Few 
men have in personal experience comprehended so 
many surprising and advancing local changes as 
vested in the more than half century recollections of 
Gov. Wood. Sixty-four years ago a solitary settler 
on the "Bluffs," with no family, and no neighbor 
within a score of miles, the world of civilization away 
behind him, and the strolling red-man almost his 
only visitant, he lived to see growing around him, 
and under his auspices and aid, overspreading the 
wild hills and scraggy forest a teaming city, second 
only in size in the State, and surpassed nowhere in 
beauty, prosperity and promise; whose people recog- 
nize as with a single voice the proverbial honor and 
liberality that attach to the name and lengthened 
life of their pioneer settler, "the old Governor." 

Gov. Wood was twice married, first in January, 
1826, to Ann M. Streeter, daughter of Joshua Streeter, 
formerly of Salem, Washington Co., N. Y. They had 
eight children. Mrs. W. died Oct. 8, 1863, and in 
June, 1865, Gov. Wood married Mrs. Mary A., widow 
of Rev. Joseph T. Holmes. Gov. Wood died June 4, 
1880, at his residence in Quincy. Four of his eight 
children are now living, namely: Ann E., wife of 
Gen. John Tillson; Daniel C., who married Mary J. 
Abernethy; John, Jr., who married Josephine Skinner, 
and Joshua S., who married Annie Bradley. The 
last mentioned now resides at Atchison, Kansas, and 
all the rest are still at Quincy. 









Governor," 1861-4, was born 
Jan. 18, 1818, on the banks of 
the Ohio River, at Warsaw, 
Gallatin Co., Ky. His father 
moved in 1831 to Illinois, and ) 
after stopping for a time in 
Springfield, settled at Island 
Grove, Sangamon County. Here, 
after attending school, Richard joined 
the family. Subsequently he entered 
Illinois College at Jacksonville, 
where, in 1837, he graduated with 
first honors. He chose for his pro- 
fession the law, the Hon. J. J. Har- 
din being his instructor. After ad- 
mission to the Bar he soon rose to distinction as an 

Gifted with a fluent and ready oratory, he soon 
appeared in the political hustings, and, being a 
passionate admirer of the great Whig leader of the 
West, Henry Clay, he joined his political fortunes to 
the party of his idol. In 1840 he engaged with great 
ardor in the exciting " hard cider " campaign for 
Harrison. Two years later he was elected to the 
Legislature from Morgan County, a Democratic 
stronghold. He served three or four terms in the 
Legislature, and such was the fascination of his ora- 
tory that by 1850 his large Congressional District, 
extending from Morgan and Sangamon Counties 
north to include LaSalle, unanimously tendered him 
the Whig nomination for Congress. His Democratic 
opponent was Maj. Thomas L. Harris, a very pop- 
ular man who had won distinction at the battle of 
Cerro Gordo, in the Mexican* War, and who had 
beaten Hon. Stephen T. Logan for the same position, 

two years before, by a large majority. Yates was 
elected. Two years later he was re-elected, over 
John Calhoun. 

It was during Yates' second term in Congress that 
the great question of the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise was agitated, and the bars laid down for re- 
opening the dreaded anti-slavery question. He took 
strong grounds against the repeal, and thus became 
identified with the rising Republican party. Conse- 
quently he fell into the minority in his district, which 
was pro-slavery. Even then, in a third contest, he 
fell behind Major Harris only 200 votes, after the 
district had two years before given Pierce 2,000 
majority for President. 

The Republican State Convention of 1860 met at 
Decatur May 9, and nominated for the office of Gov- 
ernor Mr. Yates, in preference to- Hon. Norman B. 
Judd, of Chicago, and Leonard Swett, of Blooming- 
ton, two of the ablest men of the State, who were 
also candidates before the Convention. Francis A. 
Hoffman, of DuPage County, was nominated for 
Lieutenant Governor. This was the year when Mr. 
Lincoln was a candidate for President, a period re- 
membered as characterized by the great whirlpool 
which precipitated the bloody War of the Rebellion. 
The Douglas Democrats nominated J. C. Allen of 
Crawford County, for Governor, and Lewis W. Ro?s, 
of Fulton County, for Lieutenant Governor. .The 
Breckenridge Democrats and the Bell-Everett party 
had also full tickets in the field. After a most fear- 
ful campaign, the result of the election gave Mr. 
Yates 172,196 votes, and Mr. Allen 159,253. Mr. 
Yates received over a thousand more votes than did 
Mr. Lincoln himself. 

Gpv. Yates occupied the chair of State during tht; 








most critical period of our country's history. In the 
fate of the nation was involved that of each State. 
The life struggle of the former derived its sustenance 
from the loyalty of the latter; and Gov. Yates 
seemed to realize the situation, and proved himself 
both loyal and wise in upholding the Government. 
He had a deep hold upon the affections of the 
people, won by his moving eloquence and genial 
manners. Erect and symmetrical in person, of pre- 
possessing appearance, with a winning address and a 
magnetic power, few men possessed more of the ele- 
ments of popularity. His oratory was scholarly and 
captivating, his hearers hardly knowing why they 
were transported. He was social and convivial. In 
the latter respect he was ultimately carried too far. 

The very creditable military efforts of this State 
during the War of the Rebellion, in putting into the 
field the enormous number of about 200,000 soldiers, 
were ever promptly and ably seconded by his excel- 
lency ; and the was ambitious to deserve the title of 
"the soldier's friend." Immediately after the battle of 
Shiloh he repaired to the field of carnage to look 
after the wounded, and his appeals for aid were 
promptly responded to by the people. His procla- 
mations calling for volunteers were impassionate 
appeals, urging upon the people the duties and re- 
quirements of patriotism ; and his special message 
in 1863 to the Democratic Legislature of this State 
pleading for material aid for the sick and wounded 
soldiers of Illinois regiments, breathes a deep fervor 
of noble sentiment and feeling rarely equaled in 
beauty or felicity of expression. Generally his mes- 
sages on political and civil affairs were able and com- 
prehensive. During his administration, however, 
there were no civil events of an engrossing character, 
although two years of his time were replete with 
partisan quarrels of great bitterness. Military ar- 
rests, Knights of the Golden Circle, riot in Fulton 
County, attempted suppression of the Chicago Times 
and the usurping State Constitutional Convention of 
1862, were the chief local topics that were exciting 
during the Governor's term. This Convention assem- 
bled Jan. 7, and at once took the high position that 
the law calling it was no longer binding, and that it 
had supreme power; that it represented a virtual 
assemblage of the whole people of the State, and was 
sovereign in the exercise of all power necessary to 
effect a peaceable revolution of the State Government 

and to the re-establishment of one for the " happiness, 
prosperity and freedom of the citizens," limited only 
by the Federal Constitution. Notwithstanding the 
law calling the Convention required its members to 
take an oath to support the Constitution of the State 
as well as that of the general Government, they 
utterly refused to take such oath. They also as- 
sumed legislative powers and passed several import- 
ant "laws!" Interfering with the (then) present 
executive duties, Gov. Yates was provoked to tell 
them plainly that " he did not acknowledge the right 
of the Convention to instruct him in the performance 
of his duty." 

In 1863 the Governor astonished the Democrats 
by " proroguing " their Legislature. This body, after 
a recess, met June 2, that year, and soon began to 
waste time upon various partisan resolutions ; and, 
while the two houses were disagreeing upon the 
question of adjourning sine die, the Governor, having 
the authority in such cases, surprised them all by 
adjourning them " to the Saturday next preceding the 
first Monday in January, 1865 ! " This led to great 
excitement and confusion, and to a reference of the 
Governor's act to the Supreme Court, who decided in 
his favor. Then it was the Court's turn to receive 
abuse for weeks and months afterward. 

During the autumn of 1864 a conspiracy was de- 
tected at Chicago which had for its object the liber- 
ation of the prisoners of war at Camp Douglas, the 
burning of the city and the inauguration of rebellion 
in the North. Gen. Sweet, who had charge of the 
camp at the time, first had his suspicions of danger 
aroused by a number of enigmatically worded letters 
which passed through the Camp postoffice. A de- 
tective afterward discovered that the rebel Gen. 
Marmaduke was in the city, under an assumed 
name, and he, with other rebel officers Grenfell, 
Morgan, Cantrell, Buckner Morris, and Charles 
Walsh was arrested, most of whom were convicted 
by a court-martial at Cincinnati and sentenced to 
imprisonment, Grenfell to be hung. The sentence 
of the latter was afterward commuted to imprison- 
ment for life, and all the others, after nine months' 
imprisonment, were pardoned. 

In March, 1873, Gov. Yates was appointed a Gov- 
ernment Director of the Union Pacific Railroad, in 
which office he continued until his decease, at St. 
Louis, Mo., on the 2-jth of November following. 


L.----.P 1 ,' 

, LUN01S 


Richard JT* Ogl 


ernor 1865-8, and re-elected 
in 1872 and 1884, was born 
July 25, 1824, in Oldham Co., 
Ky., the State which might 
be considered the " mother of 
Illinois Governors." Bereft of 
his parents at the tender age 
of eight years, his early education 
was neglected. When 12 years of 
age, and after he had worked a year 
and a half at the carpenter's trade, 
he removed with an uncle, Willis 
Oglesby, into whose care he had 
been committed, to Decatur, this 
State, where he continued his ap- 
prenticeship as a mechanic, working six months for 
Hon. E. O. Smith. 

In 1844 he commenced studying law at Spring- 
field, with Judge Silas Robbins, and read with him 
one year. He was admitted to the Bar in 1845, and 
commenced the practice of his chosen profession at 
Sullivan, the county seat of Moultrie County. 

The next year the war with Mexico was com- 
menced, and in June, 1846, Mr. Oglesby volunteered, 
was elected First Lieutenant of Co. C, Fourth Illinois 
Regiment of Volunteers, and participated in the bat- 
tles of Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo. 

On his return he sought to perfect his law studies 
by attending a course of lectures at Louisville, but 
on the breaking out of the California "gold fever " in 
1849, h e crossed the plains and mountains to the 
new Eldorado, driving a six-mule team, with a com- 

pany of eight men, Henry Prather being the leader. 

In 1852 he returned home to Macon County, and 
was placed that year by the Whig party on the ticket 
of Presidential Electors. In 1856 he visited Europe, 
Asia and Africa, being absent 20 months. On his 
return home he resumed the practice of law, as a 
member of the firm of Gallagher, Wait & Oglesby. 
In 1858 he was the Republican nominee for the 
Lower House of Congress, but was defeated by the 
Hon. James C. Robinson, Democrat. In 1860 he 
was elected to the Illinois State Senate ; and on the 
evening the returns of this election were coming in, 
Mr. Oglesby had a fisticuff encounter with " Cerro 
Gordo Williams," in which he came out victorious, 
and which was regarded as " the first fight of the 
Rebellion." The following spring, when the war 
had commenced in earnest, his ardent nature 
quickly responded to the demands of patriotism and 
he enlisted. The extra session of the Legislature 
elected him Colonel of the Eighth Illinois Infantry, 
the second one in the State raised to suppress the 
great Rebellion. 

He was shortly entrusted with important com- 
mands. For a time he was stationed at Bird's Point 
and Cairo; in April he was promoted Brigadier Gen- 
eral ; at Fort Donelson his brigade was in the van, 
being stationed on the right of General Grant's army 
and the first brigade to be attacked. He lost 500 
men before re-inforcements arrived. Many of these 
men were from Macon County. He was engaged in 
the battle of Corinth, and, in a brave charge at this 
place, was shot in the left lung with an ounce ball, 
and was carried from the field in expectation of im- 




mediate death. That rebel ball he carries to this 
day. On his partial recovery he was promoted as 
Major General, for gallantry, his commission to rank 
from November, 1862. In the spring of 1863 he 
was assigned to the command of the i6th Army 
Corps, but, owing to inability fro.n the effects of his 
wound, he relinquished this command in July, that 
year. Gen. Grant, however, refused to accept his 
resignation, and he was detailed, in December follow- 
ing, to court-martial and try the Surgeon General of 
the Army at Washington, where he remained until 
May, 1864, whin he returned home. 
The Republican, or Union, -State Convention of 

1864 was held at Springfield, May 25, when Mr. 
Oglesby was nominated for the office of Governor, 
while other candidates before the Convention were 
Allen C. Fuller, of Boone, Jesse K. Dubois,of Sanga- 
mon, and John M. Palmer, of Macoupin. Wm. 
Bross, of Chicago, was nominated for Lieutenant 
Governor. On the Democratic State ticket were 
James C. Robinson, of Clark, for Governor, and S. 
Corning Judd, of Fulton, for Lieutenant Governor. 
The general election gave Gen. Oglesby a majority 
of about 31,000 votes. The Republicans had also a 
majority in both the Legislature and in the repre- 
sentation in Congress. 

Gov. Oglesby was duly inaugurated Jan. 17, 1865. 
The day before the first time set for his installation 
death visited his home at Decatur, and took from it 
his only son, an intelligent and sprightly lad of six 
years, a great favorite of the bereaved parents. This 
caused the inauguration to be postponed a week. 

The political events of the Legislative session of 

1865 were the election of ex-Gov. Yates to the 
United States Senate, and the ratification of the I3th 
amend.nent to the Constitution of the United States, 
abolishing slavery. This session also signalized 
itself by repealing the notorious " black laws," part 
of which, although a dead letter, had held their place 
upon the statute books since 1819. Also, laws re- 
quiring the registration of voters, and establishing a 
State Board of Equalization, were, passed by this Leg- 
islature. But the same body evinced that it was cor- 
ruptly influenced by a mercenary lobby, as it adopted 
some bad legislation, over the Governor's veto, nota- 
bly an amendment to a charter for a Chicago horse 
railway, granted in 1859 for 25 years, and now 
sought to be extended 99 years. As this measure 
was promptly passed over his veto by both branches 
of the Legislature, he deemed it useless further to 
attempt to check their headlong career. At this 
session no law of a general useful character or public 
interest was perfected, unless we count such the 
turning over of the canal to Chicago to be deepened. 
The session of 1867 was still more productive of 
private and special acts. Many omnibus bills were 
proposed, and some passed. The contests over the 
location of the Industrial College, the Capital, the 

Southern Penitentiary, and the canal enlargement 
and Illinois River improvement, dominated every- 
thing else. 

During the year 1872, it became evident that if 
the Republicans could re-elect Mr. Oglesby to the 
office of Governor, they could also elect him to the 
United States Senate, which they desired to do. 
Accordingly they re-nominated him for the Execu- 
tive chair, and placed upon the ticket with him for 
Lieutenant Governor, John L. Beveridge, of Cook 
County. On the other side the Democrats put into 
the field Gustavus Koerner for Governor and John 
C. Black for Lieutenant Governor. The election 
gave the Republican ticket majorities ranging from 
35,334 to 56,174, the Democratic defection being 
caused mainly by tbeir having an old-time Whig and 
Abolitionist, Horace Greeley, on the national ticket 
for President. According to the general understand- 
ing had beforehand, as soon as the Legislature met 
it elected Gov. Oglesby to the United States Senate, 
whereupon Mr. Beveridge became Governor. Sena- 
tor Oglesby's term expired March 4, 1879, having 
served his party faithfully and exhibited an order of 
statesmanship beyond criticism. 

During the campaign of 1884 Mr. Oglesby was 
.nominated for a "third term" as Executive of the 
State of Illinois, against Carter H. Harrison, Mayor 
of Chicago, nominated by the Democrats. Both 
gentlemen "stumped " the State, and while the peo- 
ple elected a Legislature which was a tie on a jaint 
ballot, as between the two parties, they gave the 
jovial " Dick" Oglesby a majority of 15,018 for Gov- 
ernor, and he was inaugurated Jan. 30, 1885. The 
Legislature did not fully organize until this date, on 
account of its equal division between the two main 
parties and the consequent desperate tactics of each 
party to checkmate the latter in the organization of 
the House. 

Gov. Og'esby is a fine-appearing, affable man, with 
regular, well defined features and rotund face. In 
stature he is a little above medium height, of a large 
frame and somewhat fleshy. His physical appear- 
ance is striking and prepossessing, while his straight- 
out, not to say bluff, manner and speech are well 
calculated favorably to impress the average masses. 
Ardent in feeling and strongly committed to the pol- 
icies of his party, he intensifies Republicanism 
among Republicans, while at the same time his iovial 
and liberal manner prevents those of the opposite 
party from hating him. 

He is quite an effective stump orator. With vehe- 
ment, passionate and scornful tone and gestures, 
tremendous physical power, which in speaking he 
exercises to the utmost ; with frequent descents to 
the grotesque; and with abundant homely compari- 
sons or frontier figures, expressed in the broadest 
vernacular and enforced with stentorian emphasis, 
he delights a promiscuous audience beyond measure. 





* f< 

ernor 1869-72, was born on 
Eagle Creek, Scott Co., Ky., 
Sept. "13, 1817. During his in- 
fancy, his father, who had been 
a soldier in the war of 1812, re- 
moved to Christian Co., Ky., 
where lands were cheap. Here 
the future Governor of the great 
Prairie State spent his childhood 
and received such meager school- 
ing as the new and sparsely set- 
tled country afforded. To this 
he added materially by diligent 
reading, for which he evinced an 
early aptitude. His father, an ardent Jackson man, 
was also noted for his anti-slavery sentiments, which 
he thoroughly impressed upon his children. In 1831 
he emigrated to Illinois, settling in Madison County. 
Here the labor of improving a farm was pursued for 
about two years, when the death of Mr. Palmer's 
mother broke up the family. About this time Alton 
College was opened, on the "manual labor " system, 
and in the spring of 1834 young Palmer, with his 
elder brother, Elihu, entered this school and remained . 
1 8 months. Next, for over three years, he tried 
variously coopering, peddling and school-teaching. 

During the summer of 1838 he formed the ac- 
quaintance of Stephen A. Douglas, then making his 

first canvass for Congress. Young, eloquent and in 
political accord with Mr. Palmer, he won his confi- 
dence, Sred his ambition and fixed his purpose. The 
following winter, while teaching near Canton, he be- 
gan to devote his spare time to a desultory reading 
of law, and in the spring entered a law office at Car- 
linville, making his home with his elder brother, 
Elihu. (The latter was a learned clergyman, of con- 
siderable orginality of thought and doctrine.) On 
the next^ meeting of the Supreme Court he was ad- 
mitted to the Bar, Douglas being one of his examiners. 
He was not immediately successful in his profession, 
and would have located elsewhere than Carlinville 
had he the requisite means. Thus his early poverty 
was a blessing in disguise, for to it he now attributes 
the success of his life. 

From 1839 on, while he diligently pursued his 
profession, he participated more or less in local 
politics. In 1843 he became Probate Judge. In 
1847 he was elected to the State Constitutional Con- 
vention, where he took a leading part. In 1852 he 
was elected to the State Senate, and at the special 
session of February, 1854, true to the anti-slavery 
sentiments bred in him, he took a firm stand in op- 
position to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise; 
and when the Nebraska question became a party 
issue he refused to receive a re-nomination for the 
Senatorship at the hands of the Democracy, issuing 
a circular to that effect. A few weeks afterward, 

-' . ' 



*! * 



however, hesitating to break with his party, he par- 
ticipated in a Congressional Convention which nomi- 
T. L. Harris against Richard Yates, and which 
unqualifiedly approved the principles of the Kansas- 
Nebraska act. But later in the campaign he made 
the plunge, ran for the Senate as an Anti-Nebraska 
Democrat, and was elected. The following winter 
he put in nomination for the .United States Senate 
Mr. Trumbull, and was one of the five steadfast men 
who voted for him until all the Whigs came to their 
support and elected their man. 

In 1856 he was Chairman of the Republican State 
Convention at Bloomington. He ran for Congress in 
1859, but was defeated. In 1860 he was Republican 
Presidential Elector for the State at large. In 1861 
he was appointed one of the five Delegates (all Re- 
publicans) sent by Illinois to the peace congress at 

When the civil conflict broke out, he offered his 
services to his country, and was elected Colonel of the 
I4th III. Vol. Inf., and participated in the engagements 
at Island No. 10; at Farmington, where he skillfully 
extricated his command from a dangerous position ; 
at Stone River, where his division for several hours, 
Dec. 31, 1862, held the advance and stood like a 
rock, and for his gallantry there he was made Major 
General; at Chickamauga, where his and Van Cleve's 
divisions for two hours maintained their position 
when they were cut off by overpowering numbers. 
Under Gen. Sherman, he was assigned to the 14th 
Army Corps and participated in the Atlanta campaign. 
At Peach-Tree Creek his prudence did much to avert 
disaster. In February, 1865, Gen. Palmer was as- 
signed to the military administration of Kentucky, 
which was a delicate post. That State was about 
half rebel and half Union, and those of the latter 
element were daily fretted by the loss of their slaves. 
He, who had been bred to the rules of common law, 
trembled at the contemplation of his extraordinary 
power over the persons and property of his fellow 
men, with which he was vested in his capacity -as 
military Governor ; and he exhibited great caution in 
the execution of the duties of his post. 

Gen. Palmer was nominated for Governor of Illi- 
nois by the Republican State Convention which met 
at Peoria May 6, 1868, and his nomination would 
probably have been made by acclamation had he not 
persistently declared that he could not accept a can- 

didature for the office. The result of the ensuing 
election gave Mr. Palmer a majority of 44,707 over 
John R. Eden, the Democratic nominee. 

On the meeting of the Legislature in January, 
1869, the first thing to arrest public attention was 
that portion of the Governor's message which took 
broad State's rights ground. This and some minor 
points, which were more in keeping with the Demo- 
cratic sentiment, constituted the entering wedge fjr 
the criticisms and reproofs he afterward received 
from the Republican party, and ultimately resulted 
in his entire aleniation from the latter element. The 
Legislature just referred to was noted for the intro- 
duction of numerous bills in the interest of private 
parties, which were embarrassing to the Governor. 
Among the public acts passed was that which limited 
railroad charges for passenger travel to a maximum 
of three cents per mile ; and it was passed over the 
Governor's veto. Also, they passed, over his veto, 
the " tax-grabbing law " to pay railroad subscriptions, 
the Chicago Lake Front bill, etc. The new State 
Constitution of 1870, far superior to the old, was a 
peaceful " revolution" which took place during Gov. 
Palmer's term of office. The suffering caused by the 
great Chicago Fire of October, 1871, was greatly 
alleviated by the prompt responses of his excellency. 

Since the expiration of Gov. Palmers 's term, he has 
been somewhat prominent in Illinois politics, and 
has been talked of by many, especially in the Dem- 
ocratic party, as the best man in the State for a 
United States Senator. His business during life has 
been that of the law. Few excel him in an accurate 
appreciation of the depth and scope of its principles- 
The great number of his able veto messages abun- 
dantly testify not only this but also a rare capacity to 
point them out. He is a logical and cogent reasoner 
and an interesting, forcible and convincing speaker, 
though not fluent or ornate. Without brilliancy, his 
dealings are rather with facts and ideas than with 
appeals to passions and prejudices. He is a patriot 
and a statesman of very high order. Physically he is 
.above the medium height, of robust frame, ruddy 
complexion and sanguine-nervous temperament. He 
has a large cranial development, is vivacious, social 
in disposition, easy of approach, unostentatious in his 
habits of life, democratic in his habits and manners 
and is a true American in his fundamental principles 
of statesmanship. 


I "rv 

UNlVERSinr <* 


Xi'^^^V-,.'^.'!.^ '..'>. 'i '. 'i .;'..'. '. . V. V '. ' 

IDGE, Governor 1873-6, was 
born in the town of Green- 
wich, Washington Co., N. Y., 
July 6, 1824. His parents 
were George and Ann Bever- 
idge. His father's parents, An- 
drew and Isabel Beveridge, be- 
fore their marriage emigrated 
from Scotland just before the 
Revolutionary War, settling in 
Washington County. His father 
was the eldest of eight brothers, the 
youngest of whom was 60 years of 
age when the first one of the num- 
ber died. His mother's parents, 
James and Agnes Hoy, emigrated 
from Scotland at the close of the 
Revolutionary War, settling also in 
Washington Co., N. Y., with their 
first-born, whose " native land "was 
the wild ocean. His parents and 
grandparents lived beyond the time 
allotted to man, their average age 
being over 80 years. They belonged to the " Asso- 
ciate Church," a seceding Presbyterian body of 

America from the old Scotch school ; and so rigid 
was the training of young Beveridge that he never 
heard a sermon from any other minister except that 
of his own denomination until he was in his igth 
year. Later in life he became a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, which relation he still 

Mr. Beveridge received a good common-school ed- 
ucation, but his parents, who could obtain a livelihood 
only by rigid economy and industry, could not send 
him away to college. He was raised upon a farm, 
and was in his i8th year when the family removed 
to De Kalb County, this State, when that section was 
very sparsely settled. Chicago had less than 7,000 
inhabitants. In this wild West he continued as a 
farm laborer, teaching school during the winter 
months to supply the means of an education. In the 
fall of 1842 he attended one term at the academy at 
Granville, Putnam Co., 111., and subsequently several 
terms at the Rock River Seminary at Mount Morris, 
Ogle Co., 111., completing the academic course. At 
this time, the fall of 1845, his parents and brothers 
were anxious to have him go to college, even though 
he had not money sufficient; but, n_>t willing to bur- 
den the family, he packed his trunk and with only 
$40 in money started South to seek his fortune, 





V"V.MHCDHH-y V v ~' 



Poor, alone, without friends and influence, he thus 
entered upon the battle of life. 

First, he taught school in Wilson, Overton and 
Jackson Cos., Tenn., in which experience he under- 
went considerable mental drill, both in book studies 
and in the ways of the world. He read law and was 
admitted to the Bar, in the South, but did not learn 
to love the institution of slavery, although he ad- 
mired many features of Southern character. In De- 
cember, i$47, he returned North, and Jan. 20, 1848, 
he. married Miss Helen M. Judson, in the old Clark- 
Street M. E. church in Chicago, her father at that 
time being Pastor of the society there. In the spring 
of 1848 he returned with his wife to Tennessee, 
where his two children, Alia May and Philo Judson, 
were born. 

In the fall of 1849, through the mismanagement 
of an associate, he lost what little he had accumu- 
lated and was left in debt. He soon managed to 
earn means to pay his debts, returned to De Kalb 
Co., 111., and entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession at Sycamore, the county seat. On arrival 
from the South he had but one-quarter of a dollar in 
money, and scanty clothing and bedding for himself 
and family. He borrowed a little money, practiced 
law, worked in public offices, kept books for some of 
the business men of the town, and some railroad en- 
gineering, till the spring of 1854, when he removed 
to Evanston, 12 miles north of Chicago, a place then 
but recently laid out, under the supervision of the 
Northwestern University, a Methodist institution. 
Of the latter his father-in-law was then financial 
agent and business manager. Here Mr. Beveridge 
prospered, and the next year (1855) opened a law 
office in Chicago, where he found the battle some- 
what hard; but he persevered with encouragement 
and increasing success. 

Aug. 12, 1861, his law partner, Gen. John F. 
Farnsworth, secured authority to raise a regiment of 
cavalry, and authorized Mr. Beveridge to raise a 
company for it. He succeeded in a few days in rais- 
ing the company, of course enlisting himself along 
with it. The regiment rendezvoused at St. Charles, 
HI., was mustered in Sept. 18, and on its organiza- 
tion Mr. B. was elected Second Major. It was at- 
tached, Oct. n, to the Eighth Cavalry and to the 
Army of the Potomac. He served with the regiment 
until November, 1863, participating in some 40 bat- 

tles and skirmishes : was at Fair Oaks, the seven days' 
fight around Richmond, Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville and Gettysburg. He commanded the regiment 
the greater part of the summer of 1863, and it was while 
lying in camp this year that he originated the policy 
of encouraging recruits as well as the fighting capac- 
ity of the soldiery, by the wholesale furlough system. 
It worked so well that many other officers adopted 
it. In the fall of this year he recruited another com- 
pany, against heavy odds, in January, 1864, was 
commissioned Colonel of the lyth 111. Cav., and 
skirmished around in Missouri, concluding with the 
reception of the surrender of Gen. Kirby Smith's 
army in Arkansas. In 1865 he commanded various 
sub-districts in the Southwest. He was mustered 
out Feb. 6, 1866, safe from the casualties of war and 
a stouter man than when he first enlisted. His men 
idolized him. 

He then returned to Chicago, to practice law, with 
no library and no clientage, and no political experi- 
ence except to help others into office. In the fall of 
1866 he was elected Sheriff of Cook County, serving 
one term; next, until November, 1870, he practiced 
law and closed up the unfinished business of his 
office. He was then elected State Senator; in No- 
vember, 1871, he was elected Congressman at large; 
in November, 1872, he was elected Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor on the ticket with Gov. Oglesby ; the latter be- 
ing elected to the U. S. Senate, Mr. Beveridge became 
Governor, Jan. 21, 1873. Thus, inside of a few 
weeks, he was Congressman at large, Lieutenant 
Governor and Governor. The principal events oc- 
curring during Gov. Beveridge 's administration were: 
The completion of the revision of the statutes, begun 
in 1869; the partial success of the "farmers' move- 
ment;" "Haines" Legislature " and Illinois' exhibit at 
the Centennial. 

Since the close of his gubernatorial term ex-Gov. 
Beveridge has been a member of the firm of Bever- 
idge & Dewey, bankers and dealers in commercial 
paper at 7 1 Dearborn Street (McCormick Block), 
Chicago, and since November, 1881, he has also been 
Assistant United States Treasurer : office in the 
Government Building. His residence is still at Ev- 

He has a brother and two sisters yet residing in 
De Kalb County James H. Beveridge, Mrs. Jennet 
Henry and Mrs. Isabel French. 




nor 1877-83,13 the sixth child 
of the late Richard N. Cullom, 
and was born Nov. 22, 1829,111 
Wayne Co., Ky., where his fa- 
ther then resided, and whence 
both the Illinois and Tennessee 
branches of the family originated. In 
the following year the family emi- 
grated to the vicinity of Washington, 
Tazewell Co., 111., when that section 
was very sparsely settled. They lo- 
cated on Deer Creek, in a grove at 
the time occupied by a party of In- 
dians, attracted there by the superior 
hunting and fishing afforded in that 
vicinity. The following winter was 
known as the " hard winter," the snow 'being very 
deep and lasting and the weather severely cold; and 
the family had to subsist mainly on boiled corn or 
hominy, and some wild game, for several weeks. In 
the course of time Mr. R. N. Cullom became a prom- 
inent citizen and was several times elected to the 
Legislature, both before and after the removal of the 
capital from Vandalia to Springfield. He died about 

Until about 19 years of age young Cullom grew up 
to agricultural pursuits, attending school as he had 
opportunity during the winter. Within this time, 
however, he spent several mpnths. teaching school, 

and in the following summer he "broke prairie "with 
an ox team for the neighbors. With the money ob- 
tained by these various ventures, he undertook a 
course of study at the Rock River Seminary, a 
Methodist institution at Mt. Morris, Ogle County; 
but the sudden change to the in-door life of a stu- 
dent told severely upon his health, and he was taken 
home, being considered in a hopeless condition. While 
at Mt. Morris he heard Hon. E. B. Washburne make 
his first speech. 

On recovering health, Mr. Cullom concluded to 
study law, under the instruction of Abraham Lincoln, 
at Springfield, who had by this time attained some 
notoriety as an able lawyer; but the latter, being ab- 
sent from his office most of the time, advised Mr. 
Cullom to enter the office of Stuart & Edwards. 
After about a year of study there, however, his health 
failed again, and he was obliged to return once more 
to out-door life. Accordingly he bought hogs for 
packing, for A. G. Tyng, in Peoria, and while he re- 
gained his health he gained in purse, netting $400 in 
a few weeks. Having been admitted to the Bar, he 
went to Springfield, where he was soon elected City 
Attorney, on the Anti-Nebraska ticket. 

In 1856 he ran on the Fillmore ticket as a Presi- 
dential Elector, and, although failing to be elected as 
such, he was at the same time elected a Representa- 
tive in the Legislature from Sangamon County, by a 
local coalition of the American and Republican par- 
ties. On the organization of the House, he received 
the vote of the Fillmore men for Speaker. Practicing 

/-> /VX:, 

I? 6 



law until 1 860, he was again elected to the Legisla- 
ture, as a Republican, while the county went Demo- 
cratic on the Presidential ticket. In January follow- 
ing he was elected Speaker, probably the youngest 
man who had ever presided over an Illinois Legis- 
lature. After the session of 1861, he was a candidate 
for the State Constitutional Convention called for 
that year, but was defeated, and thus escaped the 
disgrace of being connected with that abortive parly 
scheme to revolutionize the State Government. In 
1862 he was a candidate for the State Senate, but 
was defeated. The same year, however, he was ap- 
pointed by President Lincoln on a Government 
Commission, in company with Gov. Boutwell of 
Massachusetts and Charles A. Dana, since of the 
New York Sun, to investigate the affairs of the 
Quartermaster's and Commissary Departments at 
Cairo. He devoted several months to this duty. 

In 1864 he entered upon a larger political field, 
being nominated as the Republican candidate for 
Congress from the Eighth (Springfield) District, in 
opposition to the incumbent, JohnT. Stuart, who had 
been elected in 1862 by about 1,500 majority over 
Leonard Swett, then of Bloomington, now of Chicago. 
The result was the election of Mr. Cullom in Novem- 
ber following by a majority of 1,785. In 1866 he 
was re-elected to Congress, over Dr. E. S. Fowler, by 
the magnificent majority of 4,103! In 1868 he was 
again a candidate, defeating the Hon. B. S. Edwards, 
another of his old preceptors, by 2,884 votes. 

During his first term in Congress he served on the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs and Expenditures in 
the Treasury Department; in his second term, on 
the Committees on Foreign Affairs and on Territories ; 
and in his third term he succeeded Mr. Ashley, of 
Ohio, to the Chairmanship of the latter. He intro- 
duced a bill in the House, to aid in the execution of 
law in Utah, which caused more consternation among 
the Mormons than any measure had previously, but 
which, though it passed the House, failed to pass the 

The Republican Convention which met May 25, 
1876, nominated Mr. Cullom for Governor, while the 
other contestant was Gov. Beveridge. For Lieuten- 
ant-Governor they nominated Andrew Shuman, editor 
of the Chicago Journal. For the same offices the 
Democrats, combining with the Anti-Monopolists, 
placed in nomination Lewis Steward, a wealthy 

farmer and manufacturer, and A. A. Glenn. The 
result of the election was rather close, Mr. Cullom 
obtaining only 6,800 majority. He was inaugurated 
Jan. 8, 1877. 

Great depression prevailed in financial circles at 
this time, as a consequence of the heavy failures of 
1873 and afterward, the effect of which had seemed 
to gather force from that time to the end of Gov. 
Cullom's first administration. This unspeculative 
period was not calculated to call forth any new 
'issues, but the Governor's energies were at one time 
put to task to quell a spirit of insubordination that 
had been begun in Pittsburg, Pa., among the laboring 
classes, and transferred to Illinois at Chicago, East 
St. Louis and Braidwood, at which places laboring 
men for a short time refused to work or allow others 
to work. These disturbances were soon quelled and 
the wheels of industry again set in motion. 

In May, 1880, Gov. Cullom was re-nominated by 
the Republicans, against Lyman Trumbull, by the 
Democrats; and although the former party was some- 
what handicapped in the campaign by a zealous 
faction opposed to Grant for President and to Grant 
men for office generally, Mr. Cullom was re-elected 
by about 314,565, to 277,532 for the Democratic State 
ticket. The Greenback vote at the same time was 
about 27,000. Both Houses of the Legislature again 
became Republican, and no representative of the 
Greenback or Socialist parties were elected. Gov. 
Cullom was inaugurated Jan. 10, iS8i. In his mes- 
sage he announced that the last dollar of the State 
debt had been provided for. 

March 4, 1883, the term of David Davis as United 
States Senator from Illinois expired, and Gov. Cul- 
lom was chosen to succeed him. This promoted 
Lieutenant-Governor John M. Hamilton to the Gov- 
ernorship. Senator Cullom's term in the United 
States Senate will expire March 4, 1889. 

As a practitioner of law Mr. C. has been a member 
of the firm of Cullom, Scholes & Mather, at Spring- 
field ; and he has also been President of the State 
National Bank. 

He has been married twice, the first time Dec. 
12, 1855, to Miss Hannah Fisher, by whom he had 
two daughters ; and the second time May 5, 1863, 
to Julia Fisher. Mrs. C is a member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, with which religious body Mr, 
C. is also in sympathy. 

1 s 

* '" 


_*A/S>K>l/ r 



TON, Governor 1883-5, was 
born May 28, 1847, in a log 
house upon a farm about two 
miles from Richwood, Union 
County, Ohio. His father was 
Samuel Hamilton, the eldest son 
of Rev. Wm. Hamilton, who, to- 
gether with his brother, the Rev. 
Samuel Hamilton, was among the 
early pioneer Methodist preachers in 
Ohio. The mother of the subject of 
this sketch was, before her marriage, 
Mrs. Nancy McMorris, who was 
born and raised in Fauquier or Lou- 
doun County, Va., and related to the 
two large families of Youngs and Marshalls, well 
known in that commonwealth ; and from the latter 
family name was derived the middle name of Gov. 

In March, 1854, Mr. Hamilton's father sold out 
his little pioneer forest home in Union County, O., 
and, loading his few household effects and family 
(of six children) into two emigrant covered wagons, 
moved to Roberts Township, Marshall Co., 111., being 
2 1 days on the route. Swamps, unbridged streams 
and innumerable hardships and privations met them 
on their way. Their new home had been previously 
selected by the father. Here, after many long years 
of toil, they succeeded in paying for the land and 
making a comfortable home. John was, of course, 

brought up to hard manual labor, with no schooling 
except three or four months in the year at a common 
country school. However, he evinced a capacity 
and taste for a high order of self-education, by 
studying or reading what books he could borrow, as 
the family had but very few in the house. Much of 
his study he prosecuted by the light of a log fire in 
the old-fashioned chimney place. The financial 
panic of 1857 caused the family to come near losing 
their home, to pay debts ; but the father and two 
sons, William and John, "buckled to" and perse- 
vered in hard labor and economy until they redeemed 
their place from the mortgage. 

When the tremendous excitement of the political 
campaign of 1860 reached the neighborhood of Rob- 
erts Township, young Hamilton, who had been 
brought up in the doctrine of anti-slavery, took a zeal- 
ous part in favor of Lincoln's election. Making special 
efforts to procure a little money to buy a uniform, he 
joined a company of Lincoln Wide-Awakes at Mag- 
nolia, a village not far away. Directly after the 
ensuing election it became evident that trouble 
would ensue with the South, and this Wide-Awake 
company, like many others throughout the country, 
kept up its organization and transformed itself into a 
military company. During the ensuing summer they 
met often for drill and became proficient ; but when 
they offered themselves for the war, young Hamilton 
was rejected on account of his youth, he being then 
but 14 years of age. During the winter 0^1863-4 he 
attended an academy at Henry, Marshall County, 






and in the following May he again enlisted, for the 
fourth time, when he was placed in the 14151 111. 
Vol. Inf., a regiment then being raised at Elgin, 111., 
for the too-day service. He took with him 13 other 
lads from his neighborhood, for enlistment in the 
service. This regiment operated in Southwestern 
Kentucky, for about five months, under Gen. Paine. 
The following winter, 1864-5, -Mr. Hamilton taught 
school, and during the two college years 1865-7, ne 
went through three years of the curriculum of the 
Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio. The 
third year he graduated, the fourth in a class of 46, 
in the classical department. In due time he received 
the degree of M. A. For a few months he was the 
Principal of Marshall " College " at Henry, an acad- 
emy under the auspices of the M. E. Church. By 
this time he had commenced the study of law, and 
after earning some money as a temporary Professor 
of Latin at the Illinois Wesleyan University at 
Bloomington, he entered the law office of Weldon, 
Tipton & Benjamin, of that city. Each member of 
this firm has since been distinguished as a Judge. 
Admitted to the Bar in May, 1870, Mr. Hamilton 
was given an interest in the same firm, Tipton hav- 
ing been elected Judge. In October following he 
formed a partnership with J. H. Rowell, at that time 
Prosecuting Attorney. Their business was then 
small, but they increased it to very large proportions, 
practicing in all grades of courts, including even the 
U. S. Supreme Court, and this partnership continued 
unbroken until Feb. 6, 1883, when Mr. Hamilton 
was sworn in as Executive of Illinois. On the 4th 
of March following Mr. Rowell took his seat in Con- 

In July, 1871, Mr. Hamilton married Miss Helen 
M. Williams, the daughter of Prof. Wm. G. Williams, 
Professor of Greek in the Ohio Wesleyan University. 
Mr. and Mrs. H. have two daughters and one son. 
' In 1876 Mr. Hamilton was nominated by the Re- 
publicans for the State Senate, over other and older 
competitors. He took an active part " on the stump " 
in the campaign, for the success of his party, and was 
elected by a majority of 1,640 over his Democratic- 
.Greenback opponent. In the Senate he served on 
the Committees on Judiciary, Revenue, State Insti- 
tutions, Appropriations, Education, and on Miscel- 
lany ; and during the contest for the election of a 
U. S. Senator, the Republicans endeavoring to re- 

elect John A. Logan, he voted for the war chief on 
every ballot, even alone when all the other Republi- 
cans had gone over to the Hon. E. B. Lawrence and 
the Democrats and Independents elected Judge 
David Davis. At this session, also, was passed the 
first Board of Health and Medical Practice act, of 
which Mr. Hamilton was a champion, against so 
much opposition that the bill was several times 
" laid on the table." Also, this session authorized 
the location and establishment of a southern peni- 
tentiary, which was fixed at Chester. In the session 
of 1879 Mr. Hamilton was elected President pro tern, 
of the Senate, and was a zealous supporter of John 
A. Logan for the U. S. Senate, who was this time 
elected without any trouble. 

In May, 1880, Mr. Hamilton was nominated on 
the Republican ticket for Lieutenant Governor, his 
principal competitors before the Convention being 
Hon. Wm. A. James, ex-Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, Judge Robert Bell, of Wabash 
County, Hon. T. T. Fountain, of Perry County, and 
Hon. M. M. Saddler, of Marion County. He engaged 
actively in the campaign, and his ticket was elected 
by a majority of 41,200. As Lieutenant Governor, 
he presided almost continuously over the Senate in 
the 32d General Assembly and during the early days 
of the 33d, until he succeeded to the Governorship. 
When the Legislature of 1883 elected Gov. Cullom 
to the United States Senate, Lieut. Gov. Hamilton 
succeeded him, under the Constitution, taking the 
oath of office Feb. 6, 1883. He bravely met all the 
annoyances and embarrassments incidental upon 
taking up another's administration. The principal 
events with which Gov. Hamilton was connected as 
the Chief Executive of the State were, the mine dis- 
aster at Braidwood, the riots in St. Clairand Madison 
Counties in May, 1883, the appropriations for the 
State militia, the adoption of the Harper high-license 
liquor law, the veto of a dangerous railroad bill, etc. 

The Governor was a Delegate at large to the 
National Republican Convention at Chicago in June, 

1884, where his first choice for President was John 
A. Logan, and second choice Chester A. Arthur; but 
he afterward zealously worked for the election of Mr. 
Blaine, true to his party. 

Mr. Hamilton's term as Governor expired Jan. 30, 

1885, when the great favorite " Dick " Oglesby was 

;* | . ' 


*: * 

(i ) 

s * 

. >/ : ;*.. 

~p=" e)~v-. 



s^i ^ 







SHE comparative value of bi- 
ography in the field of lit- 
erature is daily becoming 
more apparent. At no 
period lias it ranked as at 
present, and each success- 
ive day adds to its promi- 
nence. Sixty years ago its su- 
premacy was acknowledged by the 
most graceful pen of the age, and 
the concession had all the more 
strength coming as it did from a 
man whose ultima thule was found 
in a direction considered diametri- 
cally its reverse. Tourgee consid- 
ers biography as hardly worthy 
respect, and the opinion seems 
conspicuously singular, coming 
from one who expounds his principles through the 
lips of fictitious characters, constructed for the pur- 
pose. It strikes one as paradoxical. But when a 
historian so masterly as Lord Macaulay pays tribute 
to the value and power of biography, its place is as- 
sured beyond danger from assault. 

Carlyle's statement that the world's history is the 
history of its leaders, is the truest thing that has 
been said of the comparative merits of biography, 
and it brings us to the quest for the world's leaders. 
Finding them, we are startled to discover that the 
real and true leaders are, for the most part, compara- 
tively unknown. Modern progress, with its hurried 
sweep, has engulfed them, and bewildered the com- 
mon understanding with its exhibit of marvels. But 
when the lapse of time has cooled enthusiasm, when 

results stand forth in matchless proportions and the 
spontaneous meed of praise awaits its rightful 
owner, agencies appear in their legitimate attitude. 

The time is here when biography is no longer con- 
fined to those who have done great things. The 
day of small things has come, and the grand array 
of those who have created the proud position and 
splendid supremacy of American institutions, is re- 
ceiving just recognition. 

No wonder that Illinois is supreme among States! 
When her pioneer sons first trod her fair acres, and 
the hope of ultimate ownership arose in their souls, 
did they not know, though unwittingly, what is the 
true significance of the " divine right of kings ? " 

Who more a king than he who stood in the primal 
days of Whiteside County, his gaze fixed on the 
broad acres of his " claim," and feeling in his veins 
the leaping tide and in his muscles the latent 
strength, through whose intelligent application the 
fruition of his hopes should come ? 

The " annals " that follow these words of introduc- 
tion have been retouched with reverence, and a full 
realization of the responsibility attending the work. 
Every man who has added by his life's efforts to the 
productiveness of the soil, improved the quality or 
swelled the number of the herds, has a right to a 
representation to the generations of the future from 
his own standpoint of motive and achievement. 

And when they that follow contemplate the re- 
sults of the toil of those who led, question as to per- 
sonality and purpose, these pages will exist to answer 
their eager solicitude, and to urge them, in the light 
of example, to fill worthily the steps that first trod 
where theirs must come after. 



.. - 

^ V 



1 XT' H H *1* H H y V v ' 


the oldest living resident of 
Whiteside County, living up- 
on his farm in Portland 
Tp., was bom in Ononda- 
ga Co., N. Y., Nov. 6, 1802. 
He is a son of Jeduthan and Sally 
(Gibhs) Seely. His father was a na- 
tive of Washington Co., N. Y., a farmer 
by occupation, and died near where 
Col. Seely now resides, Sept. 4, 1836, 
and was the first man buried in the 
county. His mother was a native of 
Utica, N. Y., and died in Olin, Iowa, 
in 1841. They were united in mar- 
riage in Onondaga Co., N. Y., and afterwards moved 
to Genesee County, that State. They were the par- 
ents of six children, five sons and one daughter, three 
of whom yet survive, and one of whom, Col. Seely, 
subject of this notice, is the eldest. Horace is now 
residing at Oxford Mills, Jones Co., Iowa. Mary is 
the wife of Rev. Lowry, a Congregational minister in 
Olin, Jones Co., Iowa. 

In 1806, the parents of Col. Seely moved from 
Onondaga to Genesee Co., N. Y., and in the latter 
county Mr. Seely was reared on a farm, receiving 
the advantages afforded by the common schools, and 
developed into manhood. On attaining adult age he 
continued to follow the vocation of farming and 
lumbering, and soon after entered into a copartner- 
ship with Marvin Frary in the saw-mill business. 
They erected a saw-mill in the latter county, which 
they continued to operate for five years, when Col. 

Seely sold out and, taking his share of the lumber 
that was on hand, constructed a raft on which he 
placed his family, consisting of wife and five children 
and father and mother, and rafted down the Ohio 
River to Louisville, Ky. He sold his lumber at that 
place and took a boat to St. Louis, accompanied by 
his family, and went from the latter city to Rock Isl- 
and. At the latter place he hired a team and 
brought his family to what is now Prophelstown 
Township. He had nevertheless been to this county 
before. In September, 1834, he came here and lo- 
cated 320 acres of land on sections 6, of Prophets- 
town Township, and i of Portland Township. He 
broke some land and made some other improvements 
on his place, and in March, 1835, returned to New 
York, and in April, 1836, brought his family as stated. 
He at first moved into a little house his brother Nor- 
man B., now deceased, owned at that time, and soon 
erected a log house of his own, 22x22 feet. The 
following year he erected another building, 22x22 
feet in dimensions, twelve feet from the building 
which he first erected, and placed them both 
under one roof. In 1839 he erected a frame house, 
22x30 in dimensions, and one and a half stories, 
in which he kept " hotel " for the accommodation of 
pioneer travelers, having brought with him a good 
supply of bedding, provisions, etc. He continued to 
act as " mine host " on his farm for 32 years, the 
same being known as a farmers' home. He had at one 
time 220 acres under the plow, and a fine farm. 

Col. Seely also erected a steam saw-mill on his 
farm, in company with several other pioneers, and 
they ran it for about ten years, when he bought them 


* * 

A f 



all out, which he did one at a time, and became sole 
owner. The mill was finally run for two years as a 
grist-mill. Afterward Col. Seely sold the machinery, 
which was shipped away. 

Mr. Seely tells many interesting stories of his early 
settlement in this county. The first grist that he had 
ground he took to Aurora, 100 miles distant, and was 
some eight days making the trip. He has drawn a 
great deal of wheat to Chicago, and has had at a time 
two and three teams on the road at once. He has 
seen a string of teams three miles long loaded with 
wheat, and on their way to the now great metropolis. 
At one time he went to Chicago with three loads of 
wheat, and was spokesman for the wheat " drawers " 
that day and controlled the price of that article there, 
and bulled the market from 75 cents to $1.10. At 
present he could hardly accomplish the wonderful 
feat he performed at that time. The Colonel also 
saw the first two-story building erected in Chicago, 
which was in September, 1834. This was the Tre- 
mont House, which afterward burned, and was 
replaced with another fine stone building. Mr. Seely 
receives his title of Colonel from having been the 
Colonel of the militia of New York, and also in this 

Col. Seely was united in marriage, in Alexander 
Township, Genesee Co., N. Y., Jan. 25, 1824, to 
Miss Dolly Maynard, who was born in the State of 
Connecticut, Feb. 27, 1803, and died Jan. 6, 1875. 
They raised seven children, six of whom survive. 
Solomon, a resident of Sterling: Sarah, the wife of 
Alexander Hatfield, a resident of Sterling. Andrew 
J., a farmer in Portland Township. Martin V., a 
resident of Prophetstown. Caroline, wife of Stephen 
H. Beardslee, a resident of Cadillac, Mich.; and Jen- 
nie, a widow, residing in Brooklyn, N. Y. David is 

Col. Seely has been a member of the I. O. O. F. 
30 years. He was the first President of the Pioneer 
Society of this county, and has held the position ever 
since. The first meeting was held in January, 1853, 
in the Wallace House, Sterling, and Col. Seely has 
never failed to attend the meetings of the society 
since, with but a single exception. The meetings 
are held at Hamilton's Bluffs, in Lyndon Township, 
this county. He has a remarkable memory for a 
man of his age. His mind is as clear and strong as 
men usually are at 60. 

Mr. Seely is a gentleman worthy the distinction of 

having his portrait placed in the honorary position in 
this ALBUM, and especially so when he has been 
living in this county longer than any other man. 

ason W. Blaisdell, farmer, residing on 
section 16, Portland Township, and the 
owner of 210 acres in the township, is a 
son of Daniel and Clarissa (Gardner), Blais- 
dell, and was born in Cortland Co., N. Y. , July 
27, 1820. His father was a millwright, in connec- 
tion with farming and lumbering, in the State of Ver- 
mont, and his mother was a native of the same 
State. The issue of their union was three children! 
two of whom are living. Mary is deceased. Caro- 
line is the wife of Daniel F. Cole, a farmer residing 
in Portland Township, this county. 

Mr. Blaisdell is the youngest of his father's 
family. He and his father came by river to Rock 
Island, and walked to Portland Township, this 
county, arriving at the residence of Horace Burk 
June 15, 1836. His father made a claim of 160 
acres on section 21, of Portland Township. Com- 
ing at that date in company with his father, Mr. B., 
as well as the latter, may be considered one of the 
pioneer settlers of this county. His father made 
improvements on his claim, and in the fall of 1837 
the remainder of the family followed. In the tornado 
which occurred in 1 844, his father was considerably 
bruised, and never fully recovered. He died on his 
farm, Dec. 23, 1855, where the mother also died> 
April 15, 1870. He was a man of energetic dispo- 
sition, with a determination to establish a home for 
himself and family, and faithfully labored for the 
fulfillment of his desire. He held numerous offices 
in the township. 

Mr. Blaisdell purchased 40 acres of prairie land 
and 33 of timber land in 1843, and subsequently 
added to his landed interests until at one time he 
had about 500 acres. He has given 80 acres to his 
son, Herbert P., 120 acres to his daughter, Anulet, 
and 80 acres to Almeda, and now has 210 acres, lo- 
cated on sections 21, 16, 25 and 27. He has a fine 
residence, good orchard, barns, fine running spring, 
etc. He also runs a threshing-machine in seasons, 
and has sawed wood for a number of years. 

Mr. Blaisdell was united in marriage in Portland 

Township, Dec. 5, 1844, to Miss Alzina Rowe. She 
was a daughter of James and Mary A. Rowe, and 
was born in Steuben Co., N. Y. The issue of their 
union was three children, all born in Portland 
Township, this county. Their record is as follows : 
Anulet was born April 14, 1847, and is the wife of 
Ralph Smedley, a farmer of Portland Township; 
Aimeda was born July 31, 1855, and is the wife of 
William C. Bryant, a farmer and dealer in stock at 
Erie; Herbert P., born Sept. 13, 1852, is now a resi- 
dent of La Vergne, Minn. 

illiam Pearson, general farmer, section 29, 
Ustick Township, is the proprietor of one 
of the finest farms in Whiteside County, 
comprising 340 acres. His first purchase, 
in 1856, included 60 acres, which has been 
and still is the site of his home. He has been 
prospered in his business relations, and is a very 
successful farmer. 

He was born Feb. 14, 1832, in Chedelhume, 
Chestershire, England, and is the son of James and 
Mary (Fisher) Pearson. His parents were natives 
of England, and the mother died in her native 
country, in 1852. Their children were born in the 
following order : John, Samuel, Thomas, Jane, Will- 
iam, James, Henry and Isaac. Thomas was drowned 
in Clinton, De Witt Co., 111. Isaac died at 22. The 
surviving brothers and sisters of Mr. Pearson live in 
England. His father came to America and lived 
about five years, when he died at the residence of 
his son. He was successively a butcher, farmer 
and silk-weaver. 

Mr. Pearson came to the United States in 1854, 
and settled at Blackberry, Kane Co., 111., operating as 
a section foreman on the Chicago & North Western 
Railroad. In 1856 he came to Whiteside County, 
and has since been engaged in farming. He operated 
in the same capacity in the interests of the same 
railroad corporation after his removal hither, one ter- 
mination of his route being Unionville. He has 
since resided in Ustick Township, with the excep- 
tion of six months spent in Wisconsin. 

In 1860 he returned to his native country to ful- 
fill a long cherished purpose, the result of which 
was his marriage to Ann Shotwell. Their union was 

celebrated Jan. 25, and soon after they sailed for 
their home in the New World. They have had 12 
children, nine of whom still survive. They were 
born in the following order, in Ustick Township : 
George, Dec. 25, 1861 ; James, Jan. 27, 1863; Mary 
J., Jan. 4, 1865 ; Frances E., March 9, 1866 ; Fred- 
eric W., Feb. 28, 1868; Emma C, April 7, 1870; 
Eliza, June 10, 1872; Levi, March 4, r874; Allan. 
Three children died in infancy. Mrs. Pearson was 
born Nov. 14, 1836, and is the daughter of George 
and Frances Shotwell. Her father was born in 1806, 
in Woodford, Chestershire, and died Jan. 9, 1879. 
Her mother was born in 1808 in the same place, and 
died June 24, 1883. Their children were named 
Sarah, Frederick, Levi, Ann, Samuel, William and 
Eliza. Two sisters died in England. Samuel and 
William came to America. 

ILornelius Trowbridge, a farmer owning 
land on sections 33 and 34, Mt. Pleasant 
Township, is a son of Willard and Amy 

(Sprague) Trowbridge, natives of Connecticut. 

They were married and settled in Lewis Co.^ 

N. Y., where the wife and mother died. The 
father afterward removed to Fulton Co., Ohio, where 
he is at present residing. Their family comprised 
six children, namely: John S., Jordon, Emily. An- 
son, Allen and Cornelius. 

Cornelius, the subject of this biographical notice, 
was born in York, Lewis Co., N. Y., Feb. 20, 1828. 
He received a common-school education in Ohio, 
and as the country in which his father resided was 
new, and he being the first settler in the township of 
the county, the school privileges were very limited. 
Cornelius lived at home assisting on the farm until 
he attained the age of majority. He then bought a 
tract of timbered land, which he cleared and after- 
ward sold, and then cleared another farm in the 
same locality ; he also assisted in clearing his father's 
farm in Fulton County, Ohio. 

Nov. 8, 1863, Mr. Trowbridge enlisted in the 38th 
Ohio Vol. Inf., and served till the close of the war. 
He participated in the battle of Jonesboro and at the 
siege of Atlanta, and was wounded by a minie ball 
in the right leg, and in consequence thereof he wa? 
incapacitated from active duty in the field. He is a 




member of Alpheus Clark Post, G. A. R., at Morri- 
son, and is also a pensioner of the Government. 
After the war closed Mr. Trowbridge returned to his 
farm in Ohio, and resumed the cultivation of his 
land, which he continued until June, 1878, when he 
came to this county and settled on the farm on 
which he at present resides, in Mt. Pleasant Town- 
ship, which he had purchased the spring previous to 
his removal hither. He is the owner of 187^ acres, 
the principal portion of which lies in Mt. Pleasant 
Township, and of the whole tract, 180 acres is in a 
good tillable condition. 

Mr. Trowbridge was united in marriage in Fulton 
Co., Ohio, Dec. 30, 1849, to Celina M., daughter of 
Alanson and Mary (Hubbard) Bradley, natives of 
Connecticut. Her patents were married and settled 
in York State, from whence they removed to Fulton 
Co., Ohio, in 1844, and where her father died Aug. 
8, 1877. The mother resides in Dakota. Their 
family comprised ten children, namely : Edwin, 
Celina, Almon, Jane, Enos, Cyrus, James, Martha, 
Frederick and Mary. Mrs. Trowbridge was born in 
Oswego Co., N. Y., Aug. 21, 1830. She and her 
husband are the parents of three children, Julius O., 
born Dec. 26, 1850; Alfred E., born Jan. 16, 1854; 
Martha A., born May 7, 1867, and died when 16 
months old. 

Mr. Trowbridge has held the office of School Di- 
rector, and he and his wife are members of the Pres- 
byterian Church. Politically he is identified with 
the Republican party. 

I UUam H. Harrison, a merchant at Tam- 
pico, was born Dec. 20, 1856, in Fenton 
Township, Whiteside Co., 111. His par- 
ents, Samuel and Betsey (Pope) Harrison, 
were born in England, where they were 
farmers. They came to Whiteside County, 
and the father died in Fenton Township, in 1866. 
In 1874 the mother and children went to Vancouver's 
Island, B. C. 

Mr. Harrison returned to Whiteside County in 
1876. He obtained a position as clerk in the em- 
ployment of Isaac Kahn, in whose interests he oper- 
ated 18 months. In 1878 he came to Tampico and 
formed a partnership with R. Davis in the sale of 

general merchandise. At the end of 18 months their 
connection terminated, Mr. Harrison becoming sole 
proprietor. His business is in a prosperous condi- 
tion. In political opinion and relations, Mr. Har- 
rison is a Republican. He is at present a member 
of the Village Board. 

Dec. 25, 1883, he was married to Sadie, daughter 
of Thomas A. and Mary (Varien) Glassburn. Her 
parents were born, reared and married in Ohio, and 
came to Illinois in 1856, since which time they have 
resided in Whiteside County. They now live in 
Tampico Township, where Mrs. Harrison was born, 
and acquired a good education. At 16 she com- 
menced teaching in the primary department of the 
village school at Tampico, where she was employed 
six years. 



artin V. Seely, " mine host " of the " Seely 
House," is a son of Col. Ebenezer and 
Dolly (Maynard) Seely (see sketch of * 
Col. Ebenezer Seely in another part of this 
work), and was born in Cattaraugus Co., N. i 
Y., Jan. 30, 1834. The father of Mr. Seely ^ 
was a native of Genesee Co., N. Y., and now resides 
in Portland Township, this county, at the advanced 
age of 82 years ; his portrait appears in this work, 
and in connection therewith a biographical sketch of 
his life. The mother of Mr. Seely died on the old 
homestead, aged 72 years. 

When two years of age, 1836, Mr. Seely accom- 
panied his parents to this county, where they located 
-on a farm. He was reared on the farm, assisting in J \ 
the labors of the same and alternating his work 
thereon by attendance at the common schools until 
he attained the age of majority. 

Mr. Seely was united in marriage in Portland 
Township, this county, March 20, 1855, to Miss 
Armina Maynard, a daughter of William and Emily 
Maynard. She was born in Erie Co., N. Y., Jan. 30, 
1834, the same day and year which witnessed the 
birth of her husband. The issue of their union was 
two children, both of whom are deceased, Sadie and 

Mrs. Seely died in Portland Township,. March 7, 
1859, and Mr. Seely was ngain married in the same 
township, Dec. 19, 1861, to Miss Amelia Keeler, 


-: .. - 


daughter of Ralph O. and Orlantha J. Keeler. Slie 
was born in Wood Co., Ohio, Aug. 15, 1835. They 
had one son, Ralph M., born July 19, 1867, and at 
present attending the Business College at Sterling, 
111. Mrs. Seely died in Prophetstown, Dec. 15, 1884. 
In 1861, Mr. Seely bought the old homestead, which 
comprised 260 acres. He subsequently sold 160 
acres of the same and at the present time is the pro- 
prietor of 100 acres of the old homestead, also 160 
acres on sections i and 35 in Portland Township. 
He made a speciality of stock-raising, buying and 
feeding his stock and shipping annually about $50,- 
ooo worth. Mr. Seely was President of the White- 
side Agricultural Society of Sterling, for two years. 
Socially, he is a member of the I. O. O. F. 

In 1873 Mr. Seely went to Prophetstown and built 
the Seely House, which he rented for six years, and 
during that time was interested in the stock business. 
When the First National Bank was organized, he was 
a stock-holder and director of the same. In 1879, 
he took charge of his hotel and has conducted it ever 
since. It is the only hotel in Prophetstown, has 28 
rooms for the accommodation of guests, and is con- 
ducted in a manner every way suited to the wants of 
the traveling public. Mr. Seely is strictly temperate, 
never having tasted a drop of ardent spirits in his 
life ; nor does he use tobacco in any way. 

avid B. Arrell is one of the most prosper- 
ous ano< enterprising fanners in Garden 
Plain Township. He was born in the 
township of Veale in Daviess Co., Ind., Sept. 
20, 1821. His parents, James and Sarah (Crab) 
Arrell, were natives of the township of Fallow- 
field, Washington Co., Pa., and emigrated thence to 
Indiana alxnit 1817, traveling on flat-boats on the 
Monongahela and Ohio Rivers to Evansville on the 
latter, whence they went to Daviess County with 
teams. They located in Daviess County and were 
pioneers, building a log house in the depths of the 
timber. The structure was built without nails, cov- 
ered with clapboards and had a puncheon floor. The 
door was furnished with a wooden latch, and the 
trite saying that " its string was always out," may 
be accepted in all its significations. The family left 
Indiana in 1823, returning to Pennsylvania. 

So far as can be ascertained the firsi representa- 
tives of the name of Arrell in America were two 
brothers, Edward and William Arrell, who came 
from County Derry, Ireland, to America in 1774. 
They were descendants of the Scotch who went to 
the north of the Green Isle to escape the persecutions 
of the "kirk" in 1619, and who experienced per- 
plexities scarcely less oppressive from the taxation of 
the Established Church, which presented their as- 
similation in any degree with the people of the coun- 
try where they first sought refuge, for a long period 
of time. Hence the first Scotch-Irish who settled in 
America had no mixture of Irish blood in their veins. 
They were Scotch who were born in Ireland. Ed- 
ward Arrell, paternal grandfather of Mr. Arrell of 
this sketch, espoused the cause of the Colonists in 
their rebellion against British oppression. He was 
employed in the commissary department at Bunker 
Hill, and while driving^ his team on the retreat his 
wagon tipped over. He restored its equilibrium, 
filled it with wounded soldiers and the procession 
made good its escape. He located after the war was 
done in Fayette Co., Pa. After his marriage he se- 
cured a claim of land on Maple Creek, in Fallowfield 
Township. He improved a farm on which he lived 
until his life's journey closed.. His children num- 
bered seven four sons and three daughters. 

James and Sarah Arrell became the parents of 
seven children. Following is the record of those of 
the number who survive : Matilda is the wife of Wil- 
liam Wood, and they reside on a part of the home- 
stead in Daviess Co., Ind. David B. is the oldest 
surviving son. Alice married Hon. John B. Scud- 
der, of Daviess Co., Ind. Nancy is the widow of 
Fenwick Alexander. Rachel is the wife of G. Mc- 
Ilvaine, of Washington Co., Pa. 

William Arrell, the brother of Edward, settled in 
Chambersburg, Pa. He had three sons and one 
daughter. Only one of his sons was married. The 
son John located near Poland, Ohio, where some of 
his descendants yet reside. 

Mr. Arrell of this sketch was two years of age when 
his parents went to Pennsylvania. After a residence 
there of seven years, the family returned to Daviess 
Co., Ind., where the son remained until he was 18. 
He returned to Pennsylvania in 1839 to live with his 
aunts. In 1846 he was married to Margaret J., 
daughter of Baptiste and Nancy (Arrell) Hopper. 



\ 0r 

M* The year following they went to Monongahela City, 
where they resided until 1853. In that year they 
came to Illinois and fixed their first place of abode 
near Albany. Mr. Arrell bought a tract of unim- 
proved land on section 32, of Garden Plain Town- 
ship, of which he took possession in 1857. On tak- 
ing up his residence thereon, he at once proceeded 
to put the place in the best condition for occupation 
and successful management. The entire property is 
in advanced cultivation and fitted with the best type 
of modern farm fixtures, 

Eight children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Arrell. Those now living are as follows: fiffie is the 
wife of Dr. J. B. Ewing, of Uniontown, Fayette Co., 
Pa. Hopper is married and lives in Newton Town- 
ship. Gertrude married B. H. Quick, of Moline. 
David B., Jr., resides at home. 

abez Lathe, a farmer in Lyndon Township, 
is the third son of Reuel and Sally (Rob- 
ins) Lathe, of whom a sketch may be 
found elsewhere in this volume. He was born 
Dec. i, 1822, in Steuben Co., N. Y., where he 
was brought up on a farm, and was well edu- 
cated. He began teaching when 20 years old, and 
alternated that pursuit with farming until he came 
to Whiteside County with his parents, the removal 
of the family hither being effected in 1845. In 1846 
he bought 80 acres of land on section 12, Lyndon 
Township, on which he made the first improve- 
ments, in 1848. He broke a few acres and set out 
an orchard, as a beginning of the work of putting 
his property under thorough cultivation. 

Mr. Lathe was united in marriage April 4, 1849, 
to Pamelia, daughter of John P. and Candace Sands. 
In the spring of 1850 he located on his place, where 
he had built a house. His wife died Sept. i, 1854. 
He was again married Dec. i, 1855, to Martha M. 
Hickcox. She was born in Chittenden Co., Vt., and 
is the daughter of Thomas N. and Mary (Foster) 
$ Hickcox. 

The agricultural affairs of Mr. Lathe were pro- 
ceeding prosperously, when his buildings, fences 
and orchard were swept away by the tornado of June 
3, 1860. His wife was so severely injured that she 

GN/A. : 

never fully recovered. He built the house he now 
occupies in 1862, and the farm is again supplied 
with convenient buildings, and is fenced in good 

ichard Storer, deceased, formerly a farmer 
on section n, Garden Plain Township, was 
born Feb. 23, 1816, in Washington Co., 
Pa. He was the son of John and Elizabeth 
(Holecraft) Storer, and was brought up on his 
father's farm. He married Margaret Curry, 
a native of Pennsylvania, born Dec. 29, 1818. They 
resided in Allegheny Co , Pa., after their marriage, 
until their removal in 1853 to Whiteside County, 
where they settled on the southeast quarter of section 
n, in Garden Plain Township. Mr. Storer was a 
skillful and industrious farmer, and pushed his agri- 
cultural operations with success. He died in June, 

Mrs. Storer lives on the homestead. She is the 
mother of two daughters, Elizabeth, wife of J. B. 
Kearns ; and Adeline, who married A. J. Stowell, of 
whom a sketch appears elsewhere. 

Austin, a farmer on section 6, Lyn- 
don Township, owns a valuable farm of 
220 acres, pleasantly and desirably located 
about three miles south of Morrison. The 
place is increased in appearance and value 
by shade and ornamental trees and shrubs. 
Mr. Austin was born Dec. 30, 1825, in Allenville, 
Switzerland Co., Ind. William Austin, his father, 
was born in Oneida Co., N. Y., in 1794, and was 
descended from the early emigrants to New England. 
During the war of 1812 he raised a company of vol- 
unteer soldiers and started for Plattsburg, where a 
battle was in progress, but arrived too late to take 
active share in it. 

He married Margaret Livings, a native of New 
Jersey, of mixed English and German parentage. 
After their marriage they resided a brief period in the 
State of New York, and went thence to Hamilton 


Co., Ohio. They lived two years in the vicinity of 
Cincinnati, and then pushed on to what was in that 
day the western frontier, locating in Cotton Town- 
ship, Switzerland Co.,Ind. The senior Austin bought 
a tract of land covered with the first forest, where he 
cleared a farm, removing from it after it was well im- 
proved to a second farm in the wilderness, where he 
repeated the experience and moved to a third tract 
of forest. He placed the latter in improved condi- 
tion, and in 1854 made a final remove to Whiteside 
County, where he had previously bought 400 acres 
from the United States Government, which was lo- 
cated in Mt. Pleasant Township. He bought a 
house which he removed to section 27, and which 
constituted his residence until his death, in 1859. 
His wife died in 1877. Their children numbered 
ten, and seven are still living (1885)., Miranda, the 
widow of Henry Murphy, lives in Jewell Co., Kan. 
Daniel, Silas R. and Dennis live in Lyndon Town- 
ship. Martin B. is a resident of Morrison. Georgi- 
anna, wife of Homer Olmstead, lives in Cloud Co., 
Kan. William Steward is a resident at (Jnionville. 

Mr. Austin was the assistant of his father on the 
pioneer farms from the time he had sufficient strength 
to operate with an ax. He improved the enforced 
leisure of the winters by attendance at the district 
schools, and he made his home with his father's 
family until he was 23. 

In September, 1848, he was joined in marriage to 
Harriet Gary. She was born in Rushford, Allegany 
Co., N. Y., and is the daughter of Charles and 
Eunice (Spaulding) Gary. Her parents were natives 
respectively of Connecticnt and Vermont. Previous 
to his marriage Mr. Austin had purchased 50 acres 
of land under partial improvements in Cotton Town- 
ship, on which he settled with his bride and began 
the world on his own responsibility. He operated as 
a fanner on his property, clearing and extending the 
improvements and increasing its value until 1854. 
In the autumn of that year he came to Whiteside 
County to engage in agricultural pursuits under more 
favorable circumstances. He purchased land in 
Lyndon Township, then known as township 20, 
range 5 east. His land was located on section 6, 
and was wholly guiltless of the arts of the husband- 
man. Mr. Austin rented a farm during the first year, 
and in 1856 began the work of improvement of his 
own property. He built a frame house of unpreten- 

tious character, which his family occupied 20 years, 
when he erected the dwelling in which they now 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Austin number 
eight: Millard married Alice Moss, and lives in 
Cloud Co., Kan.; Frank married Sophia Follinsby 
and resides in Clark Co., D. T.; Esther is the wife of 
S. A. Maxwell, of Unionville (see sketch); Olive 
married Frank Wenner, a farmer in Clark Co., D. T.; 
Lincoln is a farmer in Clark Co., D. T.; Hattie, Clara 
E. and Clark were born next in order; Harrison, 
fourth child, married Ellen Follinsby, and died in 
Exeter, Neb., aged 24 years. He left a child, who re- 
sides with the widowed mother in Clark Co., D. T. 

. enjamin Belt is one of the early settlers of 
Lyndon Township, whither Tie came in 
November, 1845. He settled in 1846 on 
section 7. He was born Dec. 7, 1802, in 
Huntington Co., Pa., whence he went with 
his parents eight years later to Ohio. They 
were pioneers in the valley of the Licking. Mr. 
Belt passed his minority in Licking County and was 
a resident there until his rernoval to Illinois. 

He was married April 30, 1823, to Deborah Calli- 
han, a native of Ohio. Seven of their ten children 
are living: Samantha is the widow of David Ray; 
Hannah is the wife of G. H. Hamilton, a leading 
farmer of Lyndon Township, of whom a full account 
is given elsewhere in this ALBUM; Elizabeth married 
John Belt; Salathiel lives in California; Celona is 
the wife of H. Daily and they litfe in Dakota; Sa- 
brina is the widow of George A. Coleman ; Frank 
lives on the homestead. Augustus is the name of 
an adopted son. Mrs. Belt died Feb. 17, 1878. 

#3v -tec - 

lion. James McCoy, the pioneer lawyer and 
one of the founders of Fulton City, 111., 
has been an attorney in Northwestern Illi- 
j nois for nearly 50 years, and the record of his 
career is such as to reflect most honorably upon 
his character as a man. He was born in 
Greenbrier Co., Va., Sept. 22, i8i/. William Mc- 
Coy, his grandfather in the paternal line, was of 



*,v3^sr\ J^l 

' v V ?f: 



f Scotch origin and was born in Virginia. He mar- 
') ried a Miss Hamilton, who was of mixed Welsh and 
Irish parentage. They settled in Greenbrier County 
during the stirring times that preceded the Revolu- 
tion, when the Indians of the Atlantic seaboard 
were at the height of their atrocities, which con- 
dition was, to a great extent, attributable to the 
fluence of the Tory element. Forts were con- 
structed by the frontiersmen, and in one of these in 
Greenbrier County, William McCoy, father of Judge 
McCoy, was born, while his parents were seeking 
protection from Indian hostilities. William McCoy 
,, (ad) attained to man's estate in his native county, 
and married Agnes, daughter of James and Eliza- 
beth (Gillian) Hanna. The former was born in Ire- 
land, and when a boy came to America and settled 
in Greenbrier County. His wife was of Scotch ori- 
gin and was born in the same county, in 1784, and 
was of Scotch and Irish descent. There were 12 
children in Win. McCoy's family, all of whom grew 
to maturity, and eight of whom are still living. Of 
these, our subject is fourth in order of birth. James 
received an academic education in Monroe Co., Va., 
and was graduated in 1836. He read law till near 
his majority, when he came to Illinois with a view, of 
establishing himself in his profession in some of the 
new towns of the West. He reached the Missis- 
sippi River at the point now embraced by the city of 
Fulton, May 9, 1837. Here he found John Baker, 
on whose claim a rude attempt had been made to 
plat a town site. 

This survey was abandoned, and a new one made 
under the management of Mr. McCoy, assisted by 
Henry C. Fellows, John B. Jenkins and George 
Kellogg. These four kept bachelor's hall in a little 
shanty on the river bank near the present steamboat 
landing. For several months they led an isolated 
and dreary life, fighting musquitoes and shaking with 
ague. Occasionally a curious passenger would land 
from some passing boat and, after looking the situa- 
tion over, would go on. To the eastward of them 
was an almost unbroken stretch of wild and unsettled 
country extending to Dixon. Not even a trail led to 
the young city. Finally a few venturesome spirits 
joined them. The owners of the lots at that time 
were mainly Messrs. McCoy, Henry C. Fellows, John 
B. Jenkins, George W. Kellogg, Alvin Humphries, R. 
J. Jenks, John Baker, Lyman Blake and Jeremiah 

In the fall of the same year he went to Cham- 
paign Co., Ohio, where he was joined by his brother, 
and they returned to Fulton. He sold his land, 
consisting of one-sixteenth of the platted tract, 
chiefly on credit, and, on the completion of his 
arrangements, he returned to Virginia, reaching 
home after an absence of 1 1 months, in the spring 
of 1838. He remained in Virginia until July of the 
the same year, when he leturned to Fulton to make 
collections. The financial crisis, which had con- 
vulsed the business world, had reached Fulton, and 
he was not able to adjust the business which had 
brought him there a second time, and he was 
obliged to re -purchase his property to secure himself 
from loss. He stayed in Fulton until winter, and 
made further purchases of land. He went to Ohio, 
where he passed the winter, and was there married, 
April 23, 1839, to Miss Elizabeth Russell, daughter 
of James and Jane Russell. Mrs. McCoy was born 
in Champaign Co., Ohio, Nov. 19, 1819. 

In October, 1839, Mr. McCoy returned a third 
time to Fulton, to be present at the land sales. He 
soon determined to make this his future home. One 
year later, the village having acquired a population of 
three or four hundred, he entered upon the practice 
of his profession. His marked ability and untiring 
energy soon placed him among the foremost of his 
profession in the West, and his practice extended to 
the neighboring Courts, throughout Illinois and Iowa. 
He was admitted to practice in the Supreme Courts 
of both these States, where he conducted success- 
fully many important suits. 

From the outset of his career as an attorney, Judge 
McCoy has controlled an extensive practice ; and, 
although he has a wide repute as a chancery lawyer, 
he is a master of every branch of the profession. 
Throughout his entire practice Judge McCoy has 
pursued one undeviating course of strict adherence 
to the letter of the law under the direction of author- 
itative and acknowledged interpreters. He is an 
acknowledged leader in the legal ranks of Whiteside 
County, has no superior as a counselor, and but few 
peers. He has conducted his business singly with 
the exception of the period in which he was asso- 
ciated with his two oldest sons. William J., a prac- 
ticing attorney at Morrison and Judge of the County 
Court, is a man of peerless ability and is rapidly 
attaining a foremost position as a chancery lawyer. ()) 
His character, formed under the direction of his 




father, is one of the best evidences of the influence 
by which it was involved. Albert R., an attorney at 
Clinton, Iowa, is one of the most brilliant advocates 
of the Northwest, and is a man of spotless record. 

In 1851, while a project was under consideration 
before the Illinois Legislature to construct a railroad 
north and south through the State, Judge McCoy 
originated the idea of an east and west line from the 
Lakes to Council Bluffs on the Missouri River, to 
cross the Mississippi at Fulton and Lyons. He at 
once called a railroad meeting at Lyons, Iowa, just 
opposite Fulton City. His plan was to get the Iowa 
Legislature, which was then in session, to pass an act 
to incorporate a railway between Lyons and Council 
Bluffs. The meeting was well attended, and Judge 
McCoy was appointed Chairman of a committee of 
four, whose duty it was to present the matter to the 
Legislature and urge the passage of such an act. 
His associates upon the committee were John B. 
Bope, Benjamin Lake and D. P. McDonald. The 
petition was presented on Monday morning, and on 
the following morning an act of incorporation was 
passed by the House. It was sent to the Senate 
by a special messenger, where it was introduced. 
Senator Leffingwell procured a suspension of the 
rules and it passed to its third reading in 20 minutes, 
after which it received the Governor's signature and 
immediately became a law, in January, 1851. 

In order to procure the passage of this act, Judge 
McCoy had pledged himself to secure the passage of 
an act by the Illinois Legislature to grant a charter 
for a railroad from Fulton to intersect the proposed 
Illinois Central Road at or near Dixon. He im- 
mediately called a railroad meeting at Fulton, and 
secured a well signed petition for a charter for a rail- 
road from Fulton City eastward. Although the Illi- 
nois Legislature was almost at the close of its session, 
by prompt and energetic action he secured before its 
adjournment a passage of the bill he desired, which 
provided for the construction of the Mississippi & 
Rock River Junction Railroad, now the Chicago & 

No sooner were these preliminaries successfully 
accomplished than a serious obstacle arose in the 
form of another line of road just chartered to run 
from Beloit, Wis., to Rock Island, 111. The inter- 
ests of the two roads were in conflict. A desperate 
effort was made by the managers of the latter road 


to defeat the project of building the Mississippi & 
Rock River Junction Railroad. Mr. McCoy took up 
the gauntlet, and with his characteristic energy called 
railroad meetings, made as many as three speeches 
a week in the interest of the road, until the total 
amout of capital stock was subscribed. He spent 
three years in soliciting an aggregate of $750,000. 
He secured a topographical map of the v. estern slope 
from the Pacific to the top of the Sierras, which he 
used in his address, and prophesied that within 25 
years the achievements would take place which he 
actually did witness within 17 years! 

May i, 1852, at a meeting of stockholders held 
at Union Grove, the following named gentlemen 
were elected officers of the road : James McCoy, 
President; Directors J. T. Atkinson, Royal Jacobs, 
Charles Dement, Benjamin Lake, Elijah Buel, John 
Phelps and A. W. Benton. 

Judge McCoy was still the leading spirit in this en- 
terprise, and by wise and close procedure the con- 
struction of the road was assured. He issued the 
first $^00,000 in bonds, and let the contract to build 
the road. Ground was first broken in February, 1853, 
and in April following the Michigan Central and 
Galena & Chicago Union Railroad Companies came 
forward and took stock to the amount of $405,000 
in that portion of the road lying between Dixon and 
Fulton. From that date its success was assured. 

Mr. McCoy was elected its first President and 
served as director of the road several years, and 
as the attorney of the company under its different 
managements till about 1879, when he resigned, to 
devote himself to his local practice. 

He was elected -Judge of the County Court of \ 
Whiteside County, in 1857, with common-law juris- 
diction, but resigned in his third year of service, as 
he preferred his regular practice. He was elected a 
Delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1869- 
70, to form a new State Constitution, and was made 
Chairman of one of the most important committees, 
that of State, County and Municipal Indebtedness. 
He also served on the Judiciary Committee and on 
three others of great importance. 

Judge McCoy was led through his warm interest 
in educational matters to accept a place on the Board 
of Trustees of the Illinois Soldiers' College, located 
at Fulton City, now known as the " Northern College 
of Illinois," and held that position several years. 



In politics Mr. McCoy was originally a Whig and 
cast his first Presidential vote for Harrison. On 
the adjustment of political matters and the conse- 
quent re-organization of parties, he became a Repub- 
lican, and has voted with that party since. He was 
a Delegate to the National Convention of 1864, which 
renominated Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency, 
and was a Presidential Elector of 1868. 

Mr. and Mrs. McCoy have had a family of seven 
children, of whom six are living : Melvina is the 
widow of Hon. Robert E. Logan, of Union Grove; 
William J. married Marie Aylesworth. Addison W. 
married Georgiana Freeman, and is practicing medi- 
cine at Wichita, Kan.; Augustine is a lumber mer- 
chant of Iowa; Edward, the youngest, is a lumber 
dealer of Sioux Rapids, Iowa. 

iram Austin, a farmer of Lyndon Town- 
ship, resident on section 4, is the oldest son 
of Stewart and Eliza (Reynolds) Austin. 
He was born Sept. 4, 1828, in Rutland Town- 
ship, Tioga Co., Pa., where his parents were 
early settlers. As soon as he obtained a suit- 
able growth he aided his father in the pioneer labors 
of the farm, helping to clear the timber away, and in 
the tillage of the soil. He obtained his education, 
attending school in the winter seasons. 

His father came to Illinois in 1847, leaving him 
to arrange the incomplete affairs relating to the 
estate. He set out to rejoin the family in Septem- 
ber, 1848, leaving Elmira, and traveling to Buffalo 
on the canal. He came from there on a steamboat 
to Chicago, and walked from that city to Lyndon in 
three days. His first labor in Whiteside County was 
with a threshing-machine, and the next year he 
worked on his father's farm. < 

In January, 1855, he was united in marriage to 
Laura, daughter of William C. and Emmeline (Mon- 
roe) Morse. She was born Nov. 21, 1836, in Luzerne 
Co., Pa. Mr. Austin and his brother had purchased 
the homestead, and on the event of his marriage he 
took up his residence thereon. He still occupies 
the place, of which he is sole owner, having bought 
the interest of his brother. The farm comprises 180 
acres, in the best condition for agricultural purposes, 

all in tillage, and fenced, with substantial buildings, 
fruit and shade trees. 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Austin, eight in 
number, were named Celestia E., Lyman R., Em- 
ma, Cora Belle, Lester M., Clara May, Phebe I. 
and Raymond H. ; Emma died in infancy. 

| obert M. Carr, merchant at Fenton Cen- 
ter, who was born Feb. 13, 1854, in the 
township of Fenton. Merrill P. Carr, his 
.- father, came with his father, Timothy Carr, to 
Fenton Township in 1838, when he was but 
eight years of age. Merrill P. Carr was born 
in Vermont, in September, 1830. He married Phebe 
A. Hoffman, a native of Virginia. He settled about 
the time of his marriage on section 20, Fenton 
Township, and at the time of his death, in Septem- 
ber, 1862, he owned 258 acres of land. His widow 
afterwards became the wife of Paschal Davis, and 
they reside in Shelby Co., Mo. 

Robert M. is the second son and second child. 
James, his eldest brother, is a practicing attorney at 
Maysville, Nodaway Co, Mo. Charles W., next 
younger, lives in Lyndon. Clara married Dyer 
Booth, and lives in Barton Co., Mo. Lawren D. is 
County Superintendent of Schools, in Sully Co., Dak. 

Mr. Carr was reared on his father's homestead 
and educated in the common schools. 

He was married Feb. 25, 1875, to Cynthia L., 
daughter of L. J. and Sarah Robinson. He located 
on a part of his father's estate, of which he is now 
the owner. In 1881 he went to live at Fenton Cen- 
ter, and in February, 1882, in company with his 
brother, he established a mercantile enterprise. They 
conducted their joint business two years, when R. M. 
Carr became by purchase sole proprietor, and has 
since managed his affairs singly. In 1884 he leased 
the elevator at Fenton Center and has since been 
engaged in traffic in grain and stock. In the spring 
of 1885 he began the sale of agricultural implements. 
He is Postmaster of Fenton, to which he was ap- 
pointed in 1882. 

They are the parents of five children, namely : 
Minnie A., Clara E., Sarah A., Linneus M. and 
Mary L. 

f, ,-s 




OC"X> ^ 

A. West, of the firm of Hollinshead & 
!? West, dealers in clothing and gentlemen's 
furnishing goods at Morrison, was born 
April 8, 1856, in Clyde Township, Whiteside 
County. He is a son of Benjamin and Mary 
(Whitley) West, and was reared on a farm, re- 
ceiving a good common-school education. 

He came to Morrison when 2 1 years of age and 
entered the employ of Knox & Brown, grocers, as a 
salesman, operating in their interests two years. He 
officiated in the same capacity for Brown Bros, and 
John Snyder & Co., respectively, one year. In 1881 
he formed a partnership with R. P. Hollinshead and 
embarked in the business enterprise in which they 
are still jointly interested. Their stock includes a 
full line of well assorted goods common to their busi- 
ness. They own the building they are occupying. 

Mr. West is one of the Councilmen of Morrison, 
and he belongs to the Order of Odd Fellows. 

^.enry Rollins Sampson, Mayor of Morrison, 
is a descendant of one of the company 
of devoted pilgrims who came to Mas- 
sachusetts in the Mayflower, in 1620. He is 
descended from a later generation, which in- 
cluded the children of Miles Standish and 
John Alden and Priscilla Mullins, who intermarried. 
Henry Sampson, his first recorded ancestor, was a 
child when he came to Plymouth, and was a member 
of the family of his uncle, Edward Tilley. This fact 
became known through' the record made by Governor 
Bradford himself, and which was not discovered un- 
til 236 years afterward. Governor Bradford speaks 
of "the youth, Henery Samson," which accounts for 
the absence of his name from the compact which 
was made hi the cabin of* the Mayflower, and also 
shows that its original orthography omitted the letter 
" p," which was incorporated therein by subsequent 
generations. The lines of descent are remarkably well 
defined, and in but one single instance are clouded 
by lack of direct evidence. This, however, is obviated 
by accumulation of negative testimony to an extent 
.that substantiates the unbroken lineage. Henry 


Sampson married Ann Plummer, and they became 
the parents of 10 children. His youngest son, Caleb, 
married Mercy Standish, the grand-daughter of Cap- 
tain Miles Standish, and the daughter of Alexander 
Standish, who married Sarah Alden, daughter of v / 
John Alden and Priscilla Mullens, whose courtship is 
the subject of one of the sweetest poems in the 
English language. David, eldest son of Caleb and 
Mercy Sampson, was born in Duxbury, and married 
Mary Chaffin. Chapin, their youngest son, was 
born in Marshfield, Sept. 21, 1735, and married 
Elizabeth Clift. He was a shipmaster, and is the 
first of the family on record as following a seafaring 
life. Job Sampson, his son, was born in Duxbury, 
Sept. 19, 1766, and married Betsey Winsor. They 
had four children, three sons and a daughter. Henry 
Briggs, the eldest child, was born July 14, 1787, and 
married Nancy Turner, who was born in Scituate, 
Mass., May 8, 1787. They had eight children. 
Francis E. is the wife of W. S. Wilkinson, one of the 
most prominent citizens of Morrison, and now living 
there in retirement. Ann B. is deceased. Henry Rol- 
lins was born Sept. 6, 1819, in Duxbury, Mass. John 
T. is deceased. Julia T. is the wife of Charles N. 
Russell, a retired merchant at Sterling. Georgiana 
married Charles P. Mallett, son of Colonel Mallett, 
of New York, and grandson of James Fenner, Gov- 
ernor of Rhode Island. They are living at Joplin, 
Mo. Florence H. married E. H. Whitman, a farmer 
near Como, Whiteside County. Albert S. is a mer- 
chant at Sterling. Henry Briggs Sampson also be- 
came a shipmaster, and after following a seafaring 
life some years, was associated with his brother in a 
mercantile enterprise for a few years, after which he 
removed with his family to Gardner, Maine, and re- 
sumed his former position as a captain in the mer- > 
chant service. Two years later, in 1836, he came 
West to Tremont, 111., whence he came, about 1839, 
to Hopkins Township, and was one of the earliest 
settlers on the present site of Como. His mother 
was the oldest of the colony who located there, and 
died at Como, Oct, 5, 1854. The senior Sampson 
located on a farm, where he kept a hotel for the ac- 
commodation of the many travelers and prospectors 
in the county. He died at Como Dec. 31, 1865. 

Mr. Sampson is the third child of his parents, and 
remained under their authority until he was 15 
years of age. He obtained a good practical educa- 
tion at the academies at Duxbury, Mass., and Gard- 
MS *^ ' 

- ... - 












ner, Maine, and, possessing a reflective temperament, 
was at an early age the master of the limited cur- 
riculum of the schools of the period. In 1835 he 
obtained a clerkship in Boston, 'and later entered a 
large shipping establishment in the same city, as 
general assistant, where he was employed several 

He came to Morrison in 1858 and entered upon 
the duties of the position of deputy-clerk, under his 
brother-in-law, W. S. Wilkinson. He was re -ap- 
pointed and served an aggregate of eight years. 

In 1865, in partnership with Col. D. R. Clendenen, 
he embarked in a mercantile enterprise, which rela- 
tion was in existence about one year. In 1872, 
associated with A. W. Warren, he opened an ab- 
stract office at Morrison, and they operated in part- 
nership until July, 1882. Soon after the termination 
of their relations, Mr. Sampson formed his present 
business association with his nephew, Henry B. Wil- 
kinson, and they are the owners of the only set of 
abstracts of Whiteside County. They are also trans- 
acting a popular and profitable business in real 
estate and loans. 

Mr. Sampson has been an active and useful citizen 
of Whiteside County since the beginning of his resi- 
dence therein. In 1861 he was elected Town Clerk 
and served three successive terms. In 1861 he was 
elected to his first term as Supervisor of Mt. Pleasant 
Township, and has since been re-elected until the 
aggregate period of his official terms in that capacity 
is eight years. He was a member of the State Board 
of Equalization about two years, and has officiated 
six years as Councilman of Morrison. Among other 
important services which he has rendered was that of 
Chairman of the Water Works Committee, in which 
he accomplished a permanent benefit to the city of 
Morrison. At the point where the water works are now 
located there was a seemingly exhaustless natural 
spring, and it was in his opinion a desirable location 
for the purpose. He proved the value of his judg- 
ment by experiment, sinking a well of sufficient 
dimensions to thoroughly test its capacity. The 
necessary excavation led through the soil to bed- 
rock, on which the foundation of the masonry is 
placed ; and in this a basin has been blasted, into 
which the water flows through interstices in the rock, 
and of remarkable purity. He superintended the 
construction of the works until their completion, and 

they form one of the attractions of Morrison, as well 
as one of the most valuable acquisitions of the place. 
Mr. Sampson was elected Mayor of Morrison, April 
21, 1885, receiving an unanimous vote. 

His marriage to Emma L. Dickinson took place at 
Boston, Sept. 27, 1858. Kate Power Sampson, their 
only child, was born in July, 1859. She died sud- 
denly of heart disease March 27, 1878, going from 
life before a taint of worldliness had touched her 
glad young spirit and while existence was in its sil- 
very bloom of hope and joy. She is 

Safe from all sin and all sorrow. 

And safe from the world's luring strife. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sampson are members of the Univers- 
alist Church. 

The portrait of Mr. Sampson appears on a preced- 
ing page. His character is plainly apparent from 
the data given of his course of life since he became 
a citizen of Morrison. His entire record is one of 
probity, integrity and ability, the quality of his judg- 
ment and mental balance rendering him an efficient 
factor in all public enterprises. 

_amuel M. Ladd, jeweler and optician at 
Morrison, was born Nov. 15, 1857, in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, and is the son of John A. 
and Mary E. (Molt) Ladd. His father was 
one of the pioneer telegraphers in Chicago and 
the West, and for many years conductor and 
superintendent of railroad, and in charge of United 
States transportation during the War : he is now a 
resident of Sterling. He is one of the most promin- 
ent Masons in Illinois, being Grand High Priest of 
the State. 

Mr. Ladd is the oldest of the six children belong- 
ing to the family, of whom two are deceased. Marian 
E. lives at Morrison. Mabel E. and Fannie K. are 
the youngest children. The son completed his edu- 
cational course at the High School of Sterling, and in 
the spring of 1879 he entered the jewelry store of 
Clark & Giddings to learn the business, and passed 
two years in his apprenticeship. At the end of that 
time the firm of Sackett & Ladd was formed and they 
opened business at Sterling, continuing their relations 
and operations there three years. 
In June, 1884, Mr. Ladd came to Morrison and 



established his business alone. He has a judiciously 
assorted stock and is doing a good business. He is 
one of the leaders in his line of traffic in the western 
part of Whiteside County, and is the only exclusive 
dealer in jewelry at Morrison. He makes a specialty 
of Johnson's optical goods, and uses Dr. Johnson's 
dioptic meter, to perfectly adjust glasses to the eye 
and determine the lens suited to the case. His 
stock includes a full line of fine goods, solid and 
plated ware, jewelry, watches and all other articles 
common to similar establishments. 

Mr. Ladd is an earnest member of the Presbyterian 
Church. He takes a deep interest in Sunday-school 
matters and is the Secretary of the Central District 
Sunday-school organization. 

s6v "& rae- 

.dwin Old, farmer, upon section seven, 
Clyde Township, is a citizen of this coun- 
try by adoption, having been born Feb. 26, 
1815, in Wakefield, Yorkshire, Eng. _His father 
and mother, Thomas and Elizabeth (Brooks) 
Old, were both natives of the same shire where 
the son was born, and were able to trace their line of 
ancestral descent to a very early period in the history 
of Great Britain. -The father was a cloth manufac- 
turer by profession and both he and his wife spent 
their entire lives where they were born. 

Mr. Old was 12 years of age when he began to ac- 
quire a knowledge of the calling of his father. He 
served a regular apprenticeship and followed the 
business until he was 25 years old in the place of his 
nativity, In 1840 he emigrated to the United States 
and first located in the State of New Jersey. He went 
thence to Cairo, Greene Co., N. Y., where he ob- 
tained employment in the cloth manufacturing es- 
tablishment of Horace Austin & Co., and operated in 
the interests of the firm five years. 

He was married June 17, 1841, in Cairo, to Ann 
Platt, and they have been the parents of seven chil- 
dren, of whom four survive : William, who married 
Georgiana Rhodes and resides at Clinton, Iowa; 
Adaline married Robert Davis, who is a gardener at 
Morrison; Frances married Thomas Gulliland, a 
farmer in Usttck Township. Ellen lives with her 
parents. The father and mother of Mrs. Old, John 
and Betty (Beens) Platt, were natives of Yorkshire. 

Her father was a weaver. They came with their 
family of three children to America. Mrs. Old was 
born Jan. 12, 1822, in Yorkshire, and is the oldest 
child and at the time of the removal of the family to 
the United States she was six years of age. They 
located in Cairo, Greene Co., N. Y., and there her 
father died in 1849. The mother died about 1831. 

After they had been married five years, Mr. and 
Mrs. Old went to Hobart, Delaware Co., N. Y., and 
in the year following returned to Greene Co., N. Y., 
locating in Windham for a time, whence they went 
to Haverstraw, in Rockland County, in the same 
State. After a residence there of three years they 
went to New Jersey. One year later they made a 
final change in their affairs and set out westward, 
coming to Clyde Township, where a number of 
English families from Yorkshire had located together 
with others from the eastern portion of the State of 
New York. 

Mr. Old purchased 40 acres of land on his arrival 
and set diligently about the work of improving his 
property and developing the general welfare of the 
community so far as lay within the reach of his indi- 
vidual influence. The entire section was almost 
wholly unimproved, and houses were few. There 
were literally no fences. The family encountered 
the novel experiences of pioneer life, but instead of 
being disheartened pressed eagerly forward in the 
work of making a home. The homestead estate now 
comprises 200 acres, with 160 acres under improve- 
ment. Mr. and Mrs. Old are members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, of England. 

If ease Johnson (deceased) was born in Troy, 
fa N. Y., April 2, 1798, and was the son of 
John and Sarah (Conkle) Johnson. His 
father was a graduate of Yale College, a 
soldier of the Revolution and a prominent at- 
torney of New York. Jesse went to Loweville, 
Lewis Co., N. Y., while a young man, where he was 
married Feb. 8, 1822, to Miss Mary Webb. They 
had four boys and eight girls : Mary, wife of Carlos 
Ware, of Fulton Township. Sarah, wife of William 
Knight, died in December, 1863. Charles J. mar- 
ried Mary Exley, and is an attorney of Sterling, 111. 
Harriet, wife of William C. Green, the present May 










of Fulton. John was an attorney of LeClaire, Iowa; 
he married Olive Abbott, and died in July, 1884, 
leaving a wife and seven children. Edmoud L. 
married Mahala Wright, was a soldier of the late war 
and died in 1862, leaving a wife and son. Cornelia 
died in infancy. Cornelia P. is the wife of Richard 
Green, a merchant of Fulton, 111. Henrietta, wife of 
Charles Davidson, a locomotive engineer of Bloom- 
ington, 111. Anna M., widow of William Reed and a 
resident of Clinton,' Iowa. Eliza, wife of Samuel 
Denison, of Port Byron, 111. Caleb C., the youngest, 
is an attorney of Sterling and a Representative to 
the State Legislature from Whiteside County. He 
married Josephine Worthington. 

Mr. Johnson moved from New York to Indiana in 
1832, and in June, 1838, came to Fulton, 111. He 
spent the summer at the village and in the fall moved 
to a farm about five miles distant, and was one of 
the very first to begin farming in the- county. He 
remained on his farm till 1853, when he returned to 
the city and in company with his son-in-law, William 
Knight, purchased and put in operation the first steam 
ferry between Fulton and Lyons. He subsequently 
formed a partnership with Daniel Oliver in the 
grocery business at Fulton, but retired from business 
several years prior to his death, which occurred Oct. 
12, 1876, at his residence in Fulton. His wife sur- 
vived him till April, 1879. She was an estimable 
lady and highly respected. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson 
were members of the Baptist Church for many years. 

Mr. Johnson was a Whig in early life and on the 
organization of the Republican party, became an 
earnest supporter of its policy. He never sought 
public office and only once served in a. public 
capacity at Fulton, that of Road_Commissioner. 

ichard Beswick, deceased, was formerly 
a resident on section 31, Clyde Township, 
where he settled in 18 . He was born 
Sept. 12, 1810, in Scarborough, Yorkshire, 
England, and died at his home July 7, 1884. 
His demise was very sudden and was the re- 
sult of blood clot obstructing the action of the heart. 
Richard Beswick, senior, and Elizabeth (Naggs) 
Beswick, his wife, father and mother of the subject 
of this biographical sketch, were natives of England 
and belonged to the old class of yeomanry. The 

*- *rz ^< 

son was 19 years of age when the family came to the 
New World and located in the vicinity of the city of 
Toronto. Richard Beswick, junior, was there mar- 
ried and resided in the Dominion about three years 
after that event, when with his family he removed to 
Clyde Township. Both township and county were 
in the earliest period of their development and the 
former was still unnamed. Mr. Beswick at once 
purchased a tract of land and began the tedious 
though pleasant work of making a home. The first 
grain he raised was marketed at Chicago and Galena, 
and drawn thither by horse teams. His wife, Sally 
(Patrick) Beswick, died about 1844, leaving a son 
and a daughter. George died of measles while serv- 
ing as a soldier for the Union. Belinda is the wife 
of Richard Tyre, an extensive farmer of Dakota 
Territory, owning 400 acres of land in Union 

After the decease of his wife Mr. Beswick returned 
to Canada and removed his parents to Clyde Town- 
ship, where they remained during the rest of their 
lives. They died at the residence of their son, but 
had chiefly made their home with a married daugh- 
ter in Clyde Township. They were aged, respec- 
tively, about 75 and 60 years. 

March 24, 1849, Mr. Beswick was married to Mrs. 
Hannah E. Humphrey. She was born March 16, 
1821, in Northport Township, Waldo Co., Maine, 
and is the daughter of George W. and Lydia (Dun- 
can) Knight. Her parents were natives of the Pine- 
Tree State, born of New England ancestry, and of 
English extraction, save a slight admixture of Irish 
blood in the predecessors of the father. The mother 
died in 1831, leaving n children, eight of whom yet 

Mrs. Beswick was sixth in order of birth and was 
but ten years of age when her mother was removed 
by death. Her father was again married, in Maine, 
and of the second union one son (nw de- 
ceased) was born. Later the father took six of the 
younger children and went to Ohio and settled on a 
farm near Grandville, Licking County. He was 
again married while living there, and later came to 
Fulton, Whiteside County. The father died there 
Feb. 12, 1866. His wife died at her brother's home, 
in the southern part of Illinois, shortly after coming 
to the State. Both were in advanced life. 

The first marriage of Mrs. Beswick, to Alvaro 
Humphrey, occurred June 22, 1838, in Licking Co. 


Ohio. He was a native of the county and was the 
son of a farmer who was born in New England and 
who had .become a pioneer of the Buckeye State in 
its earliest development. His father died in Cincin- 
nati, the mother in Licking County. The death of 
Mr. Humphrey took place in the county of his na- 
tivity April 22, 1847, and he left two sons, George 
and Lorenzo. The former married Lucy Van Damark 
and is a farmer in Brown Co., Kan. The younger child, 
died in Fulton soon after the removal of his mother 
to Illinois. After the death of her husband Mrs. 
Beswick came to Whiteside County and was an in- 
mate of the family of hei brother, William Knight, un- 
til she became the wife of Mr. Beswick. Of this 
union five children have been born, William A., 
Thomas L., Lizzie, Carrie and Sarah. The latter 
died when five years of age. 

Mr. Beswick was a useful and influential citizen of 
his township and served 14 years as Supervisor, act- 
ing continuously during that period. He held var- 
ious other offices and was actively interested in 
educational matters. He was a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Frederick J. Beuzeville, dealer in boots, 
shoes, harnesses, etc., at Morrison, was 
born April 17, 1849, in Vienna, Ontario 
Co., N. Y., and is the son of George and 
Miriam (Prescott) Beuzeville. His parents 
were born in England, and in 1842 emigrated 
to the United States, and located in Ontario Co., N. 
Y. In 1854 the family came to Morrison, and nine 
years later went to Lyons, low.a. They went thence 
in 1882 to Plankington, Aurora Co., Dak., where 
they are still resident. 

Mr. Beuzeville learned his trade of his father, who 
has followed the business of a harness-maker in the 
various places where he has been located. The son 
began to acquire a knowledge of its various details 
at Lyons, Iowa, when he was 17 years of age, and 
after working under his father's supervision until 
1869, he came to Morrison and established the busi- 
ness enterprise in which he has since been engaged. 
In 1872 he bought the building which he first oper- 
ated, and the site therewith, and on the latter in 
1875 he erected the brick building which he now oc- 

cupies, situated on the principal business street at 
Morrison. Mr. Beuzeville owns also his residence 
and two valuable city lots in the vicinity of the fair- 

Jan. 5, 1874, he formed a matrimonial alliance 
with Maria Evans, and they have three children : 
Eva, born Jan. 20, 1875 ; Lela, April, 17, 1877 ; and 
Mabel, May 7, 1879. Mrs. Beuzeville was born 
March 2, 1855, at Auburn, Steuben Co., Ind., and is 
the daughter of Erastus and Caroline (Frink) Evans. 
Her mother was born May i, 1827, in Eaton, Madi- 
son Co., N. Y. Her father was born in 1824, in 
Hastings, N. Y., and died when he was 31 years of 
age, before the birth of his daughter. 

.imon Stapleton, farmer in Clyde Town- 
ship, located on section 18, was born Dec. 
25, 1827, in Earleaten, Yorkshire, England. 
William Stapleton, his father, was a dresser 
of woolen goods and married Susan Tong. 
Both were of English parentage and ancestry, 
and they had nine children. 

Simon is the sixth child, and when he was 14 
years of age the father, mother and seven youngest 
children came to America. The children whom they 
left behind had become the heads of families. The 
family landed at the port of New York in April, 1841. 
They went thence to Jersey City, where the father 
found remunerative employment in a pottery and 
continued to labor in the same establishment two 
years. In 1843 they removed to Little Falls, in 
the same State, where the senior Stapleton obtained 
a situation in the same business in which he was en- 
gaged in his native country, in 1845 another trans- 
fer was made to. Bloomfield, N. J., where the 
father worked three years as a cloth dresser. At the 
expiration of that time they removed to West Hobo- 
ken, N. J., in the vicinity of the city of New York. 

Prior to this period, Mr. Stapleton had remained 
an inmate of the household of his father, but on their 
locating at Hoboken he determined to fit himself for 
the calling of a carpet weaver, and after spending 
five years in the accomplishment of his purpose he 
went with his father and family from Holwken to 
Haverstraw, on the Hudson River. There he and 
his father obtained employment in the mills and were 



occupied some time in the pursuit of their respective 
callings. Meanwhile he was married and later came 
West, his father going to Yonkers, in the State of 
New York, in r85i, where he remained about 
two years, and while he maintained his residence 
there visited his native home in England. After his 
return to the United States, he removed to Astoria, 
L. I. A year later he went to Franklin, where he 
died Dec. 25, 1858, aged 67 years. The widowed 
mother returned to Yonkers and died there in 1860. 

The marriage of Mr. Stapleton to Mary Wood took 
place April 21, at Poughkeepsie. She was born Oct. 
17, 1829, in Saddleworth, Yorkshire, England, and is 
the daughter of Joseph and Mary (Browbent) Wood. 
They belonged to the class who worked in the 
factories of that country, and when the daughter was 
12 years of age, in 1841, the family emigrated to 
America, locating in Haverstraw. Later on they 
went to Webster, Mass., where they resided two 

In 1850 Mr. and Mrs. Stapleton and the parents 
of the latter came to Whiteside County, and were 
among the very earliest of its permanent pioneer ele- 
ment. Mr. Wood died May 9, 1884, ten years lack- 
ing one month subsequent to the death of his wife, 
which occurred April 9, 1874. They had four chil- 
dren, the two eldest being twins, of whom Mrs. 
Stapleton is one. She has, herself, been the mother 
of 12 children, nine of whom are living. Susan mar- 
ried Frank Mills, a farmer of Clyde Township. 
Joseph married Nellie Leech and removed to a farm 
in Clark County, D. T. James married Phebe 
Fletcher and is a resident of the county last named. 
Simon is also living in Dakota. Lucy married Pierce 
Smith, of Union Grove Township, and he'is em- 
ployed by the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad 
corporation as a telegraph operator. Jane is the wife, 
of Morris Weaver, a farmer of Mt. Pleasant Town- 
ship. Charles, Frederick and Edward are the names 
of the youngest children who survive. Mary A. died 
when she was 21 years old. William died in infancy. 

On coming to Clyde Township, Mr. and Mrs. 
Stapleton located on 40 acres of land given them by 
the parents of the fotmer. On this they have main- 
tained their homestead without intermission, with the 
exception of two years, when they lived at Port By- 
ron, Rock Island Co., 111. They have added materially 
to their original acreage and now own 260 acres of 

(gVV^g^CT , 

well improved land, including 20 acres in- timber. 
Mr. Stapleton has made all the improvements on his 
place, which is one of the best in Clyde Township. 
He is an earnest Republican and influential in 
politics in the locality where he is a citizen. He has 
devoted his interest and energies to the educational 
development of the township and has served in the 
several official positions of the school district in 
which he resides. 

"ohn H. Snyder, senior member of the firm 
of Snyder & Co., merchants "at Morrison, 
was born Aug. 16, 1840, in Argusville, 
Schoharie Co., N. Y. His father, James Sny- 
der, was born in the State of New York, where 
he was for some years engaged in the mercan- 
tile business. He is a resident of Morrison and is 
about 77 years of age. The mother, Nancy (Runkle) 
Snyder, was a native of New York, and has been 
some years deceased. The four children of whom 
they became the parents still survive. Mary is the 
wife of L. H. Robinson, of Chicago, who is operating 
in that city as a loan and real-estate broker. Har- 
riet N. lives in Chicago. James A. is engaged in 
conducting a branch store in Clarence, Iowa. 

Until he was 20 years of age, Mr. Snyder was 
chiefly engaged in obtaining his education, and in 
1855 he accompanied the family of his father to 
Morrison. His first employ was as a clerk in the 
dry-goods house of Spears & Bro., in which capacity 
he officiated about four years, when he was admitted 
to a partnership and the firm style became Spears & 
Co. Its relations were in existence four years, and 
in 1868 he went to Clarence, Iowa, where, in com- 
pany with his brother, he established the mercantile 
enterprise which is now under the management of 
his brother. He instituted the business which he 
has since prosecuted in 1876, and is operating with 
satisfactory results. His stock includes fine and well 
assorted lines of dry goods. 

He is a member of the Masonic fraternity and be- 
longs to Lodge No. 357, at Morrison. He owns 
considerable property in the city, and is a stock- 
holder and director in the First National Bank at 

Mr. Snyder was married July 20, 1867, in Morri- 
son, to Mary Furlong, and they have two children, 


Jessie H. and Alliene. Mrs. Snyder is the daughter 
,j of John and Sarah Furlong and was born Jan 25, 
1847, in New York. 

homas L. Beswick, farmer, section 30, 
Clyde Township, was born Nov. 15, 1852, 
on section 3 of the township of which he 
has been a life-long resident. He is the son of 
Richard and Hannah E. (Knight) Beswick, of 
whom a biographical narration appears on 
other pages of this work. They were among the first 
settlers of the county and the son is one of the first 
white children born in Clyde Township. 

Mr. Beswick was educated in the common schools 
and brought up with a complete practical knowledge 
of fanning. He was married Dec. 30, 1875, to Sarah, 
daughter of Chester W. and Ann (Milnes) Millard. 
The father was born in Pennsylvania and was of 
English descent. The mother was born in England 
and when but four years of age came to America 
with her parents, who located in Whiteside County 
in the very earliest period of its history. The par- 
ents were married in Clyde Township, where they 
resided during the entire period of their married life, 
which was terminated by the death of the father in 
August, 1 88 1. Mr. Millard was a miller by vocation 
and erected the first mill in Clyde Township, which 
was located on Rock Creek, in the east part of the 
town. He sold that property later on and con- 
structed a second mill on a branch of the creek, sit- 
uated about the center of the town, of which he 
retained the ownership during the remainder of his 
life. He died of cancer on the hand, at 63 years of 
age. Mrs. Beswick is their only child and was born 
April 9, 1855, in Clyde Township. She was educated 
at the common schools of her native township and at 
Morrison, obtaining a more extended course of study 
at Lowell, Mass. She devoted some time to teach- 
ing previous to her marriage. Four children have 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. Beswick in the order 
named: George C., Nov. 19, 1876; Florence A., 
Aug. 2, 1878; Clarence W., June 23, 1880; Carrie 
E., Aug. 15, 1882. 

After marriage Mr. Beswick rented farms situated 
at different points in Clyde Township, and operated 
in that method until 1885, when he purchased 210 

acres of the homestead of his father. He is an ex- 
perienced and skillful farmer and is making a spe- 
ciality of raising Poland China swine and Short-Horn 
cattle. He is a Democrat and has served his town- 
ship for some time in the capacity of .Collector. Mrs. 
Beswick is a member of the Episcopal Church. 

ames Stapleton, farmer, section 5, Clyde 
Township, is the owner of 199 acres of 
land, on which he has been a resident since 
1858, and which became his property by pur- 
chase four years earlier. He was born Feb. 
28, 1830, at Earl's Eaton, Yorkshire, England: 
is the son of William and Susan Stapleton, of whom 
a biographical sketch appears on other pages. He 
was 1 1 years of age when his parents came from 
their native country with their family to America, lo- 
cating first at Paterson, N. J. Soon afterwards they 
went to Jersey City. When he was 16 years old he 
entered the carpet factory of Shepherd, Sines & Co., 
of Jersey City, to learn the method of weaving in- 
grain carpet, and spent two years in the accom- 
plishment of his purpose. He went from Jersey City 
to Haverstraw on the Hudson River, located near 
Sing Sing, where he obtained a situation in- the ex- 
tensive establishment of Higgins & Co. He was 
employed by that firm five years. He went next to 
Franklin, N. J., and was there five years. In 1858 
he came to Clyde Township and took possession of 
the farm on which he has since resided, and which 
his brother secured for him in 1854. He was un- 
married and made his home as convenience or op- 
portunity served, and June 29, 1861, he was married 
to Sarah J. Simpson. Two children have been born to 
them, George B., born July 24, 1864, and John V., 
Sept. 25, 1867. Mrs. Stapleton is the daughter of 
Israel and Jane (Huston) Simpson. Her parents 
were natives of New Jersey and were of New Eng- 
land origin, in nationality representing the English, 
Dutch and Scotch from whom they were descended. 
They were farmers in their native county, where they 
spent their entire lives. The death of the father 
took place in 1865, at the age of 75 years. The 
mother died in 1870, when she was 74 years old. 
Mrs. Stapleton was born May 4, 1835, in Frankl'n, 
Essex Co., N. J., and she is the seventh of nine chil- 


dren born to her parents. She was educated in the 
public schools and lived in the place of her nativity 
until she came West after marriage. 

The farm on which Mr. and Mrs. Stapleton began 
their wedded lifejiad been somewhat improved and 
is now in excellent agricultural condition with good 
residence and farm buildings and a large and valua- 
ble orchard. 

Politically, Mr. Stapleton is a Republican. 

mil Westphal, liquor dealer at Morrison, 
was born June 24, 1828, in Holstein, Ger- 
many. At an early age he was sent to 
the University of Kiel, where he remained until 
he graduated, March 28, 1848. At the break- 
ing out of war between Denmark and Schles- 
wig-Holstein, he served on the staff of General 
Baudissin until the close of the contest. He also 
took part in the French and Italian revolution. At 
the insurrection of Milan, Italy, he was again en- 
gaged in the cause of liberty, under General Mazini. 
He came to the United States in 1858, first loca- 
ting in Fulton, 111. He found it necessary to engage 
in active labor and obtained a situation in the employ 
of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad, by which 
he was placed in charge of a corps of wood-choppers. 
In 1863 he inaugurated his present business at 
Morrison, which he has prosecuted for more than a 
score of years with .satisfactory results. He is a 
member of the Knights of Pythias. 

Sept. 22, 1867, he was married to Paulina Nomm- 
sen, a native of Schleswig. Their four children were 
born in the following order : Carl, Paula, Fritz and 
Julia. Paula died in 1881. 

aniel P. Spears, of the firm of D. P. Spears 
& Son, dealers in dry goods, hats, notions, 
gentlemen's and ladies' furnishing goods, 
at Morrison, 111., was born Dec. 29, 1822, in 
Milan, Erie Co., Ohio. His father, William W. 
Spears, was born in Pennsylvania and went 
thence to the State of New York, whence, after a 
residence of some years there, he went to Ohio 
where he remained until the termination of his life. 



.ivc of 

The mother, Love (Watkins) Spears, was a native of 
Massachusetts. Of their ten children five are liv- 
ing : Nathan W. is a farmer and merchant in Fay- 
ette Co., Iowa ; Nancy is the widow of Samuel Harper 
and lives in Lawton, Mich.; Betsey is the wife of 
Russell Munger, a retired farmer at Lawton, Mich. ; 
Mary A. married Crowell Eddy, a farmer in the 
township of Clinton, Lenawee Co., Mich., and died 
there March 10, 1885. 

Mr. Spears is the youngest of the children born to 
his parents, and until he was 24 years of age re- 
mained on the farm of his father. Meanwhile his 
brothers, William and Charles, both now deceased, 
had established themselves in business at Pittsburg, 
and at the age named he went there and engaged in 
their employ, where he continued four years. About 
1840 he went to Tecumseh, Lenawee Co., Mich., and 
entered in partnership with his brother, Nathan, 
where they were interested in the manufacture of 
woolen goods. .On the termination of this venture 
he went to White Co., Ind., where, associated with 
W. R. Davis, he embarked in a mercantile enterprise 
in which he was occupied seven years. In 1858 he 
came to Morrison to enter upon the duties of the 
position of salesman in the dry-goods house of 
Spears & Bro. Four years later he purchased a part 
of the building where he is now engaged in the 
transaction of his business and put in a stqck of 
merchandise. He embarked in the enterprise in 
company with Joseph Shafer. This relation existed 
until the death of the latter, when Mr. Spears pur- 
chased the claims of the heirs of his late partner, 
and became associated with James Shafer, nephew 
of the deceased. Two years later he became by pur- 
chase sole proprietor of the establishment and until 
September, 1884, conducted the business alone. At 
that date he purchased the store and stock of Chas. 
Spears & Son, situated adjoining, opened communi- 
cation between the sales-rooms and is now transact- 
ing business in the double store. At the date of 
enlargement he admitted his son, Frank W., to 
a partnership. Their establishment includes two 
large sales-rooms, 51 by 44 feet in size, and they 
employ four assistants. Their stock is estimated at 
a value of $17,000, and includes a full line of goods 
suited to the local patronage. In the spring of 1885 
Messrs. Spears & Son added a carpet department to 
their business. 

Mr. Spears belongs to the Order of Odd Fellows. 

I ' ' 

r .,|OIS 

f ' 




He is a member of the Board of Aldermen of Mor- 
rison. He owns a farm of 70 acres lying three miles 
south of the city, also 12 acres connected with his 
residence in this place. He is also the owner of 
a half interest in 160 acres of land in White Co., Ind. 
Mr. Spears has been married three times. He 
was first joined in marriage in Milan, Ohio, to Eliz- 
abeth Walbridge, who died two years later, after 
becoming the mother of one child, who died in in- 
fancy. Mr. Spears was again married, in White Co., 
Ind., to Sarah J. Burns, who survived between two 
and three years. Dec. 6, 1858, Mr. Spears con- 
tracted a third marriage at Monticello, Ind., with 
Mary Shafer. Their five children were born at 
Morrison. Frank W. is the oldest and is in business 
with his father. Fred is the next in order of birth. 
Burt C. is a clerk in the store. Maggie J. and James 
are the two youngest. 

jtarlan ]j. Brewer, proprietor of the "Brewer 
House " at Rock Falls, was born at Black 
Rock, N. Y., Feb. 7, 1845. His parents, 
Addison and Maria (Adams) Brewer, farmers, 
came West in 1846 and settled at Bingham 
ton, Lee Co., 111., on land which they bought of 
the Government. After a residence there of five 
years they removed to Dixon, 111., where Mr. B. 
started a wagon shop and pursued his business there 
a year. He then sold out and returned to Bing- 
hamton, purchasing a hotel, whiph he conducted 
until his death, which was caused by his team run- 
ning away and throwing him out upon the ground. 

When 1 6 years old, young Harlan enlisted in Co. 
B, i2th 111. Vol. Inf., Sept. T3, 1861, under Col. 
John McArthur, and participated in many im- 
portant engagements, among which were the battles 
of Fort Donaldson, Shiloh, Corinth, in front of At- 
lanta, etc., and in Sherman's march to the sea. He 
veteranized Dec. 31, 1863, and took part in the Grand 
Review at Washington. He was mustered out at 
Louisville, Ky.,July 10, 1865. 

Returning from the war, he for two years was a 
brakeman on the Illinois Central Railroad, and then 
promoted as conductor. He followed railroading 
for 13 years. He next took charge of the "Baltic 
House " as proprietor, changing its name to " Brewer 

House," which he is now successfully conducting. 
He is a member of the A. O. TJ. W. and of the G. 
A. R. In politics he is a Republican, and he has 
held the offices of Village Trustee and Constable at 
Rock Falls. 

He was married Dec. 31, 1866, to Miss Amelia 
Doolittle, a native of Binghamton, Broome Co., N. 
Y. They have had two children : Stella May, born 
Nov. 10, 1869; and Villette D., June 25, 1878, who 
died June 28, 1883. 

li Upton, retired farmer, residing at Mor- 
rison, has lived in Whiteside County since 
1844. He was born Sept. 28, i8ir, in 
Peterboro, N. H. His parents, Eli and Abi- 
gail (Snow) Upton, resided in the farming com- 
munity in the Granite State, and consequently 
their son was brought up on a farm. Before he 
reached his majority he had acquired a thorough 
knowledge of the trade of machinist and passed 14 
years in its pursuit. He operated ten years in Mas- 
sachusetts and in Dover, N. H., with satisfactory 
results. In 1840 he went to Sonora, -Mexico, where 
he passed four years in the construction of a cotton 
factory, which he put in complete running order. In 
1844 he determined on an entire change in his mode 
of life. He therefore came to Whiteside County and 
bought a farm in Lyndon Township, on which he re- 
sided and was occupied in its improvement ten years. 
In 1854 he transferred his residence to a farm on 
section 32, in the town of Mt. Pleasant. His original 
purchase there is still in his possession and he is the 
owner of 800 acres of land in the township, which 
constitutes one of the most valuable homesteads in 
Whiteside County and is all improved and perfectly 
equipped. Among its attractions is a valuable and 
elegant farm residence, built at an expense of $7,000. 
In the spring of 1882 Mr. Upton entered upon a life 
of retirement at Morrison. Associated with his son, 
he is the owner of three imported French Norman 
horses, each of which cost $2,000. They own, besides, 
one valuable animal of half Norman blood and a 
trotting stallion. Mr. Upton and his son take great 
satisfaction in their valuable and beautiful horses, 
and are justifiable in so doing, as they have added 


5 s 




materially to the value of that variety of property in 
Whiteside County. 

The marriage of Mr. Upton to Elizabeth A. New- 
comb took place in Enfield, Conn., June 15, 1844. 
They have had four children, all sons, three of 
whom are living. They were born in the following 
order: George Y., John E., Joseph S. and Franklin 
A. The oldest is a farmer and is associated with 
his father in the ownership and management of their 
valuable horses. The second son is not living. The 
younger sons are farmers in the township of Mt. 

The portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Upton appear on 
preceding pages. 

yron Stowe, resident on section 2, Union 
Grove Township, has been a farmer of 
Whiteside County since 1855, when he 
came with a company and bought a tract of 
land containing 456 acres lying in the town- 
ships of Union Grove and Mt. Pleasant. 

He was born March 20, 1831, in Weybridge, Ad- 
dison Co., Vt., and is the son of Clarke and Abigail 
(Marsh) Stowe. They were both born in Vermont, 
and the former died there April 18, 1847. The 
mother came after that event to Whiteside County, 
and died in Albany, Nov. 26, 1875. Their children 
six in number lived to mature age. They were 
named Caroline, Mary A., Byron, Milo, Beulah and 

Mr. Stowe remained in his native State until he 
came to Whiteside County, and was engaged in 
farming, after reaching suitable age. In 1855 he 
came to Whiteside County, as stated. He settled 
on the same section on which he is now resident and 
where he owns 112^ acres of land, and has placed 
most of his acreage under cultivation. He is a Re- 
publican in political affiliation, and has held several 
local official positions. 

He was married Aug. 31, 1862, to Mrs. Elvira 
Ellison, daughter of Samuel and Amelia (Keith) 
Bannister, and widow of Gilbert Ellison. The lat- 
ter died in January, 1860, in Cincinnati, Ohio. By 
her earlier marriage she became the mother of one 
child Willard S. Mrs. Stowe was born in Pots- 
dam, St. Lawrence Co., N. Y., Jan. 8, 1834. Her 

Mf. ^^ @^ 

parents removed to Whiteside County about 1850, 
and were residents of Union Grove Township about 
1 8 years, removing thence to Clinton, Iowa. Her 
father died Dec. 20, 1881. Her mother's demise oc- 
curred Feb. 12, 1884. They had five children El- 
len, Elvira, Mary, Prentice and Martin. 

Mr. and Mrs. Stowe have one child Merntt M. 
They are members of the Presbyterian Church. Pettigrew, Postmaster at Rock 
Falls, was born July 8, 1827, at Paisley, 
Renfrewshire, Scotland. When he was 
seven years of age his father, John Pettigrew, 
died ; and his mother, nee Jane Allison, emi- 
grated to this country and died in 1882. 
The subject of this sketch remained with his 
mother and took care of her while she lived, re- 
ceiving in his younger days a common-school educa- 
tion ; came to this country with his mother in the 
fall of 1843, spending the first winter at Sterling, 
111., and lived in Ogle County until 1875, when he 
purchased a farm of 125 acres. After working upon 
the place for a season he sold it, and in 1876 pur- 
chased his present residence. 

He has been elected Justice of the Peace four 
times. He was a Justice for ten years in Ogle 
County, and was elected to the office at Rock Falls 
in the spring of 1876, and held it until he resigned 
"to accept his present position as Postmaster. He was 
Village Trustee for one term, Village Treasurer four 
years, and has held minor offices. He is a zeal- 
ous Republican, a Trustee of the Congregational 
Church, but not a member. By his native talent 
and public services he has become a prominent 
man in his community. He owns several lots in 
Rock Falls, besides the postoffice building on Main 

amuel Currie, retired farmer, resident at 
Morrison, has been a citizen of Whiteside 
County since 1838, when he became a 
member of its pioneer agricultural element, 
and has since been a factor in the develop- 
ment of Northwestern Illinois. He was born 
Aug. 15, 1810, in Roxburgshire, Scotland, on the 



river Tweed. His father, John Carrie, was a native 
of Yetholra, in the same shire, and was born Oct. 25, 
1776. His mother, Hannah (Lockey) Currie was 
born in Ilderton, Northumberlandshire, England, 
Nov. n, 1784. The marriage of his parents took 
place at Jedburgh, May 27, 1805, and in May, 1818, 
the family emigrated to America. They settled at 
first in the State of New York, where they remained 
until November, 1819, when they went to York, 
in Canada (now Toronto). In March, 1820, they 
took possession of a farm in Scarborough, in the 
Dominion, where the father died, Sept. 17, 1830. 
The mother died Dec. 18, 1861, in East Whitby, 
Canada. There are (in 1885), but four survivors of 
their ten children, who were born in the following 
order: Sarah (deceased) was the wife of Joseph 
Lundy. James is living in retirement in the town- 
ship of Whitby, Canada; has been for many years a 
minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church. John 
was a farmer; Andrew was a merchant tailor, and 
Robert, formerly a farmer in Kansas, are all deceased. 
George is engaged in the business of sheep-raising in 
Montana. Mark was during his lifetime a carriage 
builder and blacksmith in Canada. Margaret is de- 
ceased. William resides in Lloyd, Wis., and was a 
millwright before his retirement from active business 

Mr. Currie attained to adult age in the Dominion, 
and when about 24 years of age rented a saw-mill 
and engaged in manufacture of lumber, in which he 
was interested about five years. During that period 
Mackenzie's Rebellion, known also to the history as 
the Patriot War, startled the representatives of the 
British government in the Dominion, and Mr. Currie 
joined the insurgents in the ill-fated struggle. He 
was shot through his right arm in one of the en- 
counters of the conflict, and has suffered from the 
consequences all his life. He found Canadian rule 
no more palatable after the rebellion had been 
crushed than before, and, in June, 1838, he bid a 
final farewell to monarchical government and came 
to Illinois, locating primarily in Carroll County, where 
he remained one year. In 1839 he came to White- 
side County and entered a claim of 240 acres of land 
on section 30, Clyde Township, which comprised 160 
acres of prairie and 80 acres of timber one of the 
finest and most promising tracts of land in the town- 
ship and which he converted into a model farm. He 

resided on his estate 25 years, pursuing his agricul- 
tural projects and engaged during the latter part of that 
period in loaning money. He has operated to some 
extent in the business last named since his removal 
to Morrison, in October, 1864, when he retired from 
active participation in a laborious life. He is the 
owner of considerable property, variously situated in 
the county. 

Mr. Currie has been married twice. He first 
formed a matrimonial alliance, in Scarborough, Can- 
ada, June 15, 1833, with Jane Patrick, who died May 
27, 1840, after becoming the mother of two sons 
Asa and John who followed their young mother to 
the silent land beyond while they were still in youth. 
She was bom June 4, 1812. Mr. Currie was united 
in marriage to Julia Thomas, Sept. 17, 1840, in the 
township of Mt. Pleasant. Mrs. Currie was born 
Dec. 10, 1817, in St. Clair, 111. Her parents, An- 
thony M. and Jane (Jordan) Thomas, were born in 
South Carolina, and were married in 1805, in St. 
Clair County, whither the former had come in 1804. 
Anthony Thomas was a soldier of 1812. He came 
to Mt. Pleasant in 1837, where he died Sept. 8, 1850. 
His wife died Sept. 12, 1858. 

eonard Hiner, farmer, resident on section 
19, Clyde Township, has been a citizen of 
Whiteside County since 1855. He was 
born Aug. 30, 1813, in Lancaster Co., Ta. 
Leonard Hiner, senior, his father, was a farmer 
and was also a native of the Keystone State. 
Late in life he became a resident of Wabash Co., 
Ind., where he died in August, 1854. He married 
Catherine Bitterman, who was born in Lancaster 
County, and was of German parentage and descent. 
She died about 1860, in Wabash Co., Ind. Their 
children were 12 in number. 

Mr. Hiner was third in order of birth. He was 
reared on the farm of his father, and operated as a 
farm assistant until he was of age, with the exception 
of two years, when he was employed in a woolen 

He was married in February, 1833, in Chester Co., 
Pa., to Mary Sparr, who was born in that county. 
Her parents, Frederick and Elizabeth (Criley) Sparr, 
were fanners and were born of German parentage, in 


Chester County. They lived in the same place 
throughout their lives. The record of the children 
of Mr. and Mrs. Hiner is as follows : Martin L. mar- 
ried Lizzie McFadden and is superintending the 
homestead of his parents. They have three chil- 
dren, Delia M., Anna M. and Albertus B. Catherine 
M. married Eugene Griffith, and resides in Iowa. 
Elizabeth is the wife of Jacob Wengert, a farmer in 
Benton County, Iowa. Julia A. married William 
Alldritt, a farmer in Clyde Township. Rachel J. 
married Lewis Griffith, and they live in Knox Coun- 
ty, Ohio. Harriet is the wife of Mr. Little, and they 
are residents of California. 

After they had been married two years, during 
which time they had resided in Chester Co., Mr. and 
Mrs. Hiner went to Lancaster Co., Pa., and, a year 
later, went to Wayne County, and thence to Mercer 
County, Ohio. They passed seven years in the 
county last named on a farm of which they became 
the owners by purchase. The place was sold in 
1854, and a year later the family canje to Whiteside 
County. They made their first location on Elkhorn 
Creek, where their stay was brief, Mr. Hiner soon 
after deciding to fix his permanent residence in Clyde 
Township, where he purchased 80 acres of unim- 
proved prairie. The place is now in an attractive and 
valuable condition. Mr. Hiner is a Democrat in 
political faith and has held several offices. Mrs. 
Hiner died in the fall of 1878,3! the age of 71 years. 

foh.ii H. Becker, blacksmith and wagon 
manufacturer at Coleta, was born Oct. 3, 
1853, in Prussia, Germany. His parents, 
Peter and Margaret Becker, were natives of the 
same country as their ancestors had been for 
generations before. The former died in Prus- 
sia about 1857, when his son was a small lad. He 
was an only child, and when his mother chose an- 
other husband he went to live wilh his grandfather, 
where he remained two years ; and at the expiration 
of that time he accompanied some relatives to the 
United States, and was taken by them to Ohio. His 
mother had, meanwhile, emigrated to the New World, 
and had become settled in St. Joseph Co., Ind., 
whither he went soon after and was again under 
maternal care until he was T5 years of age. Al>out 
1868 he came to Genesee Township, in Whiteside 

County, and he became a farm laborer, in which oc- 
cupation he passed two years. At the end of that 
time, he came to Coleta to learn his trade under the 
instructions of L. H. Porter. After a service of four 
years he bought the shop and business relations of 
his employer and began to operate on his own re- 
sponsibility. During the four years he learned the 
details of wagon-making at Sterling, and he has 
since pursued both callings. He has two forges and 
in wagon-making he has acquired an excellent repu- 
tation through successful competition at the fairs at 
Morrison and Sterling. His work is accomplished 
with skill, and is ranked as first-class in reliability. 
He owns his business buildings and residence. 
Politically he is a Republican. 

He was united in marriage in Genesee Township, 
April 30, 1874, to Esabinda Nance, and they have 
three children, William, Mary and Arthur. Mrs. 
Becker was born July 8, 1856. She is a member of 
the Christian Church. 

arren P. Hall (deceased), late of the 
Langford & Hall Lumber Company, and 
a prominent citizen of Fulton, was born 
in the town of Bristol, Ontario Co., N. 
Y., Sept. 5, 1826, and was the son of 
Perez and Ruth (Hicks) Hall. When he was 
only a year old his parents moved to West Bloom- 
field, of the same county, where his boyhood was 
passed. When he was 13 years of age, he removed 
with his parents to Burton, Cattaraugus Co., N. Y.; 
and six years later he left home to work with a Mr. 
Lemuel Smith, a manufacturer of lumber at Port- 
ville. He spent ten years with Mr. Smith, during 
which time he learned the lumber business thor- 
oughly, especially the mechanical part, for which 
Mr. Hall had a peculiar fitness. His natural love 
of machinery and of mechanical construction found 
a fair field for expansion in his chosen employment. 
Soon after leaving Mr. Smith, he engaged in the 
lumber business for himself, at Portville, Cattaraugus 
County, but continued it only two years, when he 
was burned out. 

He then went to Berlin, Wis., where he was em- 
ployed as foreman by Mr. Ruddock, an extensive 
lumber manufacturer on the Fox River. He was 

' - 

. . ' . 



- .. - 



married in that city Dec. 30, 1858, to Miss Catha- 
rine Swarts, daughter of George and Margaret 
(Barry) Swarts. Mrs. Hall was born in Hamilton, 
Monroe Co., Penn. One year after their marriage, 
Mr. Hall and wife moved to Janesville, Wis., where 
he was employed in the lumber business. In 1861 
he removed to Dixon, 111., where he set up a mill 
and operated it for Mr. A. K. Norris till the spring 
of 1865. He came to Fu.ton April 6 of that year, 
and engaged as foreman with Mr. C. E. Langford, a 
lumber manufacturer of that place. In January, 
1866, he entered into partnership with Mr. Langford, 
under the firm name of "Langford & Hall." Mr. 
Hall took charge of the mill and manufacturing de- 
partment, and under his superior management the 
present extensive and complete mills of the Lang- 
ford &Hall Lumber Company were built in 1876-7. 
It was largely due to Mr. Hall's successful man- 
agement of the operating department that the com- 
pany made such rapid progress in increasing and 
extending their business. 

In Jan., 1878, the Langford & Hall Lumber Com- 
pany was incorporated, in which Mr. Hall held shares 
to the amount of $35,000. He was elected pres- 
ident and also superintendent of the company in 
1880, which po silions he held till the happening of 
the terrible accident that cut short his valuable life 
in the noon-day of his success and prosperity. Mr. 
Hall lost his life on the 7th of July, 1881, by a blow 
from a falling timber, while assisting his men in re- 
moving the hoisting poles after having raised a 
smoke-stack at the mill. 

The sudden death of such a man as Warren P. 
Hall was a sad blow, not only to his wife and chil- 
dren, to whom he had been a devoted husband and 
father, but also to his business associates, employes 
and fellow-citizens. 

Mr. Hall experienced religion at the early age of 
1 1 years, and became a member of the Presbyterian 
Church of West Bloomfield, N. Y. He continued 
a consistent member of that Church till 19 years of 
age, when he severed his connection and united with 
the Methodist Episcopal Church at Portville, N. Y. 
He continued during the remainder of his life an 
earnest, zealous worker in that denomination. He 
filled the offices of Steward, Class-leader and 1 Trustee 
for many years, and by his good example, sincere 
and liberal support, was veritably a pillar of 


the Church. He was punctual in attendance at ser- 
vices, prayer-meetings and class-meetings, while his 
purse was always open in support of the Church, its 
missions and its charities. 

The funeral services were conducted by the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, of which he had long been an hon- 
ored member. The attendance was remarkably 
large, both from city and country, and showed the 
high esteem in which the deceased was held. The 
Revs. R. M. Smith, Carr and David delivered ap- 
propriate discourses. 

Mr. Hall left a wife and two daughters to mourn 
his loss. The family had been bereaved only a few 
years before by the death of an only son, George, 
who was drowned while skating on the so-called 
Cat-tail, Jan. 15, 1876. He was a bright, promising 
lad in his i6th year. He had experienced religion 
three years before, and was a worthy member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. He was the eldest of 
the children, and was born at Janesville, Wis. Es- 
tella, the second child and eldest daughter, was born 
at Dixon, 111., and is the wife of Silas E. Morris, of 
Darlington, Wis. Grace E., the youngest, was born 
at Fulton. 

Mr. Hall was a Republican with strong prohibi- 
tion sympathies. His temperance views were well 
known, and it may truthfully be said of him that in 
all the walks of life he aimed to be right and his in- 
fluence was always in favor of that which was cal- 
culated to make the world better and purer. 

: iram C. McCray, farmer, section 6, Genesee 
Township, was born Aug. 30, 1850, and is 
the son of Martin D. and Margaret Ann 
^ (Crum) McCray. His father was a settler of 
1838 in Genesee Township. He was born May 
31, 1806, in Kentucky. His father dying when 
he was ten years of age, he went to Indiana, where 
he grew to manhood in the care of his uncle. Jan. 
i, 1836, he married the sister of John Thompson 
Crum, who came to Genesee Township in the same 
year. The wife was born in Ohio, and their mar-, 
riage occurred in Henry Co., Ind. They had five 
children and Mr. McCray is the youngest. His 
father died in 1863, and he remained in his mother's 
care a year longer. She married John Yager, Nov. 





16, 1863, and lives in Sterling. When her son, who 
is the subject of this sketch, was 14 years of age, 
he went to Coleta for the purpose of acquiring a 
knowledge of the trade of a blacksmith, under the 
direction of J. H. Gulp. After working a year he 
engaged in farming until 1870; then worked ten 
years for T. T. Daniels at Morrison, and in 1883 he 
again commenced farming. 

His marriage to Susanna Hurless took place Sept. 
19, 1869. Mrs. McCray was born Aug. 20, 1852, in 
Wood Co., Ohio, and she is the daughter of Rev. 
Cephas and Elizabeth (Overholser) Hurless, of whom 
a sketch may be found on other pages. She was 
hardly two years of age when her parents located in 
Genesee Township. She is the mother of two chil- 
dren, Edwin M., born May 8, 1870, and Perry A., 
born June 21, 1872. 

Mr. McCray is a Democrat. His wife is a mem- 
ber of the United Brethren Church. 

ouis B. Peters, undertaker and dealer in 
furniture opposite the depot of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad, at Fulton 
City, is a successor to his father,_ Clement 
Peters, who established the business in 1872. 
The subject of this sketch was ,born in Lyons, 
Iowa, Aug. 9, 1857, and is the son of Clement and 
Doretha (Langenberg) Peters. His parents were 
both natives of Europe. His father was born in 
Loraine,on the Franco German border: his mother, in 
Saxony. His father came to America in 1855, and 
his mother in 1856. Louis learned the cabinet- 
makers' trade at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and subse- 
quently worked at it in Vinton, la., Denver, Col., 
and Le Mars, la. He was also employed by the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railroad one and a half 
years, in 1881-2. On the death of his father he 
succeeded to his present business in November, 
1882. Mr. Peters has a well stocked store in his 
line, and attends promptly to all orders in the under- 
taking line. His stock averages in value about 

He was married at Fulton, III, Feb. n, 1885, to 
Miss Susan Monohan, daughter of William Monohan. 
Mrs. Peters was born in Whiteside Co., 111. They 

are members of the Catholic Church of Fulton. Mr. 
Peters is a member of good standing of Abou Ben 
Adhem Lodge, No. t48, I. O. O. F., and in politics 
is a Democrat. He is an enterprising young busi- 
ness man, possessing a thorough knowledge of under- 
taking and furniture business, and is rapidly building 
up a substantial trade. 

braham L. Grater, general farmer on sec- 
tion 35, Clyde Township, was born Sept. 
12, 1845, in Limerick Township, Mont- 
gomery Co., Pa. Henry and Elizabeth (Lan- 
dis) Grater, his father and mother, were natives 
of the same county and were both descendants 
of German ancestors. The father was married twice 
and by the first marriage there were three children. 
Ten children were born to the parents of Mr. Grater, 
and he is the fourth in order of birth. His father 
and mother now reside with him, and are aged re- 
spectively 76 and 72 years. 

When he was 18 years of age he left his father's 
household to learn the business of a carpenter, and 
entered upon an apprenticeship with his brother-in- 
law, Samuel E. Horning. After working under in- 
structions three years, he operated as a journeyman, 
remaining some time in his native State, and in the 
city of Philadelphia 

He was united in marriage Sept. 12, 1867, in his 
native county, to Hannah Spare. She was born in 
Limerick, Montgomery Co., Pa., Sept. 8, 1845, and 
is the daughter of William and Delana (Poley) 
Spare. She is four days older than her husband, 
and is the mother of seven children, William H., 
Lizzie, Jacob W., John, Mary E., Benjamin F. and 
Abraham E. 

After marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Grater resided eight 
years in their native county, where the former en- 
gaged in farming. In April, r875, they came to Illi- 
nois and located on a farm in Clyde Township, 
situated near the -projected village of Malvern, and 
during one year after locating there, Mr. Grater op- 
erated as a carpenter. He then engaged in farming, 
and he now owns 75 acres of first-class land under 
excellent improvements. He is the owner of a herd 
of 33 cows of good grades and has for some time 





been engaged in the dairy business, in which he has 
met with satisfactory results. 

Mr. Grater is a Republican in political principles. 
He is a member of the Dunkard or Brethren Church, 
and in 1879 was made a Deacon. In 1883 he was 
elected minister and has since filled that position. 
Mrs. Grater is a member of the same religious de- 

^.achariah Dent is the earliest pioneer set- 
tler in Clyde Township. He moved into 
the township June i, 1839, previous to the 
organization of Whiteside County, and at a 

> date when its original state of nature was al- 
most uninvaded. Mr. Dent was born July 26, 
1805, in Buckingham, Norfolkshire, England. He 
was named for his father, who was an English yeo- 
man. Elizabeth Dent, his mother, was a native of 
the same country. The elder Dent died about 1811, 
and his son was brought up chiefly by strangers. 
The mother survived some years, dying after the re- 
moval of her son to America. 

Mr. Dent learned the trade of a cloth-\veaver, and 
followed that vocation until 1832, the year in which 
he emigrated to America. He first located in On- 
tario, Can , where he obtained a clerkship near New- 
market. He passed several years in one employ, 
and for some time subsequently he was similarly en- 
gaged in the interests of a second employer. Mean- 
while he came to Illinois and located his claim, 
which he purchased of an Englishman, and was 
careful to settle in the " timber,"' as it was then gen- 
erally the opinion that the prairie was comparatively 
useless for agricultural purposes. While in Canada 
he took part in the contest known to history as Me 
Kenzie's Rebellion, or the Patriot War, espousing 
the cause of the rebels. He was on the losing side, 
and shared the consequences, which in his case was 
a term of imprisonment at Toronto. During the 
short-lived struggle he was involved in its several 
conflicts, but escaped without receiving injury, and 
on being released from prison he was again admitted 
to his former social position. Useless as were the 
efforts to shake off the bonds of the British Govern- 
ment, the underlying principles were in accordance 

with strict justice and in the natural order of things 
must in the course of time prevail. 

On removal to Clyde Township for a permanent 
residence, he constructed a home in the woods where 
he located for reasons stated. He lived alone for 
some years, engaged in a struggle with the adversi- 
ties and trials of an early settler in a new country. 
The condition of things may be inferred from the 
fact that the value of a bushel of wheat was less than 
a pound of coffee. 

Mr. Dent was married about the year 1848 to 
Eunice Montgomery. She was born in August, 
1810, in Roxbury, Delaware Co., N. Y., and was the 
daughter of Martin and Louisa (Waite) Montgomery. 
Her parents were born in New York and were of 
New England ancestry. They were a branch of the 
family who were prominent in New England and in 
the State of New York in the period of the Revolu- 
tion. The family of Mrs. Dent removed to Illinois 
in July, 1839, and have all been dead some years. 
No children came to add to the home happiness of 
Mr. and Mrs. Dent. She died in the winter of 1869, 
and since that event Mr. Dent has lived in quiet re- 
tirement, on section 15 of Clyde Township. He is 
the owner of 250 acres of land, finely situated and 
comparing favorably with the farms in the vicinity. 
He is a Democrat of the Jackson school, and has al- 
ways adhered to his first political principles. He 
has officiated some years in township offices but 
finally withdrew from active duty as a citizen on ac- 
count of old age. He is 80 years of age at the date 
of this writing (1885). 

Collins, successor to A. Critchfield & Co., 
wholesale and retail dealer in marble and 
granite monuments, cemetery enclosures, 
etc., at Fulton. This business was established 
in June, 1882, by A. Critchfield & Co., who con- 
ducted it till March, 1884, when Mr. Collins 
bought them out, Mr. A. Critchfield being retained 
as foreman and general manager of the mechanical 
and designing department. 

Mr. Collins employs from six to ten men, and turns 
out from eighteen to twenty thousand dollars' worth 
of work annually. The bulk of his custom comes 
from Whiteside and neighboring counties, although 



SEf sales extend into Iowa and neighboring States. He 
uses in his work only the best grades of Italian and 
American marble, and of Scotch and American 
granite. He has facilities for turning out work on 
short notice, of beautiful designs and of the finest 

The subject of this sketch was born in Cumber- 
berland Co., N. J., near the historic ground known 
as " Vineland," on the igth of September, 1824, and 
is the son of John and Mary (Pettet) Collins. In 
1838 he removed with his parents to Dayton, Ohio, 
where he was reared on a farm. He was married at 
Dayton, June 24, 1847,10 Miss Mary J. Irvin, daugh- 
ter of William and Martha (Brooks) Irvin. Mrs. 
Collins was born in Montgomery Co., Ohio. In 1855 
he came West and settled on a farm in Muscatine 
Co., Iowa. He was elected and served 14 years as 
Township Assessor, several years as Town Clerk, 
and held other minor offices. He continued farming 
in Muscatine County till March, 1882, when, having 
sold out, he removed to Fulton and engaged in the 
marble business. 

Mr. and Mrs. Collins have had eight children, two 
sons and six daughters. Anna B. is the wife of T. 
S. Meeker, of Muscatine, Iowa. Mary E. is the wife 
of Asa Critchfield, of Fulton, 111. Laura died aged 
21 years. Martha L. is the wife of Morris N. Rippey, 
of Muscatine, Iowa. Ida C., William I., Harry E. 
and Eva A. are unmarried. William is engaged with 
his father in the marble works. Harry is at Darling- 
ton, Wis , employed as merchant clerk. 

Mr. and Mrs. Collins are members of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church. Mr. C. is Prohibitionist in 
politics, but was a Republican till 1884. 

"Wgs&wf eorge w R ema g e) M. D., physician and 
surgeon at Coleta, was born Jan. 29, 1837, 
in Holmes Co., Ohio. Abner Remage, his 
? father, was born in Pennsylvania, and was of 
Scotch and French extraction. The -ancestral 
stock located in America prior to the Revolu- 
tionary War, in which the paternal great-grandfather 
of Dr. Remage was a participant and was captain of 
a company. His grandfather and two uncles were 
soldiers in the War of 1812. Their business relations 
were in the vocations of farmers and mechanics. 

Abner Remage settled in Holmes Co., Ohio, in 1826, 
where he was a pioneer, and located in the woods on 
a farm which was in its primeval condition. He 
made it his home until his death, which occurred in 
November, 1861. He had lived a life of usefulness 
and honor and had proved a valuable citizen in the 
progress of the county from its primal condition to 
the advanced state to which it attained with great 
rapidity. The mother of Dr. Remage, Susan Custer, 
before her. marriage, was a member of one of the old 
Dutch families who were identified with the pioneer 
history of the State. She died in Holmes Co., Ohio, 
in 1855, aged 47 years. They had ten children, five 
sons and five daughters. 

Dr. Remage is the third son and seventh child. 
He remained at home until he was 17 years of age 
and obtained a rudimentary education at the district 
school, which at that age he began to turn to account 
in teaching, in Berlin, in the county where he was 
born, and he passed alternate seasons in attendance 
at school. He had cherished a project to fit himself 
for a professional life, and he commenced to read 
medicine in the office of Dr. W. N. King, in Millers- 
burg, Holmes County. In the winter of 1858-9, he 
entered the Medical Department of the University of 
Michigan, at Ann Arbor, where he pursued the pre- 
scribed course of study until the following spring, 
when he went to Middletown, in his native county, 
and commenced practice in company with Dr. Joel 
Poerene. Two years later, the nation was convulsed 
by civil war, and Dr. Remage, then in the full vigor 
of young hopes and ambitions, resolved to risk the 
fate of war, and he enlisted as a private soldier in 
Co. H, 23d Regt. Ohio Vol., under Capt. J. L. Drake. 
The regiment was assigned to the Department of 
West Virginia. He was under fire Sept. 10, i86r, at 
Carnifex Ferry, which was the only occasion in which 
he was in active service. His health became seri- 
ously impaired and he received honorable discharge 
in November, r86r. He resumed his practice, 
which he prosecuted until the fall of 1862, when he 
went again to the University at Ann Arbor and com- 
pleted his course of medical study and was graduated 
March 25, 1863. He received from Gov. Tod, of 
Ohio, a commission as Assistant Surgeon of the g6th 
Regt. Ohio Vol., and thus officiated until Feb. 13, 
1865, when he was promoted Surgeon and assigned 
to the Fifth Tenn. Reg. in the Dept. of the Cum- 
berland. At the close of the war, July T7, 1865, he 



i 1' - f -., r 





was mustered out of service, when he resumed the 
practice of his profession at Somerville, Union Co., 
Ohio. He operated as a physician at that point five 
years, and, in 1870, transferred his interests to Paul- 
ding, the county seat of the county of the same name, 
where he established his business and operated with 
marked success until December, 1877. He became 
worn with constant attention to his professional 
duties and sold out for the purpose of travel and 
recuperation, in which he was occupied some months. 
In September, 1878, he located at Coleta, where he 
has since resided and prosecuted his business as a 
physician with satisfactory results. 

Dr. Remage was married at Wooster, Wayne Co., 
Ohio, Sept. 20, 1859, to Louisa C. Schwartfager, and 
they have had three children. Laura is deceased. 
Lola married Archie McAdow and lives at Paulding, 
Ohio. Herman is a student at Paulding. Mrs. 
Remage was born in Coshocton Co.. Ohio. 


eril Mead, Justice of the Peace and in- 
surance agent at Morrison, was born Dec. 
18, 1820, in Springfield, Clarke Co., Ohio. 
Allen Mead, his father, was born Feb. 20, 
1793, in Saratoga Co., N. Y., and was but a 
youth when the second war with Great Britain 
occurred. He entered the United States army and 
was in the command of Gen. Van Rensselaer. At 
the battle of Queenstown, his regiment was attached 
to the forces under Winfield Scott, then a Lieutenant 
in the regular army of the United States. Daring 
the last 28 years of his life he was a minister of the 
Free-Will Baptist Church and resided at various 
places in the pursuit of his calling. He died at 
Wolf Lake, Noble Co., Ind., Jan. 20, 1849. Sally 
(Scarlett) Mead, his mother, was born Feb. 25, 1797, 
in Addison Co., Vt., and died at Wolf Lake, Sept. i r, 
1864. They had ten children, five of whom are yet 
living. The eldest, Alfred, resides at Tremont, 
Clarke Co., Ohio. Mr. Mead is the next in order of 
birth. Ephraim is a farmer in Indiana. Sophronia 
married Washington Scott, and resides in Michigan. 
Sarah, wife of Jefferson Scott, lives in Warsaw, Ind. 
Mr. Mead received a good education in his native 
State, completing his studies at Springfield, where he 
took a thorough course of instruction in advanced 

English branches. On leaving school he engaged in 
teaching, of which he made a business for 15 years. 
In 1855 he came to Whiteside County and interested 
himself in the purchase, improvement and sale of 
lands in the township of Ustick. While there he 
officiated seven years as Justice of the Peace. After 
a business career of nine years in Ustick Township 
he removed, in 1865, to Morrison, and purchased 80 
acres of land, of which sixteen acres lay within the 
corporation, upon which he built his residence. The 
remainder of the 80 acres is situated east of the city. 
Mr. Mead is also the owner of a business building in 
the city. He is the owner of 160 acres of land in 
Sioux and Hancock Counties, Iowa, and 60 acres in 
Du Page Co., 111., lying 14 miles southwest of Chi- 
cago, on the line of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroad. He owns, besides the estate enumerated, 
153 acres in Union Grove Township. He is a 
stockholder and director of the First National Bank 
at Morrison, and is a stockholder in the First Na- 
tional Bank at Kearney, Neb. In his relations as an 
insurance agent he represents the Orient of Hartford 
and the Royal of Liverpool (fire insurance). In life 
insurance he operates in the interests of the North- 
western Mutual, of Milwaukee, Wis. He is also 
dealing in real estate and acting in the capacity of 
Pension Agent. 

On coming to manhood, Mr. Mead accepted the 
political issues of the Whig party, and became a 
partisan of the Henry Clay school. He continued to 
act with that party until 1856, when he became a 
Republican, uniting himself with the party which 
then came into existence. He was prominent in 
public life in his native county, and in 1844 was 
elected Assessor of Harmony Township, and was re- 
elected ten consecutive years. In 1850 he was ap- 
pointed Deputy United States Marshal for Clarke 
Co, Ohio, under the administration of President 
Taylor. In 1872 he supported Horace Greeley for 
President In 1884 he was an ardent supporter of 
James G. Blaine. In 1873 he was elected Coroner 
of Whiteside County and served out the term. In 
the spring of 1881, he was elected Justice of the 
Peace and still holds the incumbency. He is a mem- 
ber of the Odd Fellows fraternity and belongs to 
Lodge No. 257, at Morrison. 

Mr. Mead was united in marriage at Harmony, 
Clarke Co., Ohio, Sept. 30, 1847, to Harriet Newlove. 
She was born April 3, 1830, in Harmony, and is the 







*$ daughter of Laybourn and Elizabeth Newlove. Fol- 

'A lowing is the record of the children of Mr. and Mrs. 

. ', -i Mead: Elizabeth was born Sept. 2, 1848, and died 
Aug. 12, 1862. Rilla S., born Nov. 12, 1851, died 

S*) Dec. 25, 1879. M. Inman, born Feb. 25, 1856, is 
the manager of his father's farm in Union Grove 
Township. Ellen, born May 17, 1860, died Feb. 14, 
1882. Harriet and Eliza, twins, were born April 5, 

Mr. Mead's portrait is given on another page. Its 
claims to a place in the records of Whiteside County 
are clearly manifest from the foregoing account of his 
relations to the community in whose interests he has 
so faithfully labored. 

'homas Milnes, general farmer, resident on 
section 21, Clyde Township, was born on 
the same section, March 25, 1861. His 
parents were Joseph and Jennie (Mason) 
Milnes. The later was born in the North of 
Ireland. She was but six years of age when 
her parents emigrated from the Green Isle to the 
United States and settled in Lowell, Mass. The 
father was of English descent and their marriage 
took place in 1860, in Chicago. The senior Milnes 
was a farmer and had come, in 1842, to Clyde Town- 
ship, where his father located a farm on the bank of 
Little Rock Creek. He was then about ten years 
old. The family was one of the first to make a per- 
manent settlement in Whiteside County. Joseph 
Milnes and his wife located immediately after their 
marriage on the homestead estate, where they reared 
their family and conducted their affairs until their 
removal in 1882 to Morrison, where they still reside. 
The place is in the possession of the son, who is the 
subject of this biographical narration. 

Mr. Milnes was brought up on his grandfather's 
farm and has all his life been interested in its prog- 
ressive improvements, interspersed by attendance at 
school. He obtained a more entensive education by 
going to school at Oshkosh, Wis., where he passed 
two years, and there entered upon a course of com- 
mercial study, which he completed at Fulton, in 
Whiteside County. After leaving school he returned 
to agricultural pursuits on the home farm. Two 
years later he formed a matrimonial alliance with 

Carrie E., daughter of Richard and Hannah E. 
(Knight) Beswick. Their marriage took place Dec. 
28, 1882. Mrs. Milnes was born Aug. 24, r86i, on 
section 30, Clyde Township, and was brought up and 
educated in her native county. The family now in- 
cludes two children born as follows : Earl B., Nov. 
26, 1883, and Paul E., Feb. 26, 1885. Mr. and Mrs. 
Milnes settled after their marriage on the old home 
place and have diligently prosecuted the interests of 
general farming. Mr. Milnes is a Democrat and is 
present Township Treasurer. 

f^ohn E. Durstine, farmer, residing on sec- 
tion 34, Coloma Township, is the sixth 
child born to Martin and Mary A. (Har- 
vey) Durstine, natives of Pennsylvania and 
devoted to agricultural life. They sold their 
old home and moved to Round Grove, this 
county, in 1853. The latter place they also sold and 
in 1870 purchased property at Morrison, which they 
occupied until 1874, when they rented it and changed 
their residence to Coleta, a small town northwest of 
Sterling, where the father died, in September, i877 ) 
and the mother in September, 1884. 

The subiect of this sketch was born Dec. 5, 1842, 
received a common-school education, and when 17 
years of age enlisted for the Union. At Stone River 
he was wounded through the thigh ; was taken pris- 
oner a short time and was paroled, and finally ex- 
changed. Before he was wounded he was Orderly 
to Gen. E. N. Kirk; afterward, Orderly at the Medi- 
cal Director's Office of the i4th Army Corps, the Army 
of the Cumberland. At the expiration of his three 
years' enlistment he was honorably discharged. 

He then came to Round Grove and worked at 
farming for a time, and next he attended the Illinois 
Soldiers' College at Fulton, this county, for two terms, 
He went then to Benton Co., Iowa, and, in company 
with his brother, purchased a farm of 193 acres. Re- 
turning to Round Grove, he married Miss Emma 
Stone, a native of Ohio. Their two children are 
Warren E. and Ethel S. Mr. Durstine, after mar- 
riage, moved to his farm in Iowa, and after residing 
there two years he moved to Story County, same 
State, and occupied a farm there for three years; 
then five years at Round Grove again ; then six years 
on a farm he purchased about two miles north of the 







station ; and finally sold that property and moved to 
the place he now occupies. 

Politically, Mr. Durstine is a Republican, and 
religiously he belongs to the Congregational Church, 
as does also Mrs. D. He is a Deacon and a Trus- 
tee in his Church. He is also Treasurer and Com- 
missioner of High ways of his township. By the many 
removals and changes in life Mr. Durstine has made, 
he has generally ameliorated his condition and cir- 
cumstances, and is now one of the leading men of 

eorge W. Holcomb, liveryman at Morri- 
son, was born Aug. 18, 1848, in the town- 
ship of Woodbine, Jo Daviess Co., 111. 
Newell Holcomb, his father, was born Aug. 
15, 1819, on an island in Lake Champlain, 
which belongs to the State of Vermont and 
which constitutes Grand Isle County. Louisa (Kel- 
logg) Holcomb, the mother, was born April 4, 1823, 
in Chautauqua Co., N. Y. The former was one of 
the earliest settlers in the State of Illinois, and he 
went in 1839 to Jo Daviess County, walking the en- 
tire distance from Springfield to Galena. The mother 
died in Woodbine Township, Sept. 7, (849, leaving 
two children, the eldest of whom, Maria L., married 
Sidney Willison, of Jo Daviess Co., 111. 

Mr. Holcomb was little more than a year old 
when his mother died. He was brought up on the 
farm of his father, and bred to the business of an 
agriculturist. On reaching an age suitable to set- 
tling in life, he bought 40 acres of land in the same 
township in which he was born, and where he oper- 
ated until the spring of 1882, when he opened a 
restaurant at Savanna, Carroll Co., 111. After pass- 
ing a year there in that business, he transferred his 
interests to Sterling. He maintained a restaurant 
there but a short time, however, removing in 1883 to 
Morrison. He opened a grocery, in which he was 
engaged six months, when he sold out and interested 
himself in the business in which he is now occupied. 
He keeps about eight horses and livery equipments 
in proportion. 

Mr. Holcomb was married May 13, 1878, at 
Lyons, Iowa, to Mary S., daughter of William and 
Mary Tyson. She was born in Clyde Township, 

, : * 

Whiteside County. Mr. and Mrs. Holcomb have 
one daughter, Lillie M., born in Woodbine Township, 
Dec. 28, 1879. 

iilliam B. Brown, liveryman and deale r 
in horses at Rock Falls, was born at North 
Stonington, New London Co., Conn., June 
24, 1838. His parents, Thatcher and Eu- 
nice (Spalding) Brown, were also natives of 
the same State. 
Receiving a liberal education, he commenced 
teaching at the age of 16 years, and followed that 
vocation for five years ; thenceforward he made ag- 
riculture his principal business, and dealt in live 
stock. In 1868 he left his parental home and emi- 
grated to this State; after stopping at Grand de 
Tour six months, lie came to Rock Falls and en- 
gaged in the livery business, following it ever since, 
with satisfactory success. Purchasing a lot on Main 
Street, he built a store upon it, aud has since rented 
the same. He also bought two lots on Bridge Street, 
where he at present keeps his livery barn and outfit. 
In his political principles Mr. Brown is a Republi- 
can. He has been Trustee of the village corpora- 
tion for six years, Assessor four years and School 
Director two years. 

He was married Sept. 3, 1863, to Phebe E. Col- 
lins, a native of Connecticut and a daughter of 
Amos and Phebe (Brown) Collins, who were also na- 
tives of Connecticut and members of the agricultural 
community. By this marriage there have been six 
children John B., Charles R., George I., William J., 
Sarah L. and Nellie F. 

ustin Morse, dealer in leather, shoemakers' 
supplies, etc., established his business at 
Fulton, Nov. i, 1884. He was born in 
Worcester, Mass., Aug. 21, 1824, and is the 
son of Joseph and Sally (Bigelow) Morse. His 
parents were of Puritan descent. He served 
a regular apprenticeship to the tanner and currier's 
trade in his native town, and in early manhood went 
to Boston, where he was employed as foreman in a 
large currying establishment. 

He was married in Boston, Jan. 9, 1845, to Miss 




ft ' 







Susan J. Walker, of Lincoln Co., Maine. In 1847 
he removed to New Hartford, Oneida Co., N. Y., and 
was foreman of the tannery of Stephen Childs of 
that place, one of the largest concerns of the kind 
in the State. He held that position nine years, and 
then removed to Dixon, 111. (1856). He engaged in 
business at Dixon as dealer in leather and saddlers' 
hardware, which he carried on successfully for 28 

Mr. and Mrs. Morse had four children, three boys 
and one girl. Georgiana I. is the wife of W. W. Knox, 
of Pittsburg, Pa. ; Willie died in childhood ; Charles 
died aged six years ; Edward is an attorney in prac- 
tice at Huron, D. T. Mrs. Morse died Jan. 20, 

Mr. Morse was married again March 20, 1884, at 
Fulton, 111., to Mrs. Catharine Hall, widow of Warren 
P. Hall, late of the Langford & Hall Lumber Com- 
pany, and daughter of George and Margaret Barry 

Mr. Morse moved to Fulton in the fall of 1884 
and established his present business Nov. i, of that 
year. Politics, Republican. 

euben P. Hollinshead, of the firm of Hol- 
linshead & West, dealers in clothing and 
furnishing goods at Morrison, is a native 
citizen of Whiteside County, 111., having been 
born May 3, 1857, at Fulton. Joshua Hol- 
linshead, his father, is a native of Canada, 
and is a farmer in Ustick Township. The mother, 
Nancy (Ingham) Hollinshead, was born in the State 
of New York, and died at Fulton, this county, leav- 
ing two children, both sons. John D. is a pilot on 
the Mississippi River. 

Mr. Hollinshead left home when he was 19 years 
of age to learn the jewelry business, and bought out 
an establishment at Fulton, where he acquired a 
practical knowledge of its details. In September, 
1879, he came to Morrison, where he entered the 
clothing house of H. Worthington as a salesman. In 
January, 1881, associated with J. A. West, he became 
one of the proprietors of the stock and business inter- 
ests of his former employer, to which they succeeded 
by purchase. They are doing a successful and 

popular business. Mr. Hollinshead is a member of 


S&\ ^g^g-nr 


the Masonic fraternity and of the Order of Odd 

His marriage to Mary S. Brumagrin took place at 
Morrison, Oct. 25, 1882; they have one son, Frank 
Glenmore, born Jan. 10, 1884. Mrs. Hollinshead 
was born March 26, 1863, in Spolswood, N. J., and 
is the daughter of Dr. R. J. and Jane D. (Van Cleef) 

eorge E. Goodenough, farmer, section 
10, Union Grove Township, was born 
April IT, 1843, in Jefferson Co., N. Y. He 
is the son of Willard A. and Jane (Hull) 
Goodenough, whose biographical notice is to 
be found on other pages of this work. He 
was 22 years of age when he came with his parents 
to Whiteside County. 

He is one of the prominent agriculturists of Union 
Grove Township, and is the owner of 230 acres of 
land, the principal part of which is under cultiva- 
tion. In political faith he is a Republican. 

He formed a matrimonial alliance with Mary De 
Groodt, and they have four children Minnie J., 
John W., Arthur L. and Bertie E. John W. died 
when he was five months old. Mrs. Goodenough is 
the daughterof John and Mary De Groodt, and they 
were natives of the State of New York. She was 
born Feb. 15, 1849, in Rockford, 111. She is a mem- 
ber of the Baptist Church, to which her husband also 

ohn Dickson, watchman for the Keystone 
Manufacturing Company, of Rock Falls, 
was born Dec. 31, 1830, in Scotland. He 
was the second child of William and Ellen 
(Tunna) Dickson, natives, also, of that coun- 
try and members of the agricultural class, who 
died in their native land. 

Mr. Dickson remained at his parental home until 
he was 26 years of age, receiving a common-school 
education and assisting upon the farm. In 1855 he 
emigrated to America, landing at New York, taking 
a steamer up the Hudson to Albany and going 
out to Sharon Springs, where he worked nine months 






in a hotel. He then came to Sterling and worked a 
year in a hotel ; next he was employed a mile west 
of that place until the spring of 1859, when he went 
to Pike's Peak, where he was successful in gold-min- 
ing. In 1861 he returned to Sterling, and went on 
to England, where he visited from August to No- 
vember and married Miss Anna Campbell, a native of 
Scotland. Coming again to this country, he com- 
menced keeping house a mile west of Sterling, and 
lived in that neighborhood five and a half years. 
The last six months of this time he was engaged at 
work on the second bridge at that point, below the 
dam. Since 1863 he has been in the employment 
of the Keystone Manufacturing Company. 

His first purchase in this county was a lot in Ster- 
ling, and the second was a lot of A. P. Smith at Rock 
Falls, for which he paid $[oo, and on which he built 
a residence. After residing there a short time he 
made a trade with Mr. Smith for another lot and 
moved his house upon it. Since then he has bought 
another lot, adjoining, for which he paid $350. In 
1884 he purchased a house and lot joining north of 
him, paying for it $900. 

Politically, Mr. Dickson is a Democrat, casting his 
first vote for Stephen A. Douglas, after taking out 
his naturalization papers. He is a member of the 
Board of Aldermen of Rock Falls, is a member and 
treasurer of the Keystone Fire Company, treasurer 
of the Keystone Aid and Relief Society, a member 
of the Masonic fraternity, and of the Presbyterian 
Society of Sterling, to which latter body his wife also 
belongs. They have four children E. Ella, Anna 
L., William G. and John A. Dickson. 


net - 

S illiam A. Kennedy, farmer, located on 
section 27, Clyde Township, was born 
*p " Oct. 10, 1828, in Washington Co., N. Y. 
jy His parents, Alexander and Sarah A. (Tice) 
Kennedy, were natives of New York, and' 
descended from ancestors of New England birth 
and Scotch origin. They were farmers and came 
West when their son was 20 years old in 1848 
They located at first in Whiteside County, but later 
the father went to Buffalo County, Neb., where he 
died in Kearney City, in the fall of 1883. The 
mother is living in Clyde Township, and is 78 years 

of age. She is still in unbroken health and strength. 

Mr. Kennedy, in company with his brother, be- 
came the proprietor of 320 acres of land in Clyde 
Township, all of it being unimproved. He was then 
not 23 years of age. He was married April 10, 1856, 
in the township of Mt. Pleasant, to Emmeline, daugh- 
ter of Aaron and Amy (Havens) Bailey. Her father 
was born in Vermont, and her mother was a native 
of Essex Co., N. Y. Mrs. Kennedy was born Aug. 
14, 1840, in Jefferson Co., N. Y. Her parents came 
to Mt. Pleasant Township, in 1855, where they were 
fanners. Her father died of a cancer, Oct. 20, 1874, 
in the township of Delhi, when he was 77 years of 
age. The mother is 84 years old and is vigorous, 
mentally and physically. 

At the time of their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Ken- 
nedy settled on the property he owned, on which he 
made rapid improvements. The farm is now (1885) 
in the best of conditions and fenced and stocked. 
Mr. Kennedy is a Democrat, and both himself and 
wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

j^olomon Farwell, resident at Unionville, 
has been a citizen of Whiteside County 
since ^53. His parents, Solomon and 
Sabina (Burlingame) Farwell, were natives re- 
spectively of Massachusetts and Vermont. 
The former was born in Groton, Mass., March 
2 3> J 773- The birth of the latter occurred in 
Wethersfield, Vt., Dec. 29, 1780. After their mar- 
riage they settled for a fime in Vermont, afterward 
going to Lewis Co., N. Y., where they were pioneers 
and residents for many years. Late in life they went 
to Loraine, Jefferson Co., N. Y., where the father 
died June 17, 1850. The mother died Feb. 5, 1856. 
Their nine children were born in the following order: 
Submit, Leonard M., Selah, Eunice, Sabina, Eliza, 
Lemuel, Phila A., Hannah E. and Solomon. 

Mr. Farwell was born Jan. n, 1827, in Denmark, 
Lewis Co., N. Y., and is the youngest child of his 
parents. He attended the common schools and be- 
came a carpenter and joiner, following that business 
until his removal to Whiteside County, and since that 
time has continued to work at his trade in connection 
with his farming. In September, 1853, he bought 60 
acres of land in the township of Ustick, where he was 

/~\ .V. 








engaged in the pursuit of agricultural projects about 
1 6 years, and then sold and purchased a farm in the 
township of Union Grove. He remained there but a 
short time, selling his farm and returning again to 
Ustick Township, where he bought another farm, on 
which he resided and operated until he determined 
to retire from active business life. In the fall of 
1882, he sold his landed interests and removed to 

He was married in Denmark, Lewis Co., N. Y., 
Feb. 4, 1848, to Margaret Plank, and they' are the 
parents of nine children, Celia H., Emma E., Car- 
rie A., J. D., Nellie F., Minnie P., Fred B., Lulu G. 
and Gertie L. The child last named died when four 
months old. Mrs. Farwell was born Sept. 21, 1829, 
in Denmark, and is the daughter of John and Eleanor 
(Ostrander) Plank. Her parents were born in the 
State of New York, and four of their children reached 
mature life, Margaret, Hannah, Nancy and John H. 

Politically, Mr. Farwell is a Republican. He held 
the positions of Township Clerk and Assessor while 
a resident in Ustick. He and his wife are members 
of the Universalist Church. 

jfiorace L. Abbott, proprietor of a livery, 
sale and feed stable at Fulton, established 
his business there in March, 1874. He is 
a native of New York, was born in Chautauqua 
County, Feb. 12, 1840, and is the son of Clark 
and Betsy (Crouch) Abbott. His parents were 
natives of Vermont. 

Horace came to Illinois with his parents in 1842 
and lived in DeKalb County till 1853, when the 
family removed to the township of Ustick, this 
county. He was brought up on a farm in Ustick, 
and continued his residence there till the second 
year of the war. He enlisted Aug. 9, 1862, in Co. 
F, 93d 111. Vol. Inf., and served till the close of that 
great conflict, being mustered out July 2, 1865. His 
regiment was in the isth Army Corps or the Army 
of the Tennessee, and he participated in the battles 
of Jackson, Miss., Champion Hill, siege of Vicks- 
burg, Miss., battles of Missionary Ridge, Lookout 
Mountain, Altoona Pass and Savannah, Ga., besides 
various minor engagements. 

On his return from the war he located at Fulton 

X-s .V 

and engaged in teaming and threshing till 1871, 
when he engaged in farming. In 1874 he quit 
farming and entered the livery business. 

Mr. Abbott was married in Ustick, this county, 
July 3, 1866, to Miss Martha Barber, daughter of 
Millard and Margaret (Glen) Barber, her father a 
native of Litchfield Co., Conn. She was born in 
Montour Co., Pa. They have three children, all 
boys : Charles, Lester and Willard. 

Mr. Abbott has served six years as City Marshal 
of Fulton and four years as Constable. He is a 
member of the Order of Modern Woodmen, and in 
politics an earnest Democrat. 

illiam Taylor, farmer, section 32,Genesee 
Township, was born May 16, 1814, in the 
city of New York. Stephen Taylor, his 
grandfather, was born in the State of New 
York, and descended from ancestors of New 
England origin. He died about 1840 in Onon- 
daga Co., N. Y. His wife, who was born Rebecca 
Emmett, was of Irish parentage and died in El- 
bridge, Onondaga County. Tunis, the second son 
of the latter, and father of Mr. Taylor of this sketch, 
was born in the State of New York, where he spent 
his life, and died in 1864, in Wayne County, aged 
about 63 years. He married Catherine Clelland, 
who was also born in the State of New York, and 
descended from ancestors who came to America from 
Holland. She died Aug. 26, 1864, in Wayne County, 
aged 50 years. 

Mr. Taylor is the third child of his parents, and 
he was a very small boy when they moved into the 
woods of Onondaga. He obtained his education in 
the pioneer school-houses of that county, which were 
built of scantling cut from logs, the structures being 
built in the same method or plan on which log houses 
were built. He attained to man's estate on his fa- 
ther's farm, and was married March 2, 1834, in 
Wayne County, to Eunice M. Olmstead. Follow- 
ing is the record of their children : Calista A., born 
Aug. 23, 1835, married J. H. Hewitt, a farmer in 
Chickasaw Co., Iowa. James C. was born May 13, 
1837, and married Louise Edson for his first wife. 
She died, leaving two children : James E. and Sylvia. 
He was a second time married, to Mary l.ucinda 


Bruner, and they reside on a farm in Genesee Town- 
ship. Jerusha, now Mrs. Dowd, is the wife of a 
farmer in Genesee Township. Eunice married Ran- 
som B. Johnson and lives in Ottawa Co., Kan. 
Lucy is the wife of Scott Sortor, of Chickasaw Co., 
Iowa. Rosalia, now the wife of Jacob Buzzard, is a 
resident of Brown Co., D. T. S. W. is deceased. 
Tunis became a soldier in the Union Army and was 
killed by a minie ball at the battle of Perryville, 
Ky. Mary died in infancy. John H. is deceased. 
On settling in life, Mr. Taylor established his fam- 
ily on a farm in his native State, and they were there 
resident until 1852. In that year he came West and 
purchased 80 acres of land on section 32, Genesee 
Township, which had not then known the plow or 
any other element or influence to develop its fruit- 
fulness. The entire tract is under cultivation, and 
he has deeded 40 acres to his son. In October, 
1867, he was appointed Postmaster at the place 
where he lives, and has since officiated in that posi- 
tion. He was a Democrat at the outset of his polit- 
ical career, but some years since became a Republi- 
can. He is holding the position of Justice of the 
Peace. He and his wife were reared in the tenets 
of the Presbyterian Church. 

"jilliam F. Twining, retired farmer, resi- 
dent on section 12, Union Grove Town- 
ship, came to Whiteside County in 1863. 
He is the son of William and Ovonda (Fow- 
ler) Twining. They were natives of Mas- 
sachusetts, and located after their marriage in 
the State of New York, and were there resident dur- 
ing the remainder of their lives. Their children 
were named Susan, John, Lucinda, William F., Al- 
fred W., Milo S. and Mariette. 

Mr. Twining was born Aug. 17, 1820, in Jefferson 
Co., N. Y. He was a farmer in his native State un- 
til his removal to Illinois. He decided to locate in 
Union Grove, and he purchased 65 acres on sections 
12 and 13. He continued to live on and operate 
his farm until the spring of 1884, when he sold his 
property and retired from participation in active 
life. He affiliates with the Republican party in po- 
litical sentiment, and has officiated as Township 

Treasurer and School Trustee, besides having held 
several minor official positions. 

Mr. Twining was united in marriage in Champion, 
Jefferson Co., N. Y., Feb. 19, 1846, to Martha M. 
Taylor, a native of the State of New York. They 
became the parents of five children Mary F., Will- 
iam E., Mary F. (2d), Fred A. and Florence A. The 
eldest child is deceased, as is the fourth Fred A. 
The mother died in Union Grove Township, July 26, 
1879. Mr. Twining was again married March 16, 
1882, to Nellie, daughter of William and Nellie 
(Wilson) Rook. Mrs. Twining was born July 28, 
1845, in England. She is one of six children born 
to her parents, as follows: John, Martha, Elizabeth, 
Nellie, Mary and Fanny. Mr. and Mrs. Twining 
have one child Gracie B. 

ames C. Taylor, farmer, section 31, Gen- 
esee Township, was born May 13, 1837, in 
'Wayne Co., N. Y. He is the son of William 
Taylor, of whom an account is given elsewhere 
in this volume. He lived in the county of his 
nativity until he was 15 years of age, and in 
1852 he came to Illinois with his parents and has 
since been a resident of Genesee Township. Every- 
thing was in a primeval condition and it was neces- 
sary that all should give their earnest attention to 
the work of improving a home. He was the oldest 
son, and he devoted himself with vigorous energy to 
the cultivation of the prairie farm. He continued 
to live at home until he was 30 years of age. 

He was first married Sept. 18, 1870, in Genesee 
Township, to Louise Edson, the daughter of Jacob 
Edson. She was born Jan. 27, 1840, in Otsego Co., 
N. Y. Her parents were natives of New England, 
She grew up and was educated in the county where 
she was born, and, at .the age of 15 years, began to 
teach in the public schools of New York, and was 
similarly engaged until she was past 20 years of age. 
In 1 868 she came to Whiteside County, where she 
taught school until she was married. She died 
April rg, 1883, and left two children. James E. 
was born Feb. 12, 1876, and Sylvia L.,,Feb. 22, 
1879. She was a person of estimable character, and 
her loss to her family and friends was deeply de- 
plored by her family and neighbors, who still pre- 



- - 



serve her memory. Mr. Taylor formed a second 
matrimonial alliance with LucindaBruner. She was 
born Jan. 12, 1848, in Somerset Co., Pa., and is the 
daughter of Joseph and Mary A. (Mull) Bruner. 
Her father was formerly a miller in Pennsylvania 
and in 1865, after coming West, he settled in Lee 
Co., 111., and became a farmer, operating in that 
capacity in the townships of Franklin Grove and 
South Dixon. He and his wife are residents in the 
township last named, and they are aged respectively 
67 and 65 years (1885). 

In 1870 Mr. Taylor located his residence on 40 
acres of land, constituting one-half of the original 
claim of his father, and situated on section 31. With 
the exception of a year spent in Nebraska, this has 
since been his place of abode. 

He is a Republican in political belief. Mrs. Tay- 
lor is a member of the Lutheran Church. 

illiam Parker, editor and proprietor of the 
Rock Falls News, is a native of Maysville, 
Ky., born in 1835, and is a descendant of 
<^ the pioneers of that State. Commenced the 
printing business at the age of 15 and served 
three years in the office of the Ripley Bee, at 
Ripley, Ohio, afterwards served two years in the job 
office of the Cincinnati Enquirer. He came to Illi- 
nois in 1855 and commenced the publication of a 
paper at Salem, in Marion County, in the same year, 
and has been steadily engaged in the newspaper and 
printing business ever since. 

Mr. Parker entered the volunteer service of the 
United States army as Lieutenant of Co. A, 75th 
111. Vol. Inf., at Dixon, in 1862, and served till the 
close of the war, being promoted as Captain soon after 
going to the front. After the war closed he was com- 
missioned Brevet Lieutenant Colonel for meritorious 
services on the field. He came from old Kentucky 
" emancipation " Whig stock, joined the Republican 
party at its organization and has never voted any 
other ticket. 

Mr. Parker was married in Salem, Marion Co., 111., 
to Miss Ella Bond, in 1856. Miss Anna F. Parker, 
their only living child, is interested with her father in 
the publication of the Rock Falls News. 

Both self and wife are of Presbyterian and Con- 
gregational stock. He is Senior Vice-Commander of 
Will Robinson Post, No. 274, G. A. R., and has been 
twice elected representative to the State Encamp- 
ment of that order. 

ainos Holleran, proprietor of the " Robin- 
son House," the only first-class hotel in 
Fulton, was born in County Clare, Ireland, 
Dec. 26, 1843, and is the son of P. M. and 
Catharine Holleran. He emigrated with his 
parents to Canada West in 1848, and in 1855 
came to Fulton, 111. 

He engaged in steamboating as cabin boy %nd 
worked his way up to the position of Captain, 
followed steamboating some 12 years and was known 
as an expert pilot and trustworthy officer. During 
the late war he was employed in the United States 
Naval service on the lower river. He built and op- 
erated a ferry between Fulton and Lyons for some 
years. He also conducted a "bus line at Fulton. He 
was elected and served as City Marshal. In 1865 
he engaged in the hardware business with John 
Downs, which connection continued till 1878, when 
he sold out and went to Orleans, Harlan Co., Neb. 
He built the " Central House " at Orleans and kept, 
it two years, when he sold out and went to Red 
Cloud, where he kept the "Valley House " till r88o. 
He then removed to Cascade, Iowa, and kept tr 
" Holleran House " till the fall of 1884, when he 
moved to Fulton and purchased the " Robinson 
House." Mr. Holleran has made many important 
improvements in the house and premises, and now 
has a comfortable and tasteful establishment, com- 
plete and first-class in all its appointments. He 
also has a good livery in connection with the house. 
He was married at Fulton, May 28, 1865, to Miss 
Adelia Connor, daughter of P. H. and Ellen Connor. 
Mrs. H. was born at Dundas, Canada. They have 
four children, one son and three daughters : Minnie 
E., Frank L., Eva and Maudie I. Mr. and Mr 
Holleran are members of the Catholic Church. In 
politics Mr. H. is Democrat. 

Mr. Holleran still owns his fine farm of r6o acres 
in Harlan Co., Neb., valuable city property in Red 
Cloud, a fine residence and five acres of land at 

5 ^^ 



. J: 

Ti i> ILLlNOlb 






Cascade, besides 20 lots. He is an enterprising 
business man, and, being ably assisted by his intelli- 
gent and energetic wife, is bound to make the " Rob- 
inson House " a favorite stopping place with the 

traveling public. 



illiam D. Hayes, merchant and Postmaster 
at Malvern, was born in West Brandywine 
Township, Chester Co., Pa., Oct. 25, 1830. 
Thomas and Ann (Davis) Hayes, his par- 
ents, were also born in that State and were 
of English ancestry. Henry Hayes, his earliest 
traceable ancestor, came to America as a refugee 
(ram British law, in 1690, or thereabouts. He was in 
humble circumstances in his native country and was 
employed as a teamster. An unguarded motion with 
his whip resulted in a run-away, by which the grand- 
ees were well shaken up and the horses cleared 
themselves from the clumsy state carriage, and he 
was obliged to flee for his life. He secreted himself 
in the heath until opportunity served to get away and 
he sailed for the New World, landing where is now 
Chester, on the Delaware River. He sought the 
headwaters of White Clay Creek and spent seven 
years in a small cabin, living the life of a hermit, the 
wilderness being then unbroken. Samuel Hayes, his 
great-grandfather, located in East Malborough Town- 
ship, Chester County, and was surrounded by Tories 
during the Revolutionary War, who made him much 
trouble on account of his Whig principles. His 
grandfather on his mother's side, William Davis, died 
in Chester Co., Pa ., Jan. 9, 1863, aged 82 years He 
was a " smith " (or blacksmith) nearly all his life, 
engaged in the manufacture of edged tools, with the 
hand hammer on a common anvil. 

Thomas Hayes was a mechanic in early life and 
later became a farmer. He died in the township of 
Newlin, Chester Co., Pa., in March, 1867, aged 
60 years. His widow died March 6, 1878, aged 73 

Mr. Hayes was reared by his parents, with whom 
he remained until the death of his father. He had 
obtained a good education and when he was 2 1 years 
of age he began teaching and followed that calling 
12 years. During that period (April 29, 1857) he 
was married, in the city of Philadelphia, to Martha E., 

daughter of Thomas and Martha (O'Niel) Johnson, 
who was born in Chester County. Her parents were 
farmers and were of German and Irish extraction. 
Both are now deceased. Mrs. Hayes was born in 
Willistown Tp,. Chester Co., Pa., Sept. 27, 1833. 
Five children born to Mr. and Mrs. Hayes are all 
living. They were born in the following order: 
Anna M., born Feb. 9, 1860; Ira T., June 8, r867; 
May E., Aug. 5, 1868; Elsie T., Nov. 23, 1873; 
Clarence J., Sept. 30, 1875. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hayes located after their marriage 
in Newlin, where they purchased a small property, 
and Mr. Hayes was there engaged some time in 
teaching. Ten years later they went to the township 
of West Pikeland, in the same county, where they 
operated as farmers two years,- and went thence to 
Chester Valley, where they resided a year. They 
removed thence to Delaware County, in the same 
State. Later they made another transfer, to Mont- 
gomery Co., Pa. After a stay there of three years, 
they came to Clyde Township, reaching their desti- 
nation Feb. T2, 1876. Mr. Hayes at once established 
his mercantile relations and has since continued in 
trade. In December, 1877, he was appointed Post- 
master at Malvern, of which he is the founder and 
was the chief means of procuring the establishment 
of the mail route. He is the first Postmaster. He 
is a Republican and has acted eight years as Justice 
of the Peace; has also held various other offices. 

illiam A. Van Osdol, one of the most 
extensive farmers in Whiteside County, 
residing upon section 7, Hopkins Town- 
ship, is a son of John and Nancy (Gibson) 
Van Osdol, natives of Pennsylvania. They 
married in Ohio Co., Ind., but finally settled in 
Dearborn County. Mr. Van Osdol died in February, 
1870, in Ohio Co., Ind., where all of William's grand- 
parents settled about 1820, coming from Penn- 
sylvania. His wife, and the mother of William A., 
still survives and resides in that county. They 
had a family of 1 1 children, of whom William A. was 
the eldest. He was born in Ohio Co., Ind., Aug. 
17, 1827. He passed his boyhood days and grew 
to manhood in that county and continued to reside 
there till 1856. He received a good common-school 



education, and for a time was engaged in mercantile 
pursuits at Aberdeen, Ind. 

In May, 1856, Mr. Van Osdol came to Whiteside 
County and located in Hopkins Township, where he 
has since lived, closely and largely identified with the 
interests and welfare of the community. He is the 
owner of 520 acres of land in this township, 500 
acres of which is in a tillable condition. He also 
owns 440 acres of land in Ida Co., Iowa, all under 
cultivation and managed by his eldest son. This vast 
estate has been accumulated by Mr. Van Osdol in a 
very brief time, be it said to his credit. When 22 
years of age he possessed only $37.50 of prop- 
erty, which was in a note given to him by his father. 
The secret of his splendid success, besides possess- 
ing good business ability, is industry and frugality. 
Young men about to enter upon an active business 
career might read the record of his life with no little 

Mr. Van Osdol was united in marriage in Dear- 
born Co., Ind., Nov. 20, 1850, with Rebecca Turner. 
She was a native of Pennsylvania, born of Irish 
parentage, and the seventh of a family of nine chil- 
dren. Her parents were Robert and Martha (Woods) 
Turner. To Mr. and Mrs. Van Osdol have been 
born six children , John M., Sarah E., William S., 
Ida M., Robert R. and Frank A. John M. and 
Sarah E. are deceased. While never aspiring to 
public position, Mr. Van. Osdol has held many of 
the minor offices of his township. He is a member 
of the Methodist Episcopil Church, and in political 
views is identified with the Democratic party. 

As a truly representative agriculturist and a worthy 
citizen of Whiteside County, we place Mr. Van 
Osdol's portrait in this volume in connection with 
this sketch. It is engraved from a photograph taken 
about 1878. 

illiam H. Knox, of Union Grove Town- 
ship, is a native citizen of Whiteside 
County, and was born Oct. 8, 1856, in 
Mt. Pleasant Township. His parents, Will- 
iam and Mary J. (Emery) Knox, came to 
Whiteside County in 1835, and after residing 
some time in Prophetstown, removed to the township 
of Mt. Pleasant and there the father died, Dec. 20, 

l %gi*& 

1884. The mother is still living. The names of 
their eight children were Sarah J., Harriet, Walter 
E., Martin W., William H., Andrew J., Clarence D. 
and Clara M. 

Mr. Knox spent the years of his minority in ob- 
taining his education. In 1878 he detached himself 
from home associations and rented a farm in Mount 
Pleasant Township, on which he operated two years. 
In 1881 he made a permanent settlement on a farm 
of 150 acres on section 25, of which he is the owner, 
in Union Grove Township. Of this 115 acres are 
under excellent cultivation. 

The marriage of Mr. Knox to Cora M. Harrison 
took place Jan. i, 1879, in the township of Mt. 
Pleasant. Two children have been added to the 
household circle, Olive L. and Ruby H. Mrs. 
Knox was born Oct. 12, 1859,511 Ohio, and she is 
the daughter of Thomas and Electa A.'(Hoag) Har- 
rison. Her father was a native of England and her 
mother was born in the State of New York. After a 
residence of some years in the State last named and 
in Ohio, they came, in the spring of 1868, to White- 
side County and fixed their residence in the township 
of Mt. Pleasant. Mrs. Knox has one brother younger 
than herself George F. Harrison. 

Mr. Knox is identified with the Republican parly 
in political sentiment. 



:o., \[ 

nd ,. 
Her I 

lam R. Grubb, farmer and blacksmith, 
resident on section 33, Genesee Township, 
was born April i, 1842, in Lancaster Co., 
Pa. The- sketch of his parents, Samuel and 
Mary (Rowe) Grubb, may be found on oth 

Of two sons, which comprise the entire number of 
children, Mr. Grubb is the younger. He attended 
school in his native county from a suitable age until 
he was 14, when his parents removed to Sterling. 
There he was engaged in study one year. Mean- 
while, his father purchased a farm in Genesee Town- 
ship, to which the family removed, and father and g 
sons entered into the work of establishing a home, / 
such as was possible on the prairie, that only needed 
the application of the commonest methods of agri- ' 
culture to respond generously. 

Mr. Grubb worked on the farm summers and 


- .. 


to school winters for some years. He remained un- 
married until he was 28 years old. Feb. 27, 1870, 
he formed a matrimonial alliance with Eliza A., 
daughter of C. B. and Jane (Loudon) Peugh, of 
whom a personal account is inserted in this work. 
Mrs. Grubb was born Oct. n, 1848, in Washington 
Co., Ind. She was a child of four years when her 
parents came to Illinois and settled, in Genesee 
Township in its days of first things, a condition of 
things fully realized by Mrs. Grubb, as she was one 
of the oldest children. She is the mother of two 
children: Charles L., born Aug. n, 1871, and Fanny 
A., Oct. 7, 1876. 

Mr. and Mrs. Grubb settled on 40 acres of land, 
which had been purchased by the former previous to 
his marriage, and was then totally unimproved. He 
had made it ready for a home, and on removing 
thither pressed the work of improvement. He has 
purchased an additional tract of 80 acres, and has 
improved the entire quantity. Mr. Grubb is a Re- 
publican. Mrs. Grubb has been a member of the 
Christian Church since she was 16 years of age. 

|jenry E. Horning, carpenter and joiner, 
resident at Malvern, in Clyde Township, is 
the son of Henry and Hannah (Isenberg) 
yy Horning, both of whom were of German ances- 
try, with a slight admixture of English blood on 
the side of the mother. Mr. Horning was born 
Oct. 23, 1838, in Trappe, Montgomery Co., Pa. He 
set out independently in life when he was 14 years 
old, his parents then both living. His father died Nov. 
12, 1 87 2, aged 74 years. His mother is still living in 
firm health, in Maryland, Ogle Co., 111., aged 87 years. 
On making his first venture in life, Mr. Horning 
engaged in farm labor, in which he continued four 
years. Oct. 26, 1856, he apprenticed himself to John 
' Poley, a cousin who resided in the place of his 
nativity, and he served with him three years, obtain- 
ing a thorough and practical knowledge of the busi- 
ness of a carpenter. Passing another year working 
as a journeyman, he afterwards established a shop in 
his own interests in his native village. In August, 
1862, he went to Philadelphia and remained there 
engaged in work at his trade 13 years. He returned 
at the end of that time to- his native county and 

MXar- f-N l^f: 

worked as a carpenter two years, at Worcester. In 
February, 1876, in company with W. D. Hayes, he 
came to Whiteside County and settled at Malvern, 
and is the owner of the property where he resides. 
Since May 6, 1885, he has been traveling agent for 
the sale of medicines. 

He was married Nov. 24, 1859, at Bethel, Berks 
Co., Pa., to Lydia, daughter of Jacob and Elizabeth 
(Hammaker) Pfeifer. Her parents were natives of 
Berks County, and were of German descent. They 
were farmers and lived and died in their native State. 
Mrs. H. is a member of the Dunkard Church. Mr. 
H. is a Democrat and a member of the K. of P. 

l^-,apt. Alfred M. Carpenter, Master of the 
steamer " Helen Mar," and a pioneer of 
Whiteside County, was born in Lake Co., 
Ohio, May 19, 1836, and is the son of John 
B. and Mary (Fisk) Carpenter. When four 
years of age he removed with his parents to 
Adams Co., 111., and a few years later to Missouri. 
In 1846 the family returned to Illinois and settled 
in Albany, this county. 

When 15 years of age Alfred began running the 
Mississippi River, floating rafts, and in 1867 began 
sleamboating. In 1873, after 22 years on the river, 
12 of which were spent on the rafts, he had by hard 
labor and economy accumulated a snug sum of 
money. This he invested in the purchase of the 
steamer " Hudson, " and began business for himself, 
as Captain of his own vessel. He had secured a 
large contract for moving lumber at a figure that 
promised him a very flattering return for his labor ; 
but misfortune overtook him near the close of the 
third season. While towing a raft, a log was carried 
under his boat which " hung her up " in such a man- 
ner that she could not be relieved. He left her 
with the expectation of raising her when the ice 
should be strong enough to work on. The mildness 
of the winter frustrated his plans, and in the break- 
up the following spring his vessel was swept away. 
By this disaster he not only lost his earnings for so 
many years of hard work and exposure, but he also 
lost the benefit of his contract, which was worth at 
least $10,000, for the reason that he was to move 
the lumber with the steamer " Hudson." 
The following season (1874) he began steamboat- 









ing again, on a salary, since which time he has com- 
manded the following named boats : " Louisville 
Despatch," "Andy Riley," "White," "Eclipse," 
"Stillwater" and the "Helen Mar." He is the 
present Captain of the latter named boat, which is 
owned by Knapp, Stout & Co., of St. Louis, and en- 
gaged in the lumber trade. 

Captain Carpenter was married in Albany, White- 
side Co., 111., Dec. 31, 1857, to Miss Sarah J. Zent, 
a daughter of John and Myra Zent. Mrs. Carpenter 
was born in Morrow Co., Ohio,. They had five chil- 
dren^ three sons and two daughters: Florence C., 
the -wife of Henry Rodman, of Davenport, Iowa ; Al- 
fred M. died in childhood ; Charles O. is a steamboat 
mate on the Mississippi ; Theodore A. died aged 
eight years ; and Eva J., the youngest, is four years 
of age. Mrs. Carpenter died May 13, 1882, and 
Capt. Carpenter was married again Dec. 5, 1883. in 
Dakota, Minn., to Miss Laura Fox, daughter of Al- 
vin K. and Sophia (Tompkins) Fox. Mrs. Carpenter 
was born in Minnesota. 

With the exception of five years spent in Hancock 
Co., 111., Captain Carpenter has made his home at 
Fulton since his first marriage. 

He has now had 34 years' experience in the lumber 
and log business on the river, and 13 years' as steam- 
boat Captain. With the exception of the loss of his 
own boat, he has met with no accident of conse- 
quence, and enjoys the reputation of being one of the 
most experienced and successful captains on the 

Clifton Snyder, Postmaster of Fulton, 111. 
was born in this city, Nov. 14, 1857, and is 
the son of the Hon. William C. and 
Isyphene C. (Pearce) Snyder. He was educated 
in the city schools of Fulton and at the North- 
ern Illinois College. At 14 years of age he 
entered the office of the Fulton Journal as an ap- 
prentice, learned the printer's trade, and in Decem- 
ber, 1877, formed a partnership with his brother-in- 
law, T. J. Pickett, Jr. and leased the Journal office, 
Mr. Pickett being succeeded by Mr. W. R. Cobb in 
March, 1879. This connection lasted till March i, 
1880, when he sold out, but continued in the office 
some time longer. In May, 1881, he engaged in the 

fS- ^3^ ^ ^i 

warehouse business, in company with W. C. Snyder, 
and they do a general forwarding and commission 
business, and deal in grain, feed, coal, lime, brick and 
cement. Mr. Snyder was appointed Postmaster at 
Fulton by President Arthur, Dec. 22, 1882, and 
entered upon the duties of the office Jan. i, 1883. 

Mr. Snyder was married at Peoria, 111., March 29, 
1885, to Miss Hattie L. Noble, daughter of Hiram 
and Sophia E. (Summers) Noble. Mrs. Snyder was 
born on Staten Island, N. Y. 

- 6 (d /y^PitO^'*^ ^) A 

v ts> >3SXi>r e; 

phraim M. Bechtel, a farmer on section 
10, Clyde Township, was born March 23, 
1833, in Columbiana Co., Ohio. Benja- 
min R. Bechtel, his father, was a native of 
Berks Co., Pa., and was a stone mason by 
trade. He learned his business in the State 
where he was born, and was there married to Re- 
becca Myers. Both parents were of German ances- 
try and descent. After the birth of their eldest child 
they removed to Ohio, where they located in Colum- 
biana County. Mr. Bechtel of this sketch was born 
soon after, and is the second child born in that 
county, being the third child of his parents. When 
he was five years of age the family removed to Ches- 
ter Township, Wayne Co., in the same State. He 
was there brought up and educated and was an in- 
mate of the paternal home until he was 20 years of 
age, when he learned the trade of a cooper, and was 
was engaged in that business two years. Subse- 
quently he engaged as a mechanic in the employ of 
the Chicago, Fort Wayne & Pittsburg Railroad 
corporation, and, after two years in their service, he 
came to Illinois. He was first employed by the 
Chicago & Rock Island corporation, in whose inter- 
ests he operated one year. He then came to White- 
side County, whither his parents had removed in 
1855. He purchased 40 acres of land in Clyde 
Township, which was his second purchase of real 
estate, he having previously become the owner of 40 
acres of land in Benton Co., Iowa. This he after- 
wards sold and devoted his entire time to the im- 
provement of his property in Illinois. His parents 
were residents on a farm in the eastern part of Clyde 
Township, where they passed the remainder of their 
lives. The father died about a year after removing 

' ' 








to Illinois. The death of the mother occurred about 
1872. Both were in advanced years. 

Mr. Bechtel devoted his time and strength to the 
improvement of his farm in Clyde Township until 
March, 1859, when, in company with James Wood, 
Thomas Aldritt and Richard Frye, he started for the 
promised land of Pike's Peak. They drove across 
the plains, encountering hardship, privation and 
fatigue, and finally arrived at Denver. They went 
thence up the Platte River, prospecting for gold but 
with success far below the hopes which had induced 
them to leave the certainties of a life of effort on the 
beautiful and fruitful prairies of Illinois, to chase the 
will-o-the-wisp promises of speedy wealth in the 
Rocky Mountains, and they learned that the gold 
that came through the medium of their toil was just 
as swift recompense as the placer yields of the 
Platte, and a deal more certain. Their tarry in the 
mountains was brief, and selling their equipments 
they purchased provisions with the proceeds and set 
out on their return homeward. They made the 
route in hungry weariness, encountering throngs of 
starving and distressed emigrants pressing on to re- 
peat the experiment which had proved to them 
anything but a success. 

Mr. Bechtel resumed farming in Whiteside County, 
and added further purchases to his acreage. A few 
years later he made a change in location and pur- 
chased 80 acres on section 10, which he bought with 
the purpose of making it a permanent location. It 
was wholly unimproved, and he entered vigorously 
into the work of converting it into a farm. Later, 
he purchased 80 acres on section 9, and still later 
bought 80 acres additional on section 10, on which 
some improvements had been made. He is now the 
owner of 240 acres, all of which is under cultivation, 
and constitutes one of the splendid estates which 
gives Whiteside County its value. Its buildings are 
valuable and serve to increase the attractions of the 
place. The proprietor is heavily interested in stock 
and sends to market annually upwards of 100 head. 
Mr. Bechtel inclines to the principles of the Re- 
publican party, but is in no sense aggressive in his 
political affiliations. He is a Deacon in the Dunkard 

His marriage to Sarah Wilson took place Feb. 22, 
1861, in Clyde Township. She is the daughter of 
John and Jane (Blue) Wilson, and is a native of 


Clyde Township, where she was born March 29, -j 
1841. (See sketches of David and William Gsell.) 
To Mr. and Mrs. Bechtel four children have been 
born as follows: John, Feb. 17, 1862; Ella, July i, 
1866; Lana, Nov. i, 1876; and Rebecca, who died \&) 
when nearly 15 years of age. 

enjamin Bonebrake, resident at Union- 
ville, has passed his life as a mechanic. 
He is a son of Frederick and Catherine 
(La Rose) Bonebrake, the former a native of 
Pennsylvania, and the latter of North Caro- 
lina. After their marriage they located in 
Ohio, where they were subsequently resident until 
their death. Their children were named Anna, Levi, 
Benjamin and Sarah. 

Mr. Bonebrake was born May 22, 1817, in Preble 
Co., Ohio. He passed his youth in the acquisition 
of his education and as a farm assistant, at home. 
At the age of 20 years he obtained the control of his 
own time, and he fulfilled a predetermined resolution 
to learn the trade of carpenter and joiner, in which 
he passed 44 years. On becoming master of his 
trade, he located in Butler Co., Ohio, where he 
operated eight years. In the spring of 1856 he came 
to Whiteside County and rented a farm in Mt. Pleas- 
ant Township. After a short trial of agricultural life 
he went to Morrison, and in the spring of 1861 set- 
tled permanently at Unionville. He is the owner of 
40 acres of land in Union Grove Township. 

In political preference Mr. Bonebrake is a Repub- 
lican, and he has been active in several local official 
positions. He has served 12 years as School Trus- 
tee, and as Collector six years. He is a member of 
Union Grove Lodge, No. 257, 1. O. O. F. He be- 
longs to the Protestant Methodist Church, of which 
his wife is also a member. 

" His marriage to Susan White occurred in Preble 
Co., Ohio, in September, 1841. She was born in 
Vermont and died Feb. 28, 1858, in Mt. Pleasant 
Township, leaving two children, Carrie and La 
Rose. Feb. 28, 1861, he was again married to Mrs. 
Harriet A. (Trye) Baker. She was born Aug. 13, 
1825, in Sheffield, England, and is the daughter of 
William and Sarah (Carter) Trye, and widow of Wil- 
liam R. Baker, by whom she had four children, 



named Charles W., Olive, Warren and Ida M. Mr. 
Baker died June 14, 1859. He was the oldest son of 
Jacob Baker, a prominent pioneer citizen of White- 
side County, of whom a personal record appears on 
another page. 


ohn Stuart, carriage manufacturer at Ful- 
ton, established his factory in 1865. He 
is a native of the North of Ireland, of 
Scotch descent, and was born May 8, 1844. 
His parents were Alexander and Margaret 
(Ellis) Stuart. He emigrated with his family 
to Canada, in childhood, where he learned the black- 
smith and carriage trade, at Mitchell, Canada West, 
at which he served a regular apprenticeship of three 
years. His compensation was limited, and increased 
slowly. For the first year he received the princely 
sum of $25, the second $35, and the last year $45. 
But, strange as it may sound to modern apprentices, 
he had every dollar of his three years' wages at the 
close of his apprenticeship. He continued with his 
employer a half year longer, and in March, 1859, 
came to the United States. He first tried his fortunes 
in Missouri, but was obliged to abandon that field on 
account of the climate; he then came to Fulton, 111., 
July 8, 1859, and engaged as journeyman black- 
smith with Mr. James Broadhead, at 50 cents a day. 
He continued to work as journeyman till March, 
1862, when, having accumulated a cash capital of $65, 
he opened a blacksmith shop of his own. 'Three 
years later he began the carriage business in a small 
way at his present stand. The superior quality of 
his work, together with a reputation for fair dealing, 
soon increased his trade till he was obliged to erect 
additional buildings and to increase his force. This 
he has been doing from time to time, till he now has 
commodious quarters, and employs a force of from 12 
to 16 men. His works turn out from 75 to 100 single 
and double carriages yearly, of various styles and of 
the finest workmanship. Mr. Stuart uses Ohio tim- 
ber, and builds his work up from the rough to the 
last touch of the painter's brush, or the final stitch of 
the upholsterer. His market is principally in Iowa, 
although his trade, to a considerable extent, extends 
to California and the Territories. 

In 1873 William Stuart, a younger brother, pur- 

chased an interest in the business, and the firm be- 
came J. & W. Stuart. This connection continued till 
Feb. 29, 1884, when John bought him out and now 
operates his factory alone. 

Mr. Stuart was married at Fulton, 111., Nov. 12, 
1863, to Miss Mary A. Stevenson, daughter of Simon 
and Mary (Irwin) Stevenson. They have had six 
children, four sons and two daughters, John A., 
Simon, William, Mary, Fanny and Arthur, all of 
whom are living except Fanny, who died aged seven 

Mr. Stuart is a member of the present City Council 
from the First Ward, and has been Alderman once 
before from the same. He has been a member of 
Fulton City Lodge, No. 189, A. F. & A. M., since 
1872, and is also a member of Fulton Chapter, No. 
108, R. A. M., of which he is Treasurer. In politics 
he is a Republican. 

Jilliam Annan, miller, located in Union- 
ville, was born Nov. 2, 1848, in Scotland, 
and is the oldest son of William and Eliz- 
abeth (Murray) Annan, who were natives of 
the same country and of Scotch descent, 
through a long line of ancestors. They came- 
directly from the " land of heather " to Whiteside 
County, and fixed their residence soon after in 
Unionville, where the former died, Jan. n, 1882. 
The mother is still living, as are three of the four 
children, Barbara, William, Catherine and James. 
The last named is deceased. 

Mr. Annan was scarcely a year old when his par- 
ents came, with two children, to the United States. 
He obtained a good common-school education at 
Unionville, and afterwards attended the commercial 
college at Davenport, Iowa. His father, associated 
with John A. Robertson, built a grist-mill on Rock 
Creek in 1859-60, and in the intervals of school he 
assisted in its management, continuing to act in some 
capacity connected therewith until the decease of 
his father, when he assumed charge of the estab- 
lishment and has since conducted its business. Its 
producing capacity is 75 barrels of flour daily, and 
the trade is chiefly custom work. 

In political affiliation Mr. Annan is a Republican. 
He was united in marriage with Marian Ely, at 






Cortland, De Kalb Co., 111., May 16, 1878, and to 
them three children have been born, who are named 
Frank W., George and Floyd J. Mrs. Annan was 
born in the State of New York, and is the daughter 
of C. F. and Lydia M. Ely. 

eorge B. Adams, editor and proprietor of 
the Herald, at Morrison, was born in 
Lyndon, Whiteside Co., 111., Oct. 7, 1855, 
being the eldest of a family of eight children 
of A. D. and Mary E. (Snyder) Adams, and 
has always been a resident of the county. 
From Lyndon the family moved to Portland, 
where they lived several years, afterward removing 
again to Spring Hill, and in 1865 locating in 
Prophetstown, the present home. In each of these 
locations the father pursued his vocation of black- 
sm'th, a trade in which he was a superior workman. 
He also purchased a farm in Prophetstown Town- 
ship, on which the family lived a few years, finally 
returning to the village and subsequently disposing 
of the farm. 

Mr. Adams' education was acquired by studious 
attendance at the public school until 18 years of age, 

when he engaged as a teacher in one of tjie rural 
districts of the county. Not finding the calling a 
congenial one, however, he abandoned the teacher's 
profession, and in 1875 entered the general store of 
D. K. Smith, Prophetstown, as clerk, remaining un- 
til 1877. In March of that year he went to Mor- 
rison and became a law student in the office of F. 
D. Ramsay, varying the monotony of constant read- 
ing by writing an occasional contribution for the 
county press, as well as for more remote publications. 

In April, 1878, A. D. Hill founded 7 he Wiiteside 
Herald in Morrison, and, being aware of Mr. 
Adams' newspaper inclinations, secured his services 
as local editor. He continued his legal studies, in 
connection with reportorial work, until the fall of 
1878, when he finally abandoned the former and de- 
voted himself exclusively to the latter, soon becom- 
ing a partner in the publication of the Herald, the 
firm being Hill & Adams. Three years later the 
junior partner withdrew from the enterprise, and on 
the first of July, 1882, leased the Herald of Mr. 
Hill, and the following April purchased the office 


and business where he is still engaged. The Herald 
is an independent paper, devoted to the local news 
of the city and county. Mr. Adams is also man- 
ager of the Telephone Exchange at Morrison. 

Nov. 19, 1879, Mr. Adams was united in marriage 
with Miss Lucy Euphemia, youngest daughter of 
Luther B. and Caroline M. (Smith) Ramsay, of 
Prophetstown. They have one child, Frank Ram- 
say, born July 7, 1883. 


j^phraim Summers, of Fulton, and a pioneer 

of Whiteside County of 1838, was born in 
the town of Barnet, Caledonia Co., Vt., 
Sept. 4, 1812, and is the son of William and 
Y Emma (Pierce) Summers. He worked at the 
carpenter and joiner's trade, and was also en- 
gaged in farming. He was married in February, 
1833, in Vermont, to Mary L. Dickson, daughter of 
John and Jane (Lindsey) Dickson. 

He came to Illinois in 1838 and made his home 
at Portland, this county, for awhile, but soon located 
at Sterling, to which place he removed his family 
from the East in 1840. He learned the blacksmith's 
trade in the West, and opened a shop at Sterling, 
which he continued till 1847. He then removed to 
Fulton, where he worked at blacksmithing till 1850, 
when he joined a party bound for the gold fields of 
California. He left Fulton April 9, crossed the 
plains and arrived at Hangtown, Cal., early in 
August following. He spent two years in the Golden 
State, and returned to his home via the Panama 
and New York route. In 1853 he engaged in the 
hardware business at Fulton, which he continued till 
1857. He was elected Justice of the Peace several 
times, and served in all 20 years. In 1873 he was 
appointed United States Ganger and served as such 
two years, or until by a change in the law the office 
was abolished. He also held various local offices. 

Mr. and Mrs. Summers had seven children, font 
sons and three daughters : Cloys, the eldest son, 
was a soldier of the late war, and is now a merchant 
of Fulton. He married Margaret Joyce. Morris 
died in infancy. Oscar married Lizzie Exley and is 
in partnership with his elder brother. Cyrus is 
single and lives in Indianapolis, Ind. Sophia is the 



wife of Hiram Noble, of Fulton. Orilla is the wife 
of George Hartford, of Boone, Iowa; Mary is the 
wife of Herman Jordan, of Newton Township, this 

. Mr. Summers gave up active business several 
years since, and is living in comfortable retirement 
with several of his children near by, and in the en- 
joyment of the highest respect and esteem of neigh- 
bors and friends. He is now with his eldest son. 
Mrs. Summers died July 23, 1879. 

ehemiah Grubb, farmer, section 33, Gen- 
esee Township, was born Dec. 4, 1840, in 
Lancaster Co., Pa. He is the oldest of 
two sons born to Samuel and Mary (Row) 
Grubb, of whom a sketch appears on other 
pages of this work, and that of Elam R., the 
younger son, appearing elsewhere, gives a complete 
record of the Grubb family in Genesee Township. 

Mr. Grubb was about 14 years of age when the 
family abandoned their native State and came to 
Illinois. They came at once to Whiteside County 
and settled for the first year in Sterling. In the 
second year (1855) the parents bought a farm on 
section 33, Genesee Township. The sons had ob- 
tained a fair education, and on taking possession of 
their homestead the father and sons gave their un- 
divided attention to the conversion of the hitherto 
unfilled prairie into a valuable and fertile farm. 

Mr. Grubb became the possessor of 40 acres of 
land previous to his marriage, which was situated on 
the same section as that purchased by his father, 
and on which he began to make improvements. He 
was married July 7, 1870, in Hopkins Township, to 
Amanda, daughter of Peter and Charlotte (Mellen- 
gar) Gara. The family of the wife were natives of 
Lancaster County, and were of German ancestry and 
descent. They were farmers and came to Illinois in 
1865. Mrs. Grubb is the oldest child and was born 
in Lancaster County, Nov. 7, 1850, and she was 15 
years of age when she came with her father's family 
to Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Grubb have one child, 
Frank R., who was born Jan. 2, 1871. After their 
marriage they took possession of the small farm 
where Mr. Grubb had prepared a home for his fam- 
,ily. It has been enlarged and now contains 80 

acres, all of which is under improvements, with ' 
buildings and equipments suited to a farmer who is ' 
making a substantial start in the world. 

Mr. Grubb is a Republican of decided type. 

( r. Daniel Reed, deceased, the pioneer phy- 
sician of Fulton of 1838, was born in 
Camillus, Onondaga Co., N. Y., Sept. 4, 
1803. His parents were William and Eliza- 
beth (Mix) Reed. His mother was a relative of 
ex-President Hayes. He was educated at Fair- 
field College, New York, and studied medicine with 
Dr. Daniel T. Jones, then a popular physician of 
Central Nsw York. Having taken his degree, he be- 
gan practice at Auburn, N. Y. 

He was married at Sandy Creek, Oswego Co., N. 
Y., May r, 1828, to Miss Cinda T. Meigs, daughter 
of Dr. Jesse and Hannah (Pritchard) Meigs. Mrs. 
Reed was born in Bethlehem, Litchfield Co., Conn., 
May T3, 1801. Dr. Reed pursued the practice of 
his profession in New York till the fall of 1836, when 
he removed to Joliet, 111. Two years later he came 
to Fulton (in the fall of 1838), and engaged in prac- 
tice at this place. A great deal of sickness pre- 
vailed here the following year, and the Doctor, 
assisted by his wife, who was also a doctor, had their 
hands full. 

The Doctor had an extensive practice for a few 
years, when he removed to Galesburg, 111., in order 
to afford his children better advantages of education. 
Five years later he removed to Chicago, where he 
spent one year. He next went to Belvidere, and af- 
ter three years spent at that place they returned to 
Fulton. On his return to Fulton he retired from 
practice, but made this his home till his death, which 
occurred Feb. 16, 1882. 

Dr. Reed was chosen to fill various public offices. 
He served as Assessor in 1863, Justice of the Peace 
in 1866, Coroner of Whiteside County from 1856 to 
1858, and held other minor offices. He was a mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian Church and took an active 
and prominent part in the building of the church at 

In politics he was a Republican. 

Dr. and Mrs. Reed had a family of six children, 
four girls and two boys: William died April 17 
1872 ; Helen M. was the wife of Wm. P. Culbertson 


and died Nov. 6, 1857; Athalia, wife of J. B. Hall, 
of Columbus, Ohio; James H. married Annie Pome- 
roy and is a photographer at Clinton ; Cynthia J. is 
the widow of Wm. E. Baldwin and lives at Lyons; 
Harriet died Sept. 6, 1841, in childhood. 

illiam Wahl, farmer, section 35, Genesee 
Township, was born Feb. 26, 1843, in 
, Wurternberg, Germany. His parents, Mat- 
!> thew and Rosena (Schwartz) Wahl, were 
also natives of the " father-land," and were 
weavers and flax-hatchelers in Germany. The 
family emigrated to the United States in 1854, ar- 
riving in April. They located in Warren, Trumbull 
Co., Ohio, where they were engaged in farming until 
the fall of 1856, when they proceeded farther West 
and located on a farm four miles north of Sterling. 
The family included six children, who are all living, 
surviving the mother, who died in Genesee Town- 
ship, about 1862. Since 1882, the senior vVahl has 
resided in Sterling. 

Mr. Wahl is the fourth child, and he spent his 
youth and early manhood at home, obtaining his ed- 
ucation in the public schools of the township of 
Sterling. March n, 1866, he was married in the 
city of that name to Dora, daughter of Michael 
Smith. Mrs. Wahl was born in Germany about 
1845, and came with her parents when she was two 
years of age to the United States, locating in the city 
of New York, whence they subsequently came to 
Tecumseh, Lenawee Co., Mich., settling there about 
1860. Her parents are still resident there. She 
came to Sterling to spend a short lime with relatives, 
and was married there. She died at her home in 
Genesee Township, Dec. 10, 1876. Her six chil- 
dren were born as follows : C. Henry, Nov. r, 1866; 
Carrie L., Jan. 28, 1868; Emma, July 13, 1871 ; Al- 
bert A., Aug. 27, 1872; Nettie M., June 23, 1874; 
William M., March n, 1876. Mr. Wahl was again 
married March i, 188.1, in the village of Empire, 
Hopkins Township, to Mary C., daughter of Lewis 
and Susannah ( Etter ) Diehl, descendants from 
the sturdy class known as " Pennsylvania Dutch." 
They were farmers and were residents of St. Thomas, 
Franklin Co., Pa. Mrs. Wahl was born Aug. 31, 

1857, near Chambersburg. She was nearly 18 years 
of age when she accompanied her parents to Illinois, 
who fixed their residence at Empire, in Whiteside 
County. They have since moved to Clark Co., D. 
T., where her father is engaged in the livery busi- 
ness. Mrs. Wahl is the oldest child of her parents 
and is the mother of one daughter, Lydia A., born 
March 20, 1882. 

Mr. Wahl made his first purchase of land in Gen- 
esee Township in April, 1867. The tract at first 
comprised 80 acres, and he has since added 80 
acres more, which he purchased in 1876. The home- 
stead exhibits the best quality of agricultural effort. 
Mrs. Wahl is a member of the Lutheran Church. 
In political affiliation Mr. Wahl is a Republican. 

ooster Y. Ives, of Fulton, one of the ear- 
liest pioneers of Whiteside County and 
a noted hunter of the Mississippi River 
its tributaries, was born in Meriden, 
Conn., July 8, i8ro, and is the son of Wat- 
rous and Polly (Yale) Ives. 

He was brought up in his native State and began 
business as a peddler of Yankee clocks and notions. 
In the spring of r836 he made an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to come West via the Great Lakes. He was 
shipwrecked on Lake Erie and returned to the 
East. In the spring of 1837 he came to Whiteside 
Co., 111., and made a claim in the western part of 
the town of Ustick, where he built the first house in 
the township. He finally had 600 acres of land. 

Mr. Ives sold his farm and since 1868 has made 
his permanent residence in the city of Fulton. 

Mr. Ives, from early boyhood, was passionately 
fond of the chase, and when 15 years old was an ex- 
pert with the rifle. He killed the first deer and bear 
he saw running wild. This occurred before leaving 
New England. After reaching the Mississippi he 
found a field worthy of his ambition. Wild deer 
abounded in this region in those early days, while 
small game was* to be found in abundance. Choice 
furred animals, such as the otter, beaver and mink, 
were to be found in considerable numbers along the 
great river and its tributaries. Mr. Ives could not 
content himself with the dull routine of the farm 
while such tempting game was so near at hand. Ac- 



cordingly, help was hired to cultivate the farm, and 
during the hunting and trapping season Mr. Ives 
was killing deer or trapping otter. He ranged the 
Mississippi and its tributaries, between St. Louis 
and St. Paul, with marked success. He performed 
the unusual feat of killing eight deer in four shots 
in one season. The number of deer killed by him 
east of the Rocky Mountains aggregated between 
900 and 1,000. Wild turkeys and small game were 
taken in proportion. He fell in with a great South- 
western trapper in an early day, from whom he 
learned some valuable secrets in relation to trapping, 
and soon became so proficient in the art that the 
otter and beaver were almost taken at will. There 
was one occasion when he took nine otter in one 
morning from a setting of eleven traps. He has 
caught upwards of 500 otter, between St. Louis and 
and St. Paul. Mink and the smaller furred animals 
seldom occupied his attention. While he enjoyed 
the sport hugely, he made it a source of profit far 
greater than his labor on the farm would have been. 
So sure was he of his skill that he would contract 
loads of deer for delivery on certain days, just as a 
man now would contract a car load of hogs or cattle 
from his pens; and he was never known to fail to fill 
his orders. 

In April, 1850, he joined a party of his friends 
from Fulton and went overland to California. They 
left Fulton April 9 and reached Hangtown, Cal., 
Aug. i, following. On the very day that he reached 
his destination, his wife died at Fulton, although it 
was some weeks before he learned the sad news! 
He undertook working in the mines in California, but 
the plentiful supply of game about and the good 
prices paid in that section, soon tempted him to the 
mountains with his trusty rifle. As his game was 
principally marketed, he kept a pretty good record 
of it. During the three years spent in that region 
he bagged about $400 worth of game a month. The 
list included about 300 antelope, r25 elk, 5 grizzly 
bears, 9 black and brown bears and a large number 
of deer of a smaller species. He returned to his 
hpme in the spring of 1853, via Panama and New 

Mr. Ives resumed farming and hunting, in this 
county, which he continued till the spring of 1862, 
when, having leased his farm, he accompanied a 
friend on a trip through Oregon and California. 
While on their way over the mountains their wagon 
. * 

train was attacked by the Indians, his friend was 
shot through the arm with an arrow and nearly lost 
his life from loss of blood. Mr. Ives succeeded in 
shooting two of the Indians, one of whom he killed : 
the others retreated. He spent two and a half years 
traveling in Oregon and California, and returned to 
his home via Panama and New York. 

During his hunting and trapping excursions Mr. 
Ives has had many exciting adventures and endured 
many hardships, and several times has barely escaped 
with his life. The history of his life, properly told, 
would afford material for an interesting book of itself : 
our space will only admit of this brief mention. His 
fame as a most successful hunter is known from the 
Mississippi to the Pacific. He made his last hunt- 
ing excursion in 1882, to Northern Wisconsin, when 
72 years old, and in the 5ist year of his active life 
as a hunter. 

Mr. Ives was first married in Connecticut, Jan. i, 
1837, to Elizabeth Blake, a native of New York City. 
His second marriage took place, in the same State. 
Aug. 2r, 1853, to Miss Elizabeth Parrish, daughter 
of John and Polly (Gun) Parrish. Mrs. Ives was 
born in Litchfield Co., Conn. 

In politics he is a Democrat. 



ohn Kent, who has been for many years a 
prominent agriculturist of Whiteside Coun- 
ty, is living in retirement from active busi- 
ness life at Morrison. He has been associated 
with the development and general progress of 
the county since 1839, when he became a 
land-holder in the township of Union Grove. 

He was born in Morris Co., N. J., June 18, 1816 
and is the son of Jacob and Nancy (Blackford) Kent, 
both being natives of the same State where the son 
was born. His father was a tanner and currier 
and also a shoemaker, as the custom prevailed in 
those days of combining the three callings. The 
family removed from New Jersey, in 1827, to Knox 
Co., Ohio. Late in life, the parents came to Illinois 
to pass the remainder of their lives with their chil- 
dren. The father died in Carroll County, Dec. 16, 
1859, aged 74 years and 26 days. The demise of 
the mother occurred June 26, 1869, when she had 

- ,. .- 


readied the age of 73 years, i month and 12 days. 
They had 1 1 children, and only five survive to the 
present. Mrs. Elizabeth Chamberlain, of Morrison, 
is the oldest. Mr. Kent is the second who is living. 
Levi is a fanner in Douglas Co., Oregon; James L. 
is a farmer in Kansas; William is pursuing the same 
business in Nebraska, and is by trade a carpenter. 

Mr. Kent was thoroughly trained in the theory and 
practice of farming, which he has made his life -long 
pursuit. He came to Union Grove, Whiteside Coun- 
ty, in the full flush of the strength and ambition of 
his young manhood, and took a claim of 80 acres, 
which he secured when the land came into market 
and to which he added by further purchase until his 
property on section 3 aggregated 1 60 acres, of which 
he made a valuable farm. He attended diligently to 
his interests, and as he prospered he made further 
purchases, and now owns 1 60 acres of land on section 
9, in the township where he first located, 114 acres 
on section 3, 20 acres of timber on section i, 10 acres 
of timber in Mt. Pleasant Township, and 20 acres of 
the same valuable variety of real estate in Carroll 
Co., 111., situated in the township of York. He is 
also the owner of his residence, the lot therewith con- 
nected and two vacant lots in Morrison. 

At the date of Mr. Kent's arrival in Whiteside 
County, a condition of almost primeval nature reigned. 
Claims were held by right of possession, households 
were like angels' visits, few and far between, and 
glimpses of humanity were more welcome than the 
glow of the summer sun or the kiss of the prairie 
breeze on the cheek of the laborer who turned the 
soil with his plow, and dreamed wild dreams of the 
plentiful harvest, promised by the rich mold which 
had lain fallow since the continent rose from the 
depths of the sea. There were privations, toil and 
hardships, but the season of prosperity was too near 
at hand and too certain for the admission of discour- 
agement, and the lovely prairie acres of to-day fully 
attest the quality of the energies brought to bear on 
their reclamation and conversion into fruitful fields. 

Mr. Kent was married Oct. 7, 1841, in Union 
Grove Township, to Mary Jeflers. Eight children 
were Iwrn to them in that township, of whom five are 
yet living. Following is the record : Sarah was born 
June 10, 1844, and died Sept. 17, 1875; Mary M. 
was born April 9, 1848, and married Volney Twitchr:!, 
a tanner in the township where she was born ; Ella 

A., born May 25, 1850, is the wife of John Blue, a 
farmer in Nebraska. Omar was born Jan. 18, 1852, 
and is engaged in in Nebraska. Lewis H., 
born June n, 1854, is a practicing attorney in Ne- 
braska. John W., a farmer in Union Grove Town- 
ship, was born April 27, 1859. Their mother, a na- 
tive of the State of New York, died July 13, 1876. 

The second marriage of Mr. Kent, to Mrs. Diana 
Green, occurred March 14, 1878, near Tomson, Car- 
roll Co., 111. Her first husband, John Green, was a 
native of Johnstown, Licking Co., Ohio, and died 
March 18, 1870, in Tomson. Their children were 
three in number. Sarah, wife of Jasper Whitney, a 
farmer of Tomson, was born in Licking Co., Ohio. 
Horton, also a native of Ohio, is a traveling salesman 
in the employment of the Union Knife Company of 
Chicago. Francis M. was born in Carroll County, 
and is a farmer in Dakota. 

,apt. Havilah Pease, weighmaster of the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railway elevator 
at Fulton, 111. The elevator was built in 
1866, and has a storing capacity of 65,000 
bushels of grain. It is operated by an en- 
gine of loo-horse power. Mr. Pease has 
held his present position since the completion of the 
elevator in 1867. 

He was born at Albion, Kennebec Co., Me , April 
1 8, 1825, and is the son of Seba and Mary C. 
(Ripley) Pease. He was brought up on a farm and 
removed with his parents to Rockland, Knox Co., Me. 
When 2 1 years old he went to sea engaging in the New 
York, West India, European and coast trade. He 
was made master and sailed as such in the Amer- 
ican coasting trade till the breaking out of the 
late war, when he enlisted, in April, 1861, as a 
private of Co. B, 4th Maine Vol. Inf., and served 
in the Army of the Potomac. He participated in the 
following named battles ^nd skirmishes : First Bull 
Run, siege of Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, 
Peach Orchard, White Oak Swamp, Glendale, Mal- 
vern Hill, Mouth of the Monocacy, Fredericksburg, 
battle of Chancellorville, Gettysburg, Wapping 
Heights, Kelly's Ford, Orange Grove, Mine Run, bat- 
tles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Conrt-House, 
Taylor's Bridge, Hanover Junction, Cold Harbor and 


.: _ 

- .. 



other minor engagements, till the expiration of his 
term of enlistment. He was commissioned Second 
Lieutenant and was mustered out of the service 
July 1 8, 1864. 

On his return from the war Capt. Pease resumed 
sailing, and continued to follow the sea till the 
spring of 1867, when he came to Fulton, III., to ac- 
cept the position he now occupies with the Chicago 
& Northwestern Railway Company. 

Captain Pease voted with the Republican party 
from the time of its organization till 1884, when he 
identified himself with the Prohibition party. He 
is a member of Fulton City Lodge, No. 189 A. F. & 
A. M., and of the G. W. Baker Post, G. A. R., of 
Clinton, la. He is actively interested in the cause 
of temperance, and is a member of Leota Lodge, 
No. 428, I. O. G. T. He has served two years as 
Alderman in the Fulton Common Council, and was 
once elected Mayor, on the Prohibition ticket, but 

He was married Dec. 28, 1869, in Rockland, 
Maine, to Miss Hannah I. Gould, daughter of Ed- 
ward Gould. Mrs. Pease was born in Ellsworth, 

ewis Wetzel, farmer, section 17, Hopkins 
Township, is a son of John and Margaret 
(Reese) Wetzel, who were natives of Frank- 
lin Co., Pa., of German and English descent. 
They first settled in Ohio and lived there till 
1855, when they came to Whiteside County and 
settled in the township of Genesee, where they lived 
till their death. He died Sept. 18, 1860, and she 
Feb. 2, 1882. They had a family of 12 children, 
namely : Catherine, Daniel, Jacob, John, George, 
Elizabeth, David, Andrew, Hannah, Joseph, Margaret 
and Lewis. 

Mr. Wetzel was born in Stark Co., Ohio, June 3, 
1837. He received a common-school education and 
came to Whiteside County with his father when he 
was 18 years old. He lived in Genesee Township 
till the fall of 1861, when he purchased a farm of 
160 acres on section 17, Hopkins Township, where 
he settled and has since lived. He is now the owner 
of 206 acres, most of which is tillable. He has 
erected some very fine buildings on his farm. 

Mr. Wetzel was married in Sterling, 111., March 
25, 1858,10 Mary, daughter of Frederick and Cath- 
arine Lawyer, natives of Germany, who had four 
children, Jacob, Mary, William and Frank. Mary 
(Mrs. W.) was born in Stark Co., Ohio, March i, 
1836. Mr. and Mrs. W. are the parents of four 
children Rebecca E., Delilah J., John G. and Rol- 
lin E. 

Mr. Wetzel has been Overseer of Highways and 
School Director. In politics he is identified with the 
Republican party. 

ev. George W. Perry, editor and pub- 
lisher of the Fulton Star. The Star was 
established in January, 1883, and the first 
number issued on the 4th of that month. It 
is an eight- page, five-column quarto. Mrs. 
E. M. Perry is associate editor. The Star 
was established as a Republican paper but took no 
active part in politics till March 25, 1885, when it 
was adopted as the official organ of the Prohibition 
party of Whiteside County. 

Mr. Perry was born in Onondaga Co., N. Y., April 
15, 1830, and is the son of George and Catharine 
(Shultz) Perry. When seven years of age he re- 
moved with his parents to Kane Co., 111. He pre- 
pared for college by taking a course at Greenfield 
Academy, Ohio, and entered the Ohio University at 
Athens. He left the University before completing 
the course and went to Charlottesville, N. Y. After 
a short time spent there he went to Madison, Wis., 
and attended the Wisconsin University and was 
matriculated into the Senior class of that institution. 
One year later he entered the Lane Theological 
Seminary of Cincinnati, Ohio, a Presbyterian insti- 
tution, at which he graduated in the class of 1858, 
after a three years' course, and was licensed to preach 
by the Cincinnati Presbytery. He began his career 
as a clergyman by preaching as a Congregationalist 
at Harrington, Cook Co., '111., in 1860. He continued 
at that place till April, 1861, when he went to 
Campion, 111. He was married at the latter place 
Oct. 20, 1860, to Miss Emma M. Atwood, daughter 
of Luke and Emily (Duucklee) Atwood. Mrs. Perry 
wa,s born in Sullivan Co., N. H., town of Newport. 
They have four children, all sons : Marcus L., 
George T., Warren F. and Jesse G. 




Mr. Perry continued at Campion till 1865. In 
1866 he transferred his ecclesiastical relations to the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and was assigned to 
Wyanet, Bureau Co., 111. He was ordained a Dea- 
con at Freeport, 111., Oct. 10, 1869, by Bishop D. 
W. Clark, and was ordained an Elder at Aurora, 111., 
Oct. 15, 1871, by Bishop Edward R. Ames. He 
labored within the limits of the Rock River Con- 
ference till October, i879,when he was superannuated 
on account of failing health. He came to Fulton in 
September, 1880, and in January, 1883, established 
the Star, as before mentioned. His second son, 
George T., is the local editor and business manager 
of the Star. 

P. S. On May. 19, 1885, since the above was in 
type, the Star was transferred to the sons George T. 
and Warren F. Perry. 

t avid G. Proctor, farmer, section 6, Gene- 
see Township, was born July 23, 1840, in 
Shawswick Township, Lawrence Co., Ind. 
George R. Proctor, his father, was born in 
Kentucky, near Lexington, and was the son 
of Ezekiel Proctor. The latter removed from 
Kentucky with his family to Southern Indiana and 
located near the line of Jackson County, a part of the 
State that was still in heavy timber. George R. 
Proctor married Mary W. Green. She was born in 
Lawrence Co., Ind., where she was brought up and 
where her marriage took place. Later on, after three 
children had been added to the family, they removed 
to Martin, where the father was made Sheriff, and 
was one of the first officials of the county after its 
organization. He was a man of good judgment and 
fair education, and in early manhood he had spent 
some years in teaching in the public schools. He 
officiated as Sheriff two years. In 1850 he returned 
to Lawrence County and left his wife and children 
on the Green homestead, the estate of her father. 
He engaged one season in running a flat-boat on. the 
Mississippi Ri/er to New Orleans. He set out from 
St. Joseph, Mo., with the Beck brothers (his brothers- 
in-law by a former marriage), for California. They 
drove across the plains with oxen and mules, the 
journey consuming six months. Mr. Proctor spent 
three years in the land of gold, with satisfactory re- 

suits; but, returning in the same manner in which he 
went out, he was taken sick while making the transit, 
and his accumulations disappeared. He reached his 
family in Lawrence County, whence* he came to Illi- 
nois two years later, locating in Whiteside County in 
October, 1855. This portion of Illinois was then 
comparatively unorganized and unsettled, and in the 
year following Mr. Proctor, senior, went to Carroll 
County, where he died. The mother is 69 years old 
(1885). The first wife lived but two years after mar- 
riage and had no children. 

Mr. Proctor of this sketch is the oldest living child 
of his parents, and is the second in order of birth of 
the family, which included seven children. He is 
the only son, and his father's death left the family, 
consisting of his mother and six young daughters, 
dependent on him for support ; and by effort and 
economy he was enabled to fulfill the trust. His 
oldest sister married William Moxley, one of the first 
white children born in Genesee Township. He died 
and left his wife his property, which consisted chiefly 
of a farm on section 6, and which she gave to her 
mother when she died, two years later. This prop- 
erty is still held by the mother and that owned by 
the son lies adjoining. The combined acreage con- 
stitutes a fine and well located farm. That owned 
by Mr. Proctor includes 66 acres and lies in Carroll 

His marriage to Sarah A. Hurless took place in 
Genesee Township, Dec. 17, 1865. She was l>orn 
April 11, 1849, in Holmes Co., Ohio, and is the 
daughter of Rev. Cephas Hurless, deceased, of whom 
a full account is presented elsewhere in this work. 
Her parents removed to Illinois when she was five 
years of age. She was reared to womanhood in 
Genesee Township, receiving a good education, and 
when she reached suitable age and degree of quali- 
fication, she engaged in teaching. The six children 
now included in the family circle were born as fol- 
lows : Cephas E., April 29, 1867; George R., May 
25, 1869; R. Ira, March i, 1872. (This child is a 
dwarf. His height is three feet and four inches, or 
40 inches, and his weight is 39 pounds. He is per- 
fectly and symmetrically formed.) Minnie J. was 
born Dec. 10, 1876; Richard, Sept. 13, 1881 ; Lizzie, 
Aug. 19, 1883. Mr. Proctor is a Democrat in politi- 
cal persuasion. He has been prominent in local 
official positions, and has served in the capacities of 






'$ Tax Collector and those of the several school offices. 
j Mrs. Proctor is a member of the United Brethren 



ra. Dr. Cinda T. Reed, cf Fulton, and 
widow of Dr. Daniel Reed, is deserving 
of appropriate mention in the biographi- 
cal department of this work. She was born 
in the town of Bethlehem, Litchfield Co., 
Conn., May 13, 1801, is the daughter of Dr. 
Jesse and Hannah Pritchard Meigs, and a cousin of 
ex-Governor John R. Meigs, of Ohio, and of Dr. 
Charles D. Meigs, President of the Philadelphia 
Medical College. 

Her father was a popular physician of Litchfield 
Co., Conn., and she, while a child, accompanied him 
in his professional visits, and soon evinced a marked 
interest in the nature of medicines and the method 
of treatment of the cases under his care, so much 
so that her father, in answer to her numerous ques- 
tions, incidentally imparted to her much valuable 
information. She married a physician, Dr. Daniel 
Reed, at Sandy Creek, Oswego Co., N. Y., May i, 
1828. She often accompanied her husband, as she 
had her father, in his professional rounds, and, hav- 
ing access to his books, she availed herself of them 
to perfect her knowledge of medicine. 

On coming to Fulton with her husband in 1838, 
she rendered valuable assistance to Dr. Reed in the 
care of his patients, especially during the sickly 
seasons so common in the early settlement of this 
region. At one time, during the absence of the 
Doctor from the city, the care of a large number of 
sick fell to her charge. She turned her house into 
a hospital, and several of the leading business men 
of Fulton were thankful to be under her skillful 
treatment. Her husband retired from practice about 
1860, and she became the doctor in earnest. She 
went to every call, at all times of day or night, in 
storm or sunshine. Many a cold wintry night she 
was called out of her bed to traverse snow-drifted 
streets to attend some patient. She was successful 
to a remarkable degree, and continued to practice 
upward of 20 years. 

An adventure that befell Mrs. Reed many years 
ago is deserving of mention. She had been visit- 

ing Dr. Bassett's family at Lyons with her husband 
in early spring, before the break-up began, and was 
returning in the evening on the ice on foot to Fulton. 
Her husband carried a pole with which to test the 
ice, but in spite of his caution, when about two- 
thirds of the distance had been traversed, the ice 
gave way and they found themselves in the river and 
in imminent danger of being carried under the ice 
by the strong current. Mrs. Reed worked herself 
around to the strongest part of the ice where by a 
desperate effort she succeeded in raising herself upon 
it ; then, by the aid of the pole which her husband 
had carried, she pulled him out! He was in favor 
of returning to the Iowa side, but Mrs. Reed had 
left a family of children at home and was determined 
to make the crossing, which they did, in safety, al- 
though with clothes frozen stiff. This incident goes 
to prove the heroic energy of the lady, who by her 
cool courage and nerve saved her own life as well 
as that of her husband. 

During the late war Mrs. Reed' was President of 
the Soldiers' Aid Society, and did noble service in 
the sanitary cause. 

She united with the Methodist Episcopal Church 
when 1 6 years of age, and has been a consistent 
member of that denomination continuously since. 
She is now 84 years of age, but with eyes as bright 
and faculties as perfect as many a lady of half her 
years. She is a remarkably bright and intelligent 
lady, possessed of many estimable qualities of mind 
and heart. Her life has been rich in acts of useful- 
ness and kindness, and now, as the shadows lengthen 
she is happy in the assurance of a safe place in the 
love and esteem of a large circle of acquaintances 
and friends. She reared a family of six children, of 
whom mention is made in the sketch of her hus 

rancis M. Harrison, farmer, section 36, 
Union Grove Township, was born Jan. i, 
1839, in Fayette Co., Ohio. He accom- 
panied his parents, Michael and Rachel (Ru- 
pert) Harrison, to White-side County when he 
was 12 years of age. His father was born in 
Tennessee, and his mother was a native of Kentucky. 
They were respectively of German and English an- 
cestry. They settled in Union Grove Township in 


1852, and the father died Dec. i, 1863. The de- 
mise of the mother occurred Jan. 28, 1878. Follow- 
ing are the names of their 1 1 children, George, 
Lucy L., William, John, Andrew J., Rachel, Michael, 
Jr., Louisa J., Francis M., Henry and Isabella. 

Mr. Harrison received his educational training in 
the common schools of Ohio and Illinois, and he has 
been a continuous resident of the township of Union 
Grove, and he is one of its prominent agriculturists. 
His farm on section 36 contains 187 acres of land, 
which is under good cultivation. Politically he is a 
Republican, and he has held various local official 

The marriage of Mr. Harrison to Amanda M. Bell 
was celebrated Nov. 8, 1861, in the township of 
Union Grove, and they have become the parents of 
five children, whose names are Eli S., Augusta A., 
Leona S., Clara B. and Cora M. Mrs. Harrison was 
born Feb. 13, 1846, in Logan Co., Ohio, and she is 
the only child of her parents, Joseph and Harriet 
(Wells) Bell. 

evi Houghton, retired farmer of Fulton, and 
an early settler of Whiteside County, was 
born in the State of New York, March 26, 
1805, and is the son of Elijah and Martha 
(Oaks) Houghton. He removed with his fam- 
ily to Otsego Co., N. Y., in childhood, and 
from there to Herkimer County when he was 13 
years of age, where he was married Sept. 30, 1830,10 
Clarissa Jackson, daughter of Samuel Jackson, whose 
father was a cousin of Gen. Jackson. They had 
live sons and two daughters : Harrison mar- 
ried Clarissa Blodgett and lives in Ustick ; George 
died in childhood ; Amelia C. is the wife of Mr. 
Conkey, of Grand Rapids, Mich. ; Samuel N. mar- 
ried May McDaniels and lives in Nebraska ; Clar- 
ence B. married Mary French and lives in Ustick; 
Sedate W. is the wife of James F. Ward, of Fulton ; 
and Daniel S. is single and lives in Dakota. 

Mr. Houghton moved from Herkimer to Lewis Co., 
N. Y., soon after his marriage, and from there to 
Ustick, Whiteside Co., 111., in 1845. He had a fine 
farm of 400 acres in that township, which he has 
deeded to his two youngest sons, reserving the in- 
come while he lives. Mrs. Houghton died Oct. 25, 

1861. Mr. Houghton was married again April 15, 

1862, and in the town of Ustick, to Miss Elizabeth 
Todd, daughter of Moses Todd, of Newburyport, 
Mass. Mrs. Houghton was born in Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Houghton retired from farming in 1872 and 
came to Fulton, since which time he has resided in 
this city. He was a Democrat -up to 1860, when he 
joined the Republican party. Mrs. Houghton is a 
member of the Presbyterian Church of Fulton. 

ev. Oliver Beach, of Union vi lie, has been 
a resident of Whiteside County since 1853. 
His. parents, David and Mary (Peck) 
Beach, were natives of Connecticut, and re- 
moved thence to Portage Co., Ohio, in 1825. 
In 1839 they made another removal to Iowa, 
where they resided as long as they lived. They had 
six children: Oliver, Eliada, David, Bernice, Calvin 
and Elizor. 

Mr. Beach is the eldest child of his parents, and 
was born Jan. 26, 1827, in Portage Co., Ohio, where 
he began the acquisition of his education in the 
common schools. He was 12 years of age when his 
parents went to Iowa, where he continued to attend 
school and also engaged in farm labor at home un- 
til he was 20 years of age. He then engaged as a 
farm laborer and operated in his own interests about 
three years. About 1850 he purchased a limited 
number of acres of land in Iowa, which he ex- 
changed in 1853 for land in Whiteside County. In 
the spring of that year he came hither and located 
on his property in the township of Newton, where he 
was a resident until his removal to Garden Plain 
Township, where he owns 129 acres of land, which 
is all under tillage. 

Mr. Beach is an adherent of the political element 
known as Prohibitionists. 

He was united in marriage Oct. 26, 1854, to Mar- 
garet McNeil, and they had three children : James 
O., David E. and William. Their mother was lx>rn 
in Ireland and was brought in infancy by her par- 
ents to the United States. She died Aug. 7, 1873, 
in the township of Garden Plain. Mr. Beach formed 
a second matrimonial alliance, with Mrs. Mary (Nev- 
itt) Gibler. Their marriage took place July 15, 
1876, in the township of Garden Plain. Mrs. Beach 

-; v :<- 



- .. - 




* r 


is the daughter of Isaac and Rhoda (Johnson) Nev- 
itt, and was the widow of Jeremiah Gibler. Her 
parents were born in Ohio. Her first husband died 
in November, 1872, and by him she became the 
mother of n children : Amanda J., Isaac M., Chris- 
tine, Amos, James, Rhoda, Joseph, Elizabeth, Car- 
rie, Disbury and John. Mrs. Beach was born May 
13, 1825, in Harrison Co., Ohio. She is a member 
of the religious body known as the United Brethren. 
Mr. Beach is a member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. In 1860 he received a license as an 
exhorter, and since 1876 he has been a local preacher. 
Feeling that he is called to preach, he has tried as 
well as he could to preach, the gospel in school- 
houses as opportunity presented itself. He has also 
taken great interest in Sabbath-schools, organizing 
and superintending schools in school-houses in the 
country in the afternoon, after taking part in one in 
forenoon in the church where he holds his member- 
ship. Often he has been a member of two schools 
at once, laboring earnestly for the religious instruc- 
tion of children. 

t" "Wscar Summers, of the firm of O. & C. 
f : f. Summers, grocers at Fulton, was born in 

Sterling, 111., June 5, 1842, and is the son 
of Ephraim and Mary L. (Dickson) Sum- 
mers. He came to Fulton with his parents 
in 1846, and was educated in the city schools 
of this place. 

He enlisted Oct. 8, 1861, as a private of Co. F, 
52d Regt. 111. Vol. Inf., was promoted Corporal, Ser- 
geant and finally commissioned Captain. He re-en- 
listed as a veteran Jan. i, 1864, and served till the 
close of the war, being in the 151)1 and i6th Army 
Corps and participating in all battles and engage- 
ments in which his regiment was represented. He 
took part in the battles of Shiloh, siege of Corinth, 
battle of Corinth, Atlanta campaign, Sherman's 
march to the sea, battle of Bentonville and other 
minor engagements. 

In 1869 he formed a partnership, in the grocery 
business, with Mr. John L. Knight, at Fulton, 
which connection continued till the spring of 1871, 
when his brother Cloys bought out Mr. Knight and 
the present firm was established. The Summers 

Bros, carry a well assorted stock of general groceries, 
provisions and crockery, of an average value of 


Mr. Summers was married at Des Moines, Iowa, 
April 2, 1877,10 Miss Elizabeth Exley, daughter of 
Thomas and B. M. Exley. Mrs. Summers was born 
in Clyde Township, this county. They have two 
children (daughters), Ruby E. and Margery A. 

illiam Lovett, farmer, section 8, Union 
Grove Township, has been a land-holder 
in Whiteside County since 1858. He was 
born Nov. 3, 1829, in New Jersey, of which 
State his parents, John and Beulah (Harvey) 
Lovett, were natives, and where they passed 
their entire lives. Their five children were named 
Isaac, John, Samuel, William and Elizabeth. 

Mr. Lovett was sent to the public schools until he 
was 14 years of age, when he was apprenticed to a 
blacksmith, and served six years, acquiring a thor- 
oughly practical knowledge of the business in all its 
details, and he made it the vocation of his life in his 
native State until 1858, the year in which he re- 
moved to Unionville, where he was similarly occu- 
pied for a year. Meanwhile he determined to 
become a farmer, and, in the following year, he pur- 
chased a small farm in the township of Union Grove. 
He continued its proprietor seven years, when he 
sold it and bought 80 acres of land on section 8, 
where he has since lived. His farm is in creditable 
agricultural condition, and the owner has'materially 
added to its value by erecting substantial farm 
buildings. Mr. Lovett is a Republican in political 
faith and connections. 

He was united in marriage to Emmeline Russell, 
March 23, 1859, in Mt. Holly, N. J., and they have 
had four children. Anna E., Emma A. and William 
A. still survive. Mary died in infancy. Mrs. Lovett 
is the daughter of William and Harriet (Lovett) Rus- 
sell. Her parents were natives of New Jersey and 
had four children, all girls, Rachel, Emmeline, 
Louisa and Jane. Mrs. Lovett was born Sept. 18, 
1827, in Springfield, N. J. She is a member of the 
Methodist Church. 



i f 


VV-; H H XI> M H " yv 


jj^enry D. Pond, general farmer, section 31, 
Genesee Township, was born Oct. r2, 1840, 
in Portage Co., Ohio. He is the son of 
Stephen and Abiah (Bristol) Pond, whose rec- 
ord, together with a statement of the genealogy 
of the family in America, is presented elsewhere 
in this volume. He was an infant of a few months 
when his parents changed their residence to Huron 
Co., Ohio, and when he was 1 1 years of age they 
made a final transfer of their interests to Illinois, lo- 
cating in Genesee Township. 

Mr. Pond grew to manhood in Whiteside County, 
passing the successive years in working on the home 
estate and obtaining such education as the common 
schools of the place and period afforded. The same 
blood that flowed in the veins of his ancestors, in 
both lines of descent, and impelled them to unite in 
the common cause and struggle for the independ- 
ence of the Colonies, furnished the impetus under 
whose influence he identified himself with the cause 
of' the Union, when the echoes from the rebel guns 
of April 14, i86r, sounded the knell of peace. He 
determined to enroll himself among the defenders of 
the principles which had protected him, and he en- 
listed at Chicago, Aug. 28, i86r, in the 391)1 Regt. 
111. Vol. Inf., becoming a member of Company G, 
under Captain Slaughter. The regiment was under 
the command of Col. Light and was assigned to the 
Department of the South. During the first portion 
of its period of service it was attached to the com- 
mand of General Grant and afterwards to that of 
General Butler. Among the more important actions 
in which Mr. Pond was a participant, were the siege 
of Charleston, Deep Bottoms and the action before 
Petersburg. He was in numerous smaller engage- 
ments and skirmishes, and was the only one out of 
1 6 that enlisted from his vicinity who went through 
three years of military service without dying or suf- 
fering from wounds or sickness. He received hon- 
forable discharge Sept. 10, 1864, at Petersburg. He 
served all the time in the ranks and was never cap- 
tured by the rebels. He was nearly 2 1 years of age 
when he became a soldier, and on his return to 
Genesee Township he engaged in farming. 

He was united in marriage to Margaret Fleming, 

March 15, 1866, at Mt. Carroll, 111. Mrs. Pond is 
the daughter of Robert L. and Jane (Wilson) Flem- 
ing. Her parents were natives respectively of Phil- 
adelphia and of the State of New York. The families 
to which they belonged removed to Indiana, where 
they met and were married in Lawrence County- 
The daughter was born there Jan. 13, r842, and she 
came with her parents to Carroll County in 1848, 
and grew to womanhood in that county. Her father 
died Feb. 27, 1878 ; the death of her mother occurred 
Nov. 9, 1880. They had ten children and Mrs. 
Pond is fourth in order of birth. She is the mother 
of one child, Abiah D., born Dec. 24, 1873. 

Mr. Pond settled in his new capacity of the head 
of a family, on a farm containing 80 acres of land, 
of which 40 acres lay in Genesee Township and the 
other half in the township of Hopkins. It was 
partly improved but had no buildings. These have 
since been supplied and are of a creditable character. 
The horses and cattle on the place are of excellent 

Mr. Pond is such a Republican as his war record 
evinces, and takes an active interest in local politics. 
Mrs. Pond accepts the views of Spiritualism. 

enry L. Birdsall, farmer, section 4, Hop- 
kins Township, is a son of James and Lydia 
(De Germo) Birdsall, natives of New York 
State, who came to Whiteside County in the 
spring of 1845, settling in Sterling Township, 
where they lived until their death. They had 
five children, named Edmund N., Elias D., Henry 
L., George A. and Harriet. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Mendon, 
Monroe Co., N. Y., Sept. n, 1834. He received a 
common-school education and came when he was 
ten years old, with his father, to this county, where 
he has since lived, engaged in farming. He first 
bought a farm on section 8, Hopkins Township, 
where he settled and lived about eight years, when 
he sold and bought r47 acres on section 4, where he 
at present resides. He has erected fine buildings on 
his farm, and most of his land is in a state of good 

He was married first in Carroll Co., 111., Nov. 19, 
1857, to Mary A. Flemming, a native of Indiana. 

/* ^ ^TH. 






They have had one child, C.lara J., who is now the 
wife of Henry Stevens, and resides in Stephenson 
Co., 111. Mrs. B. died in Hopkins Township, Jan. 
28, 1863, and Mr. Birdsall was again married March 
15, 1864, in Monroe Co., N. Y. to Joanna Wood, 
daughter of Robert and Ann (Moran) Wood, natives 
of Ireland, who married and settled in Rochester, N. 
Y. Mr. Wood was a member of the r4oth N. Y. 
Vol. Inf., and died in the army, in the fall of 1863 ; 
Mrs. Wood died Dec. 18, 1883, in Mendon, Monroe 
Co., N. Y. They had a family of eight children, 
namely, John, Mary A., Joanna, Thomas, Frank, 
Margaret and! Anna; one died in infancy. Mrs. B. 
was born in Monroe Co , N. Y., Nov. 3, 1843. Mr. 
and Mrs. B. are the parents of four children : Alonzo 
G., Loren E., Estella and Harry L. 

Mr. Birdsall has been School Director and Over- 
seer of Highways. In politics he is identified with 
the National party. 

As a prominent citizen of Whiteside County, and one 
who has been intimately identified with the best 
interests and growth of the county, we take pleas- 
ure in placing the portrait of Mr. Birdsall in this 
ALBUM. Coming to the county when a mere boy, he 
has grown and developed in all that goes to make a 
representative citizen of this splendid portion of the 
great Prairie State. As a fitting 'companion picture 
we place beside his that of his estimable wife. These 
pictures were made from photographs taken in 1885. 

A. Hardin, of the banking house of T. 
A. Hardin & Co., Fulton, was born in 
McDonough Co., 111., Feb. 14, 1845, and is 
the son of Victor M. and Nancy A. (Purdy) 
Hardin. His parents were born in Kentucky 
and settled in Illinois in 1831, being among 
the earliest pioneers of this State. 

T. A. received a common-school education, and 
began his business life as Deputy Clerk of Mc- 
Donough Co., 111. He remained in that position 
only a short time when he went to Quincy, where he 
was employed in the money department of the 
Farmers & Merchants' Insurance Company. He 
was made cashier and served the company five years. 
In 1871 he established the banking house of T. A. 
Hardin & Co., at Blandinsville, 111., which?he con- 

ducted till January, 1876, when he sold for profit. 
He then came to Fulton and established the present 
banking house of T. A. Hardin & Co., Aug. i, 1876. 
He had associated with him at that time Messrs. 
Quinton C. Ward, John H. Hungate and N. W. 
MeGee. The last named gentleman sold his inter- 
est to Mr. Hardin Aug. i, 1882. This bank does a 
general banking business, and represents a capital of 
$100,000. Mr. Hardin's partners, Ward & Hungate, 
reside at La Harpe, 111., while Mr. Hardin is the 
resident partner and manager of the bank at Fulton. 

Mr. Hardin was married at Rock Island, 111., 
Feb. 7, 1878, to Miss Ida C. Eckert, daughter of 
George and Caroline (Dennis) Eckert. Mrs. Hardin 
was born in Fulton, 111. Her parents were natives 
of Pennsylvania. Mr. and Mrs. Hardin have one 
child, Mary Alice, born at Fulton, April 2, 1879. 

Mr. Hardin is a thoroughgoing business man, 
whose ability as a financier and unquestioned in- 
tegrity commands the confidence and respect of his 
customers and the business public. He was made a 
Mason in Bodley Lodge, No. i, of Quincy, 111., in 
1866. He is now a member of Fulton City Lodge, 
No. 189, and of the Fulton Chapter, No. 108, R. A. 
M., and of Sterling Commandery, K. T. 

dmund Bowman, jeweler on the corner of 
Third and Mulberry Streets, Sterling, was 
born in Strasburg, Pa., Oct. 14, 1824, and 
is a son of Joseph and Ann Bowman, who 
were also natives of the Keystone State. He 
remained at his parental home until the age of 
20, receiving a common-school education and learn- 
ing of his father the jewelry business. 

After leaving home, he worked at his trade as 
journeyman in Kennett Square, Chester Co., Pa. He 
opened business for himself the first time in 1853, 
but subsequently he closed business there, brought 
his stock of goods to Sterling, opened a jewelry house 
and has since prosecuted his business here. His 
success in this line, as might be expected, has been 
marked. He has a farm of 204 acres three miles 
from Sterling, besides the corner he occupies in busi- 
ness and two dwelling-houses in Sterling. In politics 
he is a Republican, and in the community he enjoys 
a high and honorable standing. 


2 55 


May 13, 1857, is the date of his marriage lo Maria 
P. Adams, and they have five children living, 
namely, Frank J., Grant J., Edward, Jennie and 

t'ames Lynch, a farmer of Genesee Town- 
^ ship, located on section 34, was born Dec.- 
10, 1837, in County Kilkenny, Province of 
Leinster, Ireland. His parents, James and 
Honora (Sullivan) Lynch, were Irish by birth 
and long descent, their ancestors having lived 
in Ireland as far back as the generations can be 
traced. Mr. Lynch's father died some months be- 
fore the son's birth, and before the latter was five 
years of age he was in possession of a step-father. 
He had two step-sisters, one of whom died young, 
and the other is living in Clinton, Iowa. An elder 
sister of Mr. Lynch is still living in Ireland. 

He remained in his native country until he was 
nearly of age, and came to the United States in 
1857, landing in Boston on the ist day of June. 
He came direct to Chicago, where he obtained em- 
ploy in a shingle factory, working for a Mr. Oliver. 
He came thence to Lee Co., 111., in the fall of the 
same year, and worked at Franklin Grove for the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railroad corporation. In 
the spring following, he entered the employ of the 
Chicago & Rock Island Company, going to Minne- 
sota in their interests. In 1859 he returned to. the 
employ of the former corporation. A few months 
later he went to Arkansas, where he worked on the 

He came back to Whiteside County in the spring 
of 1860, and July 8, 1863, he was married, in that 
city, to Sarah A., daughter of Mark and M.ary (Tay- 
lor) Harrison, pioneers of Whiteside County and 
represented in the personal account of James H. 
Harrison, the brother of Mrs. Lynch. She was 
born March 3, 1844, on the homestead of her father 
in Genesee Township. She was educated and 
grew to womanhood in the same township in which 
she was born, and where she has passed her entire 
life. She had the advantage of two years' instruc- 
tion by a private teacher in her father's house. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Lynch six children have been born, 
all of whom are living but one. James M. was 

born Aug. 18, 1864; Joseph T., June 15, 1869; 
Olive A., born Sept. 19, 1870, died in 1873 ; Edward 
M., Aug. 6, 1872 ; Mary E., Ju^y 24, 1874 ; William 
H., April 8, 1877. After their marriage Mr. and 
Mrs. Lynch resided for a time at Sterling, and the 
husband was there employed on the line of railroad 
then being built. A year later he entered the em- 
ploy of S. T. Hosmer, a brewer, with whom he re- 
mained until 1866. In July of that year Mr. 
Lynch became a farmer in the township of Genesee 
and operated some years as a renter. They finally 
settled on 40 acres of land which became the prop- 
erty of Mrs. Lynch by inheritance from her father's 
estate. It is in excellent condition with fine barn 
and residence, which have been erected by Mr. 
Lynch. He is a believer in the Catholic faith ; his 
wife is a member of the Christian Church. Mr. 
Lynch is an active and earnest Republican. 

t r. N. W. Hubbard, deceased, formerly a 
resident of Fulton, possessed a national 
reputation with the medical profession as 
the inventor of the world-renowned " Hubbard 
Truss " and the originator of the successful 
system of hernia treatment which bears his 
name. The use of the ingenious appliances invent- 
ed by Dr. Hubbard and the application of his sys- 
tem of treatment in cases of hernia, has resulted in 
saving many lives and in affording relief to thousands 
of sufferers. 

Dr. Hubbard was the eldest son in a family of ten 
children, and was born in the town of Randolph, 
Portage Co., Ohio, April 10, 1810. His parents, 
Bela F. and Clarissa (Ward) Hubbard, were natives 
of Connecticut and were among the pioneer settlers 
of the Western Reserve of Ohio. Dr. Hubbard took 
a regular course at the Medical College of Columbus, 
Ohio, and graduated with honor in the class of 1840. 
He entered upon the practice of his profession at 
Newark, Licking Co., Ohio. Being a sufferer from 
hernia, he was led to an investigation of the current 
methods of treatment and the mechanical appliances 
in use in such cases. He made a thorough study of 
the subject, that resulted in valuable discoveries, 
which were presented to the profession through a 
paper read by him before the State Medical Associa- 


- . - 




tion of Ohio, and which was printed and circulated 
extensively by order of the Association. During his 
long and useful career as a physician, his services 
and advice were often sought, in consultation, by 
such teachers of surgery as Girdon Buck and Wil- 
lard Parker, of New York, and R. L. Howard, of 

Dr. Hubbard was married at Rootstown, Portage 
Co., Ohio, July 6, 1837, to Miss Mary A. Coe, daugh- 
ter of Samuel and Lucy (Lester) Coe. Mrs. Hub- 
bard is a native of Portage Co., Ohio. Her parents 
were born and brought up in Massachusetts, and 
were among the early pioneers of Western Ohio. The 
Doctor removed to Elyria, Ohio, in 1 85 1 , and from 
that time out he devoted his efforts entirely to his 
specialty, the treatment of hernia in its various 
phases. He came to Fulton, 111., in 1855, and made 
this his home till the time of his death, which oc- 
curred May 14, 1883. While Fulton was his place 
of residence, his professional services were in demand 
throughout the States and Territories, and for some 
years he maintained an office in New York city. 

He was an earnest supporter of a free and liberal 
educational system, and for several years was a mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees of the Northern Illinois 
College. He was enterprising and public-spirited, 
taking an active part in matters of local improve- 
ment. He was active in organizing the Agricultural 
Society of Whiteside County, and was chosen its first 
President. In politics he was an ardent Republican, 
of strong anti-slavery sympathies in the early history 
of the party and of as strong Prohibition sympathies 
in later years. Withal, he was conservative and ad- 
vocated only legitimate, legal measures of redress, 
always opposing extreme or radical views. 

Dr. and Mrs. Hubbard had four children, two sons 
and two daughters, Frances, Lester C., Frederick 
H. and Grace. Frances, the eldest, is the widow of 
Harry Bellard, and resides at Hannibal, Mo. Lester 
C. was a Captain in the volunteer service in the late 
war, and is now employed as editor on a Boston 
paper. Frederick H. studied medicine and graduated 
at Bellevue Hospital Medical College of New York, 
and is engaged in the practice of his profession at 
Brooklyn. He married Miss Emma Owen, of Han- 
nibal, Mo. Grace, the youngest child, resides with 
her mother at the old homestead in Fulton, 111. 

Dr. Hubbard was a true and affectionate husband 

and father, a worthy brother of the Masonic Order, 
being a member of Fulton City Lodge, No. 189, A. 
F. & A. M. As a neighbor and citizen, he was held 
in high esteem, while in the medical profession, 
where his great services were best appreciated, he 
won a place of which his friends may well be proud. 


Solomon Eshleman, a farmer of Clyde 
Township, established on section 24, was 
one of the first mechanics to locate at 
Morrison, where he started a blacksmith shop 
in 1855. He was born March i, 1827, in 
Bucks Co., Pa., and is almost wholly without 
knowledge of his parents. His father died before 
his birth, and all the inheritance left was his name, 
which was bestowed upon his son. The mother was 
unable to give her child proper care and rearing, and 
she confided him, when only a few weeks old, to 
strangers, who did not desire to have him retain any 
knowledge of his origin, and he has never known her 
name. He became a laborer on arriving at a suit- 
able age, and remained in his native State until he 
was 22 years of age. In 1850 he came to Freeport, 
111., and worked as a blacksmith, having acquired a 
knowledge of that business at Goodstown, Berks Co., 
Pa., under the training of Daniel Grooninger. He 
went from Freeport to Sabula, Jackson Co., Iowa, 
where he worked at his trade 18 months. He came 
thence to Savanna, Carroll Co., 111., and was simi- 
larly occupied about one year at that place. In 
1855, associated with Thomas McClelland, he es- 
tablished a shop at Morrison for general work. Their 
business relations existed four years, terminating in 

Mr. Eshleman was married in December, 1860, to 
Louisa Siddles. She was born June 27, 1837, in 
New Jersey. Her parents were of New England 
origin and came to Illinois in the '40*5, locating in 
Whiteside County, north of the city of Sterling. Her 
father and mother have both been dead some years. 
Mr. Eshleman continued to prosecute the busi- 
ness of a blacksmith at Morrison about ten years af- 
ter his marriage. In 1870 he purchased 82 acres of 
land in Clyde Township, of which he took possession 
the same year. The place had been improved to 
some extent, and it has since been placed by its 







proprietor in complete agricultural condition, and has 
constituted the family homestead. The acreage has 
been increased until it includes 151 acres. Mr. 
Eshleman is a Democrat and was brought up in the 
German Lutheran faith. 

Five children have been born to him and his wife. 
William F. died in infancy. Emma E., Joseph H., 
Benjamin and Cora M. are the names of the four 
who are now living. 

r. J. Frank Keefer, practicing physician at 
Sterling, was born May 10, 1856, in Hop- 
kins Township, this county. His parents, 
Henry and Elizabeth (Strickler) Keefer, were 
natives of Pennsylvania, and in 1854-5 came 
West, settling in Empire, Hopkins Township, 
where Mr. Keefer purchased a farm of 80 acres and 
followed farming until 1875, when he sold and 
moved into Sterling. In the spring of 1878 he pur- 
chased Dr. Gait's drug-store on the corner of Locust 
and Third Streets, and has since been engaged in 
business there. 

Mr. Keefer, the subject of this sketch, was reared 
as a farmer's son until 17 years of age, when he en- 
tered the Carthage (111.) College and continued there 
until the spring of 1878, graduating ; then, attending 
Rush Medical College at Chicago two winter terms 
and one spring, he received his medical diploma, 
Feb. 22, 1 88 1 ; and finally located in Sterling, in the 
practice of his profession, in which he has a rising 
popularity. He is also a partner of his father in the 
drug-store, which also is a leading business estab- 
lishment of the place. 

ddison S. Melvin, merchant on Third Street, 
Sterling, was born Sept. 22, 1828, in 
Geauga Co., Ohio. His parents, Alonzo 
and Roenna (Lyman) Melvin, were natives of 
Massachusetts and descendants of the old 
Puritan stock. They came to Ohio when 
young, married in 1819, and had nine sons and four 
daughters, all of whom excepting one son lived to 
be grown ; the son died when four years and six 
months old. 

Addison remained with his parents until 22 years 

Kfri ^^ ^M 

of age, passing his youth on the farm, at the district 
school and two years (17 to 19 years old) at the 
Western Reserve Teachers' Seminary at Kirkland, 
Ohio. He then taught school one season, but, his 
health failing, he returned to farm labor in New York 
State. Two years afterward he went to Southern 
Indiana, where he followed carpentering for nine 
years. He came from there to Sterling and engaged 
in coopering, employing r 2 men, and continued in 
the same line for 16 years; then, in 1882, he started 
in the grocery business, under the firm name of 
Melvin & Son, and is now prosecuting a successful 
trade in that line. 

Mr. Melvin was married Sept. 7, 1856, to Miss 
Cordelia McKinney, a native of New York, and they 
have had five children, three of whom are still living : 
Arthur N., Addison S., Jr., and Alonzo D. Arthur 
married Gussie Roberts, of Lyndon, 111., March 16, 

In political matters Mr. Melvin is a Republican, 
and in religious he is connected with the Congrega- 
tional Church, as is also Mrs. M. 


bram D. Mitchell, dealer in groceries, 
provisions and crockery, at Fulton, estab- 
lished his present business in January, 
1866. Average value of stock about $3,500. 
The subject of this sketch was born in Adams 
Co., Ohio, Jan. 10, 1835, and is the son of 
David and Harriet (Murphy) Mitchell. His parents 
are natives of Ohio. The family removed to Mar- 
shall Co., 111., in 1836, making their home on a farm 
near Lacon. He remained in Illinois about four or 
five years and returned to Ohio. In 1843 he came 
to Whiteside County and located in Albany. 

Abram D. was reared on a farm in the township 
of Garden Plain, Whiteside County, till 2 1 years of 
age. He then went to Northern Iowa and in 1858 
to Colorado with a wagon train. In 185 9 he went 
to Pike's Peak and spent three years as a miner in 
the gold regions. In 1862 he went to Montana Ter- 
ritory and participated in the pioneer gold-mining of 
that region. He returned to Illinois in the fall of 
1865, and located at Fulton. In January, 1866, he 
established his present business in company with 
John Hudson. Two years later he purchased his 




partner's interest and has carried on the business 
alone since. 

Mr. Mitchell was married in Garden Plain, White- 
side Co., 111., Dec. n, 1867, to Miss Mary E. 
Murphy, daughter of Jacob and Diana (Jewett) 
Murphy. Mrs. Mitchell was born in Adams Co., 
Ohio. They have had four children, two boys and 
two girls, all born at Fulton : Charles J., born Sept. 
21, 1868; William H., born Oct. 16, 1873; Mary A., 
born July 9, 1875; Irene H., born Jan. i, 1879. The 
last named died Oct. 5, 1882. Mr. Mitchell is a 
member of Fulton City Lodge, No. 189, A. F. &. A. 
M., and has been connected with that lodge since 
1866. He is also a member of Fulton Chapter No. 
1 08. 

Mr. Mitchell is a Republican in politics. As a 
business man he is widely and favorably known as a 
man of strict integrity, who by fair dealing and earn- 
est attention to business has succeeded in building 
up an extensive trade from Fulton and surrounding 

acob Bailey, farmer and carpenter, sec- 
tion 5, Hopkins Township, is a son of Elias 
and Elizabeth (Trueax) Bailey, natives re- 
spectively of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 
who settled in Fulton Co., Pa., where they re- 
sided until their death. They had a family of 
eight children, viz. : Sarah, Levi, Ellen, John, Jacob, 
Elizabeth, Job and Jessee. 

Mr. Bailey, the subject of this sketch, was born in 
Fulton Co., Pa., Oct. 28, 1828, and lived in his na- 
tive county till 28 years of age. At the age of 20 he 
was apprenticed for two years to learn the trade of 
carpenter and joiner, which he followed till he came 
West. He came to Whiteside County in 1857 and 
remained for two years, engaged at his trade, and 
then went to Central City, Col., where he remained 
for nine years working at his trade and in mill- 
wright business. He then returned to Whiteside 
County, and purchased 60 acres of land in section 
5, Hopkins Township, where he settled and has 
since lived. He is now the owner of 140 acres, 
most of which is in a good tillable condition. Since 
his return from Colorado he has engaged extensively 
in farming. He keeps about 20 head of short-horn 

cattle, four head of horses, and fattens annually 
from 30 to 40 head of hogs. 

In politics Mr. Bailey is a Republican. 


mos A. Hulett, fanner on section 26, 
Union Grove Township, was born April 7, 
1812, in Chester, Vt. He is the son of 
Benjamin G. and Lydia (Pollard) Hulett, and 
his father was also born in Chester, March 31, 
1787. The latter died in Union Grove 
Township, April 10, 1877, a few days after he be- 
came 90 years old. The father of B. G. Hulett was 
born in Rhode Island, Nov. 2, 1751, and died Oct. 
i, 1850, lacking one month of being 99 years of age. 
Lydia Hulett was born April 9, 1795, in Massa- 
chusetts, and died April 12, 1879, in Union Grove 
Township, two years after the decease of her hus- 
band and in her 8sth year. 

The parents of Mr. Hulett located after marriage 
in Chester, whence they came in 1865 to Whiteside 
County, fixing their residence in the township where 
they died, as stated. Their children were Amos A., 
Lucius A., William L., Elias H., Louisa H., John 
P., Lydia A. and Sarah J. Mr. Hulett was a resi- 
dent in his native State until he was 23 years of age. 
He obtained a good education and learned the trade 
of a carpenter before he reached the age of man- 
hood. He followed that as a business until June, 
1853, when he removed with his family, consisting 
of his wife and three children, to Whiteside County. 
He located on section 26, where he made a claim of 
120 acres of land. To this he has added by later 
purchase, and now owns 160 acres. The first tract is 
all under an excellent order of cultivation. Mr. 
Hulett is a prominent Republican, and is holding 
the office of Justice of the Peace, to which he has 
been successively re-elected several terms. He has 
also been elected School Director, Collector and 

He was married May 20, 1838, in Preble Co., 
Ohio, to Sarah W. White, and they have five chil- 
dren : Ansel S., James H., William, Robert G. and 
John W. The oldest child is deceased. Mrs. Hu- 
lett was born Sept. 6, 18(8, in Reading, Vt., and she 
is the daughter of Robert and Mary (Johnson) 
White. Her parents were born in New England. 

-. .. - 




In 1856 they came to Whiteside County, where they 
remained through the last years of their lives. The 
mother died at Morrison, Sept. 27, 1866. The death 
of the father took place Aug. 28, 1870. He was a 
soldier in the second war with Great Britain. In 
the battle at Fort Erie, both his arms were shot away 
by the same ball, one arm being carried some dis- 
tance from him before he realized his situation. 
His children were 1 3 in number, and all lived to 
mature age. They were born in the following order : 
Priscilla, Joseph, Sarah, Mary, Susan, James G., 
Elizabeth, John W., Lorenzo J., David, Jonathan, 
Caroline and Thomas. 

enjamin Burgess, Jr., retired fanner, liv- 
ing on section 30, Genesee Township, was 
born July 3, 1809, in the town of Fort 
Ann, Washington Co., N. Y. He is the only 
son of Benjamin and Jerusha (Chase) Bur- 
gess, and, in the paternal line of descent, is 
of mixed Irish and English blood, while the mother's 
ancestors were English. They were farmers; and 
the mother died about 1844, in Cayuga Co., N. Y., 
when she had passed the age of 60 years. Benja- 
min Burgess, senior, came to Genesee Township and 
died at the house of his son. He has been dead 
some years, and was about 80 years of age at the 
time of his decease. 

The family settled in Cayuga County about 1819. 
That section of the Empire State was in a dense 
wilderness of original forest. Mr. Burgess was there 
reared, and before he separated from the parental 
household he formed a matrimonial alliance with 
Sarah A. Annable. She was born Jan. 23, 1809, in 
Saratoga Co., N. Y., and her parents, Prince and 
Ruth (Hovvland) Annable, were also natives of that 
State and were respectively of French and English 
descent. They were farmers and the families from 
which they came were for a long period of years 
identified with the history of the United States, hav- 
ing come here prior to the Revolution. Mrs. Bur- 
gess was eight years old when her father became a 
citizen of Cayuga County. There she grew to ma- 
turity and was married Dec. 17, 1831. Later, her 
parents came to Illinois and located in Jo Daviess 
County, where their lives terminated. Mr. and Mrs. 

Burgess located on 50 acres of land in the township 
of Fort Edward in Washington Co., N. Y., to which 
they afterward added 25 acres, and, after making im- 
portant improvements, sold out to buy another farm 
containing 100 acres, which was all cultivated. This 
constituted the homestead until their removal to 
Illinois in 1841. They located on a claim on which 
a settlement had been made and which they pur- 
chased of its original claimant previous to the land's 
coining into market. Three years later Mr. Burgess 
sold his title and bought 80 acres on the section 
which has since been his field of operation. He has 
put his son in possession of 40 acres of the original 
purchase, and has bought 40 acres of timber, three- 
fourths of which still belongs to the estate. 

Mr. and Mrs. Burgess are the parents of three sons 
and two daughters : Caleb married Rosanna Col- 
cord and they reside at Sterling, where the former is 
a mechanic ; James married Lavina Switzer, and is 
a farmer in Jones Co., Iowa. Lucy married John 
Cutting, a farmer in Gage Co., Neb. William mar- 
ried Margaret Vest, and is engaged in farming in 
Tama Co., Iowa. Ruth was born in the State of 
New York, which was the native State of her broth- 
ers and sister, and married James Siddles. His 
parents were Joseph and Jane (Courtright) Siddles, 
and he was born Sept. 25, 1827, in Sussex Co.. N. J. 
When he was six years of age his parents removed 
to Susquehanna Co., Pa., where he was brought up 
and educated. In 1854 they came to Whiteside 
County and settled at Sterling. The mother died 
within the year of their arrival there. Mr. and Mrs. 
Siddles have had three children, Milan, who died 
Feb. n, 1872; Charles C., and Dora V. 

Mr. Burgess is a Republican and he and his wife 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 




,loys Summers, of the firm of O. & C. 
Summers, dealers in groceries, provisions 
3 *' and crockery at Fulton, was born in Bar- 
net, Caledonia Co., Vt, Dec. 9, 1833, came to 
Sterling, 111 , with his parents in 1840, and 
has made Whiteside County his home ever 
He has spent several years away, but never 
established a residence elsewhere. He took part in 
the so-called " Kansas War " of 1854. From there 


he went with a Government train to Albuquerque, 
New Mexico, in 1855. He next entered the service 
of the Hockaday Stage Company, and ran a pony 
express from South Pass to Salt Lake Cily. He was 
in Utah at the time of the Mormon War, and par- 
ticipated in some wild border scenes. He returned 
to Fulton after spending about four years on the 
plains and in the mountains. 

He enlisted in the late war, in September, 1861, 
in Co. A, 34th 111. Vol. Inf., and was promoted Cor- 
poral and Sergeant. He served three years, and re- 
enlisted in September, 1864. He was appointed 
Commissary Sergeant immediately and served till 
the close of the war. He was in the i4th Army 
Corps, and with his company and regiment in every 
battle in which they participated, among them the 
battles of Shiloh, Stone River, Chickamauga, siege 
of Atlanta and Jonesborough, siege of Savannah and 
other minor engagements. 

Mr. Summers was married at Fulton, 111., Dec. 9, 
1866, to Miss Margaret Joyce, daughter of Clayton 
and Margaret E. Joyce. Mrs. Summers was born 
in Burlington Co., N. J. They have had four chil- 
dren, three daughters and a son, as follows: Belle, 
born Dec. 4, 1868, died Sept. 14, 1879; Myron D., 
born Feb. 12, 1870, died Aug. 7, 1870; Aetna E., 
born Aug. n, 1873, died Aug. 7, 1875; and Mary 
Alice, born Oct. 7, 1875. 

Soon after his return from the war Mr. Summers 
engaged as clerk and salesman for the lumber firm 
of Langford & Hall, and continued with them till 
the spring of 1871, when he formed the existing 
partnership with his brother Oscar. 

In his political views, Mr. S. is a Republican. 



rank H. Robinson, of the firm of S. W. 
Robinson & Brother, dealers in hardware 
and agricultural implements at Morrison, 
was born March 5, 1837, in Zanesville, Ohio, 
and is the youngest surviving child of his par- 
ents, Robert P. and Mary J. (Culbertson) Rob- 
inson. His father, whose business career is outlined 
in the sketch of S. W. Robinson on other pages of 
this work, put him when 14 years of age in the posi- 
tion of an assistant in the hardware store, of which 

the former was proprietor at Zanesville for more than 
20 years. 

In the spring of 1856 he came to Sterling in this 
county, and continued in the capacity of salesman 
there until the subsequent autumn, when he came to 
Morrison and opened a branch hardware store in the 
interest of his father. He conducted its relations 
singly until the spring of 1857, when he was joined 
by his brother, Samuel W. In the fall of the same 
year the latter became the owner of the stock and 
business interests by purchase, Mr. F. H. Robinson 
continuing to operate as a clerk until he became in- 
terested in the progress and issues of the Civil War. 

The awakening of his zeal and enthusiasm re- 
sulted in his enrollment as a soldier of the Union 
Army. In July, 1861, he enlisted at Lyons, Iowa, 
as private in Co. B., First Iowa Cav., under Capt. 
Wm. E. Leffingwell. The regiment was assigned to 
the Army of the Frontier in Missouri. Mr. Robin- 
son remained a member of the " First Iowa " two 
years. He was mustered out July 14, 1863, to ac- 
cept a commission as First Lieutenant of Co. H. 
nth Mo. Cav. He entered upon the work of re- 
cruiting, and after enlisting 57 men at Rolla, Mo., 
he was made Captain, his commission dating Dec. 
27, 1864. He continued to hold his command until 
his discharge. He was mustered out of the mili- 
tary service of the United States in August, 1865, 
at St. Louis, Mo., and returned to Morrison. He 
purchased a half interest in the business of his 
brother, and the firm of S. W. Robinson & Brother 
have since continued their operations as dealers in 
hardware and agricultural implements without inter- 
ruption. They carry a stock of extensive value and 
well assorted, making a speciality of agricultural 
machinery. Their business requires three regular 
assistants, and at times necessitates the employment 
of a force of double that number. In addition to 
the avenues of business named they do all varieties of 
work as tinners, a^ roofing, spouting, the manufacture 
of creamery goods, etc. 

Mr. Robinson is connected with the Order of the 
Grand Army of the Republic. 

His marriage to Carrie E. Clark took place Dec. 
23, 1873, at Morrison, and their three children were 
born as follows : Frank C., Jan. 5, 1877 ; Minnie B., 
April i, 1880; Edith A., born April 7, 1882, died 
Sept. 5, 1883. Mrs. Robinson was bprn in Lyndon 



Township. She is the daughter of Alpheus and 
Augusta Clark, and her parents were among the 
earliest of the permanent white settlers of Whiteside 
County. Her father was a Major in the Eighth 111. 
Vol. Cav., and died from the effects of a wound re- 
ceived at Beverly Ford. Post Alpheus Clark, No. 
1 1 6, G. A. R., at Morrison, is named in honor of his 
devotion to the Union cause and gallant services in 
its defense. 

Hlliam Tyson, resident on section 18, Clyde 
Township, has been a farmer where he is 

g^/;""' now located for more than 30 years, hav- 
[> ing entered his claim in 1854. He was born 
April 15, r824, in Lancastershire, England. 
John Tyson, his father, was a native of York- 
shire and was a cutler by trade, having learned that 
business in Sheffield, where he was born. He mar- 
ried Martha Wilby, who was born in the same city, 
and a few years later they went to Lancastershire, 
where he was employed in the mills. In 1845' the 
father, mother and four younger children came to 
the United States, landing at the port of New York. 
They left two children in England. The father died 
1 8 days after reaching New York, and the family 
were supported some time by the efforts of the sons. 

Mr. Tyson was occupied in various ways until he 
went to New Jersey, where he was employed in farm 
labor, and he went thence to Columbia, Lancaster 
Co., Pa. From there he returned to the city of New 
York, whence, after a brief stay, he proceeded to 
Connecticut. In his native country he had acquired 
and followed the business of a cotton-twister in the 
factories of the place where he was born, in which 
he was occupied from 12 to 20 years of age. When 
he left his native land he brought away with him a 
determination never to work in a factory, to which 
resolution he faithfully adhered. 

On coining to Illinois he fixed on Whiteside County 
as a suitable place to locate, and he bought 74 acres 
of land situated near the farm of John Sykes, his 
brother-in-law. (See sketch.) The place was un- 
improved, and the entire acreage is still in his pos- 
session, all of which is under cultivation and sup- 
plied with necessary and suitable buildings. 

X r *x '> " 

Mr. Tyson was married May 19, 1851, in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., to Mary Sykes. She was born Oct. 28, 
1822, in Yorkshire, England, and lived in her native 
country until after the death of her mother. She 
came to America in 1847, and from that time until 
her marriage she maintained herself. She has been 
the mother of nine children, two of whom are de- 
ceased. Josephine W. is married and has one child, 
Mary L. Mary S. married George W. Holcomb, a 
liveryman at Morrison, Whiteside Co., 111. Alice S. 
is the wife of Paul Remkes, a farmer in Colorado. 
Hattie E. married Frank W. White, and resides at 
Idaho Springs, Col. Charles W. is the next in order 
of birth and lives at Miller, Hand Co., D. T. George 
H. lives in Colorado. Olive P. is a teacher in the 
public schools of Whiteside County. Sarah and Ira 
J. died in infancy. 

Mr. Tyson is a Republican in political fath. 

avid R. Wetzel is a retired farmer of 
Hopkins Township, and resides on section 
27. His parents, John and Margaret 
(Reese) Wetzel, were born in Pennsylvania 
and were of German lineage. They went 
thence in 1814 to Ohio, whence they came in 
1855 to Whiteside County. The father, a direct 
descendant of Lewis Wetzel, the Indian hunter, died 
in Genesee Township, Sept. 18, 1860. The death of 
the mother occurred Feb. 2, 1882. Their children 
were born in the order named : Catherine, Daniel, 
Jacob, John, George, Elizabeth, David R., Andrew, 
Joseph, Hannah, Margaret and Louis. 

Mri Wetzel was born April 7, 1823, in Summit 
Co., Ohio. He attended the public schools of his 
native State, and afterwards was interested in farm- 
ing there until his removal in the fall of 1855 to 
Whiteside County. He was a farmer in Genesee 
Township until the spring of 1883, when he changed 
his residence to Hopkins Township, where he had 
bought a farm during the previous fall. The com- 
bined area of his land in the townships of Genesee 
and Hopkins is 640 acres, and the entire extent is 
under tillage. He has rented his estate and is living 
in quiet retirement. He has built up his possessions 
by industry and economy, having begun in the world 




by small means, and has made his way unaided. He 
is one of the heaviest land-holders in Whiteside 
County, and in politics is identified with the Republi- 
can party. 

The publishers of this ALBUM take pleasure in 
presenting a fine lithographic portrait of Mr. Wetzel 
in connection with this sketch. 

radford C. Church, Jr., one of the pro- 
prietors of the Sterling Roller Flouring 
Mill, was born June 20, 1860, atKankakee, 
111. He came to Sterling with his father in 
1868, where he received a practical education, 
and in the year 1 88 1 accepted a position as 
book-keeper in Church & Patterson's mills. After 
his father's death he purchased his half interest in 
the mill from the other heirs, and has since been 
engaged in conducting that establishment. He is 
one of the young and leading men of Sterling, is a 
Republican in his political action, and is a member 
of the A. O. U. W. and of the Order of Modern 
Woodmen of America. 

Mr. Church's marriage to Mary Patterson occurred 
Oct. 17, 1883. Her parents were William L. and 
Isabel (Wallace) Patterson. Mr. and Mrs. Church 
have one child, John L., born Aug. 6, 1884. 

|f ohn Downs, dealer in hardware, stoves and 
tinware, manufacturer and repairer of tin- 
ware, at Fulton, established his present 
business in February, 1875, and carries an 
average stock of $2,500 value. Mr, Downs 
was born in Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 23, 1839, 
and is the son of John and Ann (Gilmore) Downs. 
His parents were natives of Ireland and emigrated to 
the United States in 1835. John served a regular 
apprenticeship to the tinner's trade, in Cleveland, 
and came to Fulton, 111., in the fall of 1858. He 
was employed as a journeyman in this city till Feb- 
ruary, 1875, when he engaged in his present business 
and has carried it on continuously since. 

He was married in September, 1862, at Dixon, 111., 
to Miss Annie Mahony. Mrs. Downs was born 
in Limerick, Ireland, in 1842, and is a daughter of 

Daniel and Margaret (Ring) Mahony. They have 
four children, three boys and a girl : Edward, l>orn 
Aug. 28, 1864; William, June 25, 1867 ; Nellie, Sept. 
26, 1872, and John, Dec. 16, 1874. 

Mr. Downs has been a member of the Fulton City 
Council eight years. He is a Democrat and a mem- 
ber of the temperance organization entitled the " R. 
C. B. & T. Society." Mr. Downs, his wife and 
family are members of the Catholic Church of Fulton. 

Mr. Downs has now been in business for himself a 
little over ten years, and has built up a very satis- 
factory trade. He aims to do good work, keep good 
goods, and give his customers the value of their 

=ezekiah Brink, farmer on the northeast 
quarter of section 22, Sterling Township, 
was born May 21, 1809, in Vermont. His 
father, Isaiah Brink, a native of Germany, 
adopted this as his country in an early period 
of his life and became a soldier in our war with 
Great Britain in 1812-4, losing his life. His widow, 
nee Anna Murdock, a native of New York State, after- 
ward married Samuel S. Geere, in Erie Co., N. Y. 

Having received a common-school education, Mr. 
Brink, at the age of 16 years, left home and went to 
Madison, Ind., to learn the hatter's trade, extending 
his period of apprenticeship until he was 20 years 
old. He then opened a shop in Ripley Co., Ind., 
and carried on business there and in Coventry until 
1834. Selling out, he came to what is now the city 
of Sterling, entering, in June, 1834, the quarter-section 
which he still owns and occupies. During the sum- 
mer and fall he broke a piece of ground and built a 
log house 18x20 feet in dimensions, and with a 
puncheon floor. The one room it comprised was 
parlor, kitchen and bed-room. This was his resi- 
dence until 1841. The following December (1834) 
he returned to Indiana and brought out his family to 
their new home, arriving May i, 1835. 

In 1836 he built a saw-mill in Milledgeville, and 
the next year he erected a frame for a grist-mill, and 
purchased the buhrs and machinery, but sold out be- 
fore completing the mill. In May, 1836, he sold an 
interest in his farm to Capt. Harris & Bros, for a part 
of a cargo of provisions, which they brought up Rock 



River by steamer from Galena. Their complete 
cargo comprised about $600 or $700 worth of pro- 
visions. After this exchange, Mr. Brink erected a 
building 18 x 20 feet for a store. Being of hewn logs, 
it was considered in those days a very fine structure. 
It was built on what is now Block 41, in the city of 
Sterling, where it still remains, occupied as a dwell- 
ing. After conducting the store here for four years, 
Mr. Brink disposed of it by sale. In the meantime 
he had built saw, grist and carding mills at Empire. 
connected with one power, which he ran until 1847, 
when he sold them. 

Returning then to Sterling, he put up a saw-mill 
at Elkhorn, three miles above Empire, and after run- 
ning it about one year he sold it ; and, renting a 
mill at Coe's Grove, he operated that-a year. Then 
he followed farming until 1854. About this time he 
went to Canada and purchased from Theodore Wynn 
his undivided interest in Sterling. Returning home, 
he built a stone house and rented it to the School 
District for a public school. In 1855 he engaged in 
general building, contracting for and erecting most of 
the brick houses in Sterling up to 1870, and often 
having as many as 65 men in his employ at one time. 
He manufactured all his brick and stone. During 
this time he also conducted a store for five years. In 
1870 he returned to his farm. 

Mr. Brink did the first " breaking " in Como and 
in the county, in 1834, with three yoke of oxen. He 
also did " breaking " for the neighbors for miles 
around, at $5 a day. In 1835 he broke 40 acres of 
land where the village of Sterling now stands, and 
raised crops upon it for several years. At present he 
is devoting his attention principally to the culture of 
small fruits, having in all four acres, three acres of 
which consist of black and red .raspberries. This 
fruit is put up chiefly by the canning factories of 
Sterling. He also raises, apples, pears, plums, etc. 

In his political views, Mr. B. is a Republican, and 
in his religious relations he has belonged to the 
Methodist Episcopal Church ever since he was 15 
years old. 

He was first married Sept. 25, 1829, to Miss 
Martha Buchanan, a native of Indiana, who died 
Oct. 16, 1839, after having become the mother of four 
children, Thomas, Samuel, Margery and David. 
Oct. i, 1840, Mr. Brink was again married, to 
Sophronia L. Griffin, a native .of Ohio. She died 

Dec. 23, 1866. By this marriage there were n chil- 
dren, namely, Harvey, Charles, Caroline, Albert, 
Julia, Newton, Alona, Ada, Ella, Martha B. and ' 

radford C. Church, Sr., deceased, in his 
life-time a highly respected business man 
of Sterling, was born in Portageville, Wy- 
oming Co., N. Y., April 28, 1834. In 1854 
he came to Chicago, where he was employed 
in a store for five years; then, until 1862, he 
was engaged in the hardware business in Kankakee, 
111. ; then, for five years, in the same business at 
Morris, Grundy Co., 111. ; and finally, in the spring 
of 1868, he came to Sterling and engaged in the 
milling business. In 1871 he entered into partner- 
ship with Samuel Patterson, the firm name being 
Church & Patterson. In 1875 he was elected Mayor 
of the city of Sterling, and in 1876 was re-elected. 
In his political action he was a Republican. 

Mr. Church died of apoplexy on the cars, on his 
way home from St. Louis, Sept. 20, 1883. He was 
one of Sterling's most respected citizens. 

illiam Topping, retired farmer, Union 
Grove Tp., was born in Lowville, Lewis 
Co., N. Y., April 6, 1802. His parents, 
Jared and Judith (Prentiss) Topping, were 
born in Connecticut. William was brought 
up on a farm, and was married in his native 
town Jan. i, 1823, to Miss Sarah Weaver. They 
had eight children, four of whom lived to be men 
and women ; the others died in childhood. Of the 
former, the eldest was Harriet, wife of W. G. Hitch- 
cock, of Morrison. The second is Edwin G., who 
married Rose Chapman and resides in Harvey Co., 
Kan. The third, Oscar F., married Ellen Powell, 
and lives in Oregon. The fourth, George, died aged 
41 years, leaving a wife and five children, residents 
of Morrison. 

Mr. Topping removed to Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, in 
1834, where he was engaged in milling and farming 
till 1855, when he came to Illinois and located on 
section 16, Union Grove Township, this county, where 




he had a finely improved farm of 100 acres. Mrs. 
Topping died Aug. 7, 1882, and Mr. Topping was 
married again Nov. 26, 1882, at Morrison, to Mrs. 
Rosina Burwell, widow of Abram Burwell, and only 
daughter of Reynolds and Lucy (Powers) Vaughn. 
She was born in the town of Ferrisburg, Addison 
Co., Vt. She had three children by her former 
marriage : Martha E. Burwell, of Morrison, the eld- 
est ; Charles H. died aged aged five years ; and Silas 
A. married Anna Bull, and resides in Polo, 111. 

Mr. Topping served as Assessor of Union Grove 
Township two years. In early life he was a staunch 
Democrat, but of strong anti-slavery sympathies. 
He joined the Republican party on its organization, 
and has been an earnest advocate of Republican 
principles continuously since. Mr. Topping and 
wife are members of the Universalist Church. Mr. 
T. is a remarkably well preserved man at 83 years of 
age, in full possession of his faculties ; and active 
and energetic as many a man at 50. He sold his 
farm, and since Christmas, 1883, has made his home 
at Morrison. 

Lf mar E. Fanning, farmer, section 14, Hop- 
^kins Township, is a son of Asa and Phebe 
A. (Cole) Fanning, natives of New England, 
who first settled in Cheuango Co., N. Y., and 
afterwards removed to Broome County, that 
State, where he died in the summer of 1863 ; 
she came to Whiteside County in 1883 and now re- 
sides in Sterling. They had a family of three chil- 
dren, Omar E., Franklin and Wallace. 

Mr. Fanning, the subject of this biographical out- 
line, was born in Oxford, Chenango Co., N. Y., Feb. 
2, 1829, received a common-school education, in 
Broome Co., N. Y., and lived there till he was 22 
years of age. He then came to Whiteside County, 
in August, 1851, and engaged as a clerk for Joel 
Harvey at Empire. He was in his employment 
about three years at that time. He then engaged 
in carriage and wagon making at Empire, having 
learned that trade in Broome Co., N. Y., where he 
served an apprenticeship of about one and a half 
years. He continued in that vocation at Empire, 
about two and a half years, when he sold that business 
and bought a half interest in the mercantile establish- 


ment at Empire, with Joel Harvey, and the company 
was known as Harvey & Fanning. They continued 
together about three years, when Mr. Fanning sold 
out his interest to Mr. Harvey. In the spring of 1860 
he rented a farm in Hopkins Township, which he 
carried on one season, and in the meantime he pur- 
chased 40 acres on section r4, which he afterwards 
sold. He has been engaged in farming since 1860, 
with the exception of four years, during which time 
he has bought and sold various tracts of land. He 
is now the owner of 160 acres in Hopkins Township 
all of which is tillable. 

Mr. Fanning was first married in Round Grove, 
Hopkins Township, in March, 1855, to Miss Louisa 
Simonson, daughter of Frederick and Sabrina (Har- 
vey) Simonson^ who were natives of the State of 
New York. Mrs. F. was born in Tioga Co., N. 
Y., and died in Hopkins Township, Nov. 8, 1868. 
Mr. F. was again married Nov. 22, 1870, to Mary J., 
daughter of John and Mary A. (Stackhouse) Lefferts, 
natives of Pennsylvania, who came to Whiteside 
County in the spring of 1855 and settled in Hopkins 
Township, where they lived till their death. He 
died March 8, 1871, and she April 29, 1884. They 
had a family of six children, Mary J., Carrie E., 
Anna J., Sarah E., Charles H. and Susanna. Mary J, 
(Mrs. F.) was born in Newtown, Pa., Aug. 20, 1840, 
and came to Whiteside County when about 15 years 
old, with her parents. She taught school a number 
of years, commencing in 1859, in Hopkins Township. 
Mr. and Mrs. F. are the parents of four children, 
Phebe, Frank C., Jessie and Omar A. 

Mr. Fanning was an active member of the Patrons 
of Husbandry, having been Secretary of the State 
organization four years. He has held many of the 
township offices, as Commissioner of Highways one 
term, Collector two years, Township Assessor 12 
years, Township Trustee, etc. In politics he is 
identified with the Republican party and its inter- 

heodore S. Barrett, a retired farmer liv- 
ing on section 25, Hopkins Township, was 
born April 17, 1808, in Madison Co., N. Y. 
He was educated in the public schools, which 
he attended until he was about 18 years old, 
and at that age entered the academy at Caze- 
N. Y., where he was a student two years. 




After becoming his own master, he engaged in dairy 
farming and operated in his native State until 1856, 
when he came to Whiteside County. After a stay of 
two years at Sterling he bought 100 acres of land on 
sections 25 and 26 in Hopkins Township. On this 
he fixed his place of residence, and it has since been 
his home. His estate includes 125 acres of land, 
which is chiefly under tillage. 

Mr. Barrett is an adherent of the Republican 
party. He has officiated as Township Clerk and in 
other minor offices. 

The first marriage of Mr. Barrett, to Caroline Da- 
mon, took place Nov. 14; 1830, in Madison Co., N. 
Y. Frances G., Theodore H., Lorenzo M. and 
Lucia C. are the names of the children of whom 
they became the parents. The mother died July 
8, 1860, in Hopkins Township. Mr. Barrett formed 
a second matrimonial alliance Oct. 10, 1864, at Ster- 
ling, with Jerusha B. (McCune) Eggleston. She is the 
daughter of Stephen and Polly (Davenport) McCune, 
and was the widow of Daniel Eggleston, who died in 
Indiana in 1858, leaving two children, Adella and 
George W. Mrs. Barrett was born May 16, 1822, 
in Oswegp Co., N. Y. She is a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. 

illiam P. Palmer, grain, coal and lumber 
merchant, at Sterling, was born in Frank- 
lin Co., Pa., Oct. 9, 1846. His parents, 
Jonas C. and Catharine (Fleck) Palmer, 
were also natives of that State ; his" father 
was a farmer by vocation. 
After obtaining a district-school education, the 
subject of this notice, at the age of 19 years, attend- 
ed the Iron City College at Pittsburg for a period of 
six months. At the age of 20 he left home and for 
a year was clerk in a grain house at Chambersburg, 
then until 1877 he was a member of the firm of 
Keefer, Palmer & Co., dealing in grain, coal and ag- 
ricultural implements. Then selling out his inter- 
est in the latter business, he came to Sterling and 
assumed charge of the interests of the Langford & 
Hall Lumber Company. Two years afterward he 
bought them out, and since then he has managed 
the business alone. He is a successful and enter- 
prising business man, shrewd and well qualified for 

public trusts. Politically, he is a Republican, and 
religiously a member of the Presbyterian Church of 
Sterling, as is also his wife : both were members of 
the First Reformed Church in Chambersburg, Pa. 
He is a member of the Orders of Masonry, Legion 
of Honor and Knights of Pythias. He is also a mem- 
ber of the Wallace School Board, and in the muni- 
cipality he is at present the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Streets and Alleys. 

In the spring of 1865 he married Maggie B., a 
daughter of Michael and Mary (Bear) Rutt, and of 
Pennsylvania!! nativity, born in 1866. Mr. and Mrs. 
Palmer have four children : Bertie, Minnie, John G. 
and Bessie. The last named died at three years of 

|'|:urrell V. Daniels, farmer, section 5, Union 
Grove Township, has been a resident of 
Whiteside County since 1849. He was 
born in Canada, Feb. 14, 1833. His father 
and mother, Asa and Almira (Vance) Daniels, 
were natives of Vermont. They were resi- 
dents of Canada after they were married, and re- 
turned to Vermont, whence the father came, in 1846, 
to the township of Ustick and located on section 32. 
In 1850 his family joined him. The senior Daniels 
met his death April 15, 1874, by a fall from aloadof 
hay. The mother is living in Ustick Township. 
Their family included seven children, David, War- 
ner, Amos and Asahel (twins), Sylvia, Burrell V. and 

Mr. Daniels came to Whiteside County in June, 
1849, and has since been engaged in farming. He 
is now the owner of 310 acres of land in the town- 
ship of Union Grove and has placed 250 acres under 
tillage. His stock includes 18 horses, 20 head of 
cattle and he fattens an average of 40 hogs annually. 
He is identified with the Republican party in polit- 
ical sentiment and action. 

The marriage of Mr. Daniels to Mary E. Cass 
took place Feb. 14, 1855, in Ustick Township, and 
they have had three sons, Wallace M., Wyman F. 
and Adelbert W. The second child died when one 
year and eight months old. Mrs. Daniels is the 
daughter of Jehiel and Sally (Scott) Cass. Her par- 
ents were natives of Vermont and had nine children, 
Cynthia, Rosina, Maria, Mary E., Sarah, George, 





) f 




Alonzo, Emily and Estella. Mrs. Daniels was born 
June 4, 1836, in Canada ; at the age of 3 years, her 
parents moved to Irasburg-, Orleans Co., Vt., where 
they lived until they came to Whiteside County in 
1854. Her mother died July 26, 1869, in Union 
Grove Township. Her father is a farmer in Dakota, 
where he went in the fall of 1883. He is in his 
79th year. 

Mr. Daniels, and also his children, are zealous and 
able Republicans, advocates of temperance and op- 
ponents of secret societies. 



,,enry C. Donaldson, M. D., of Morrison, one 
of the pioneer physicians of Whiteside 
County of 1847, was born in Guilford, Che- 
"l^ nango Co., N. Y., April 19, 1825, and is the son 
of the Rev. Asa and Delia (Allen) Donaldson. 
His father was born at Munson, Hampshire 
Co., Mass., Sept. 4, 1788, was a Presbyterian clergy- 
man and died at Chariton, Iowa, Feb. 3, 1876, aged 
88 years. His mother died at Maiden, 111., July 4, 

1862, aged 61 years. 

Henry C. went to Tioga Co., Pa., in 1831, with his 
parents, and from there to Bureau Co., 111., in 1839. 
He was educated at Princeton Academy, and entered 
Rush Medical College in 1846, took a regular course 
and graduated in the class of 1849-50. He began 
practice in Whiteside County in 1847, and has pur- 
sued it continuously to this date, covering a period of 
38 years, and has made his home at Morrison since 

1863. He is a member of the State Medical Asso- 
ciation, and also of the County Medical Society, of 
which he has been President several years. During 
the existence of the Rock River Medical Association 
he was a member of that society and for some time 
its Secretary. He was elected Coroner of Whiteside 
County in i88i,and has held that office continuously 

Dr. Donaldson was married in Prophetstown, 111., 
Jan. 14, 1849, to Miss Bethiah Ellithorp, daughter of 
Sampson and Eliza (Wight) Ellithorp. Mrs. Donald- 
son was born in Saratoga Co., N. Y. They have had 
four children : Ira B. married Ella Smith and lives in 
Exeter,. Neb.; Evelyn E. was the wife of Dr. W. L. 
Duffin, and died aged 25 years; Lizzie married Dr. 
W. L. Duffin, the husband of her deceased sister, 

and resides in Guttenburg, Iowa; Earl S. is a physi- i 
cian in practice at Hudson, Iowa. Dr. Donaldson, <; 
wife and children are members of the Congregational * 
Church. The Doctor has served as Deacon of the 
Church since 1864. He is a member of Dunlap V. 
Lodge, A. F. & A. M., No. 321, and votes the Re- 
publican ticket. 

ohn H. filey, farmer, section 18, Hopkins 
Township, is a son of John H. and Maria 
Bley, who were natives of Germany, where 
they died. They had a family of three chil- 
dren, John H., Elizabeth and Frederick. Mr. 
Bley, of this sketch, was born in Germany, July 
3, 1835, lived in his native land till 1860, when he 
came to America and direct to Whiteside County, 
locating in Hopkins Township. Soon afterward he 
purchased 160 acres of land, where he settled and 
has since lived. He is now the owner of 215 acres 
in the township, most of which is cultivated. 

Mr. Bley was married in Hopkins Township, 
March 15, 1869, to Margaret Staassen, who was born 
in Germany, July 9, 1843. They have had eight 
children, six of whom are surviving, viz.: Johanna 
E., Emily M,, Frederick G., William M., Anna H. 
and John H., Jr.; two died in infancy. 

Mr. and Mrs. B. are members of the German 
Lutheran Church. In politics he is identified with 
the Democratic party. 

'ohn Fieldsend, farmer, resident on section 
15, Clyde Township, was born April 30, 
1828, in the town of Thurston, Yorkshire, 
England. Benjamin Fieldsend, his father, 
was a tailor by profession and instructed his 
son in the details of that business, which he 
followed from the age of 14 years to that of 21. He 
also worked as a "jour" one year. 

He was married Aug. 5, 1850, in Yorkshire, to 
Ann, daughter of William and Lucy A. (Askam) 
Greaves. The parents of Mrs. Fieldsend were born 
in Yorkshire and were residents there throughout 
their entire lives. Her father died Oct. 23, 1881 


when he was 77 years old. The demise of the 
mother occurred in June, 1851. Mrs. Fieldsend 
was born in Snowdenhill, Yorkshire, June 24, 1826. 
To her and her husband eight children have been 
born, two of whom are deceased. William M., born 
in England, March ii, 1852, married Agnes Platt 
and is a farmer in Dakota; Ben, born Nov. 19, 1853, 
in England, is deceased; Sarah, born Aug. 12, 1855. 
in Wisconsin, is the wife of James Davis, a farmer in 
Plymouth Co., Iowa; Lucy A., born Sept. 6, 1857, in 
Wisconsin, is the wife of Win. West, a farmer in Clyde 
Tp. ; Martha, born Dec. 30, 18*0, also in Wiscon- 
sin, married William Comady, a farmer of Clyde ; 
Isabella was born Aug. 19, 1863, in Wisconsin; 
Mary, March 27, 1866, in Illinois; and Caroline, 
born July n, 1868, also in this State, is deceased. 

Mr. Fieldsend followed his business as a tailor 
four years subsequent to his marriage. In the sum- 
mer of 1854 he removed his family to the United 
States and remained one season in Poughkeepsie, in 
the State of New York. From there they went to 
Dodgeville, Iowa Co., Wis. He passed some time 
working as a tailor and later purchased Government 
land, on which he "farmed" until 1864. In that 
year he settled in Illinois on the tract of land which 
has since constituted his homestead. His farm in- 
cluded 80 acres at the date of purchase, but he has 
made additional purchases until it now comprises 
231 acres of well improved land, under the best kind 
of cultivation. He owns some fine stock and is in- 
terested in its improvement. 

Mr. Fieldsend and his wife were reared in the 
English Church. Politically, he is a decided Dem- 

( artin Ryerson, carpenter and farmer, sec- 
tion 14, Hopkins Township, is a son of 
David and Esther (Burr) Ryerson, who 
were natives respectively of New Jersey 
and New York State. They married and set- 
tled in that State and lived there, where he was 
engaged in farming, till their death. They had a 
family of seven children, namely : Martin, Harriet, 
Lilah, John, Mary, George and Sarah. 

The subject of this sketch was born in New Jersey, 
Sept. 28, 1824. He received a common-school edu- 

cation, and at the age of 16 was apprenticed for four 
years, at ten cents per day, to learn the carpenter's 
trade, which vocation he has followed mostly up to 
the present time. In the spring of 1850 he came to 
Whiteside County and engaged in carpentering, and 
soon afterward bought 80 acres of land on section 
14, on which he has erected fine buildings. He owns 
125 acres of land in Hopkins Township, 120. acres 
of which is tillable. 

He was married in Sterling to Margaret Johnson, 
daughter of Robert and Rebecca (Truax) John- 
son, who were natives respectively of Maryland and 
Pennsylvania. Mrs. R..was born in Pennsylvania. 
Mr. and Mrs. R. are the parents of four children, 
Sarah, Esther, Martin J. and John. John is deceased 
and Esther is now the wife of Pardon Angel and 
resides in Como. 

Mr. Ryerson has been Overseer of Highways. He 
and his wife are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. In politics he is identified with the 
Republican party. 

F enry M. Grinnold, deceased, a pioneer of 
Whiteside County, and in his life-time a 
resident of Fulton, was born in the State of 
New York, Jan. i, 1813, and removed in his 
youth with his parents to Berkshire Co., Mass. 
He learned the shoemaker's trade in the toivn 
of Egremont, of that county, and in 1838 came to 
Whiteside Co., 111., settling near Thompson. 

He was married July 18, 1839, in the township of 
Garden Plain, to Miss Eliza T. Parker, daughter of 
Abel and Eleanor (Howe) Parker. Mrs. Grinnold 
was born in Wells Township, Rutland Co., Vt, 
March 10, 1823. Her people were from Connecti- 
cut, and had moved to Wells about the time of the 
war of 1812-14. Her father carried on milling ex- 
tensively at Wells, and emigrated to Garden Plain, 
this county, in 1836. Mr. G. had a fine farm of 160 
acres at Garden Plain Corners, but he worked at his 
trade more or less, and in 1854 opened a general 
store at Fulton. In 1855 he moved his family to 
the city, where they have continued to reside. He 
continued in business till October, 1858, when he 
was burned out, sustaining a heavy loss. In. the 
spring of 1859, when the Pike's Peak gold fever was 


^_ /-\ l*^*. 




beginning to rage, Mr. Grinnotd became infected 
with it and made a trip to the mountains, hoping 
also to improve his health, which was greatly im- 
paired. He returned in the fall of that year some- 
what encouraged, spent the winter at home, and the 
following spring set out for Pike's Peak again. Dur- 
ing the summer his health failed rapidly, and he 
started- for the home which he was never destined to 
reach, his death occurring on the road Aug. n, 

Mr. and Mrs. Grinnold had eight children : 
Henry, the eldest, was accidentally shot on the cars, 
while traveling in the West, and killed; John died 
aged 1 6 years; Jones and Lydia E. died in infancy; 
Mellie A. is residing with her mother at Fulton ; 
William S. died aged five years; Mary E. died aged 
21 years; and Hattie M., the youngest, resides with 
her mother. 

Mr. Grinnold was a Republican, and while a resi- 
dent of Garden Plain held the offices of Justice of 
the Peace and Town Clerk. 

Mrs. G. and daughters are members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. 

P. Royer, farmer, section 7, Hopkins 
Township, is a son of Christian and Mary 
(Whitmer) Royer, natives of Pennsylvania, 
who still reside in their native State. They 
had a family of 13 children, whose names are 
Jacob W., George A., David and Christian 
(twins), Cyrus E., C. F., Washington, Ellie C., Mary 
E., Alice G., Elam and Ezra (twins) and Ida F. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Franklin 
Co., Pa., June 24, 1856, received his education mostly 
in the common schools and remained at home till the 
spring of 1877, when he came to Whiteside County, 
and for three years worked out by the month, farm- 
ing, and then went to Kansas, where he remained 
one year and then resided alsj a year in Iowa, most 
of the time dealing in stock. He finally returned to 
this county, where he rented a farm of 200 acres on 
section 7, where he now resides. 

He was married in Coleta, Jan. 5, 1882, to Clara, 
daughter of James S. and Hester (Hanawalt) Mc- 
Cauley, who were natives of Virginia and Ohio. 
They came to Whiteside County in the year 1853, 

settling in Hopkins Township, where they have 
since lived. They had a family of eight children, 
namely: Marcellus, Mary C., John W., Alice A., Ida 
R., Clara and Willie ; one died in infancy. Mrs. R. 
was born in Hopkins Township, April 6, 1861. She 
and her husband are the parents of two children, 
Bertha M., born Jan. 22, 1883, and James Chris- 
tian, born April 20, 1885. They are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. In political mat- 
ters, Mr. Royer is identified with the Republican 


homas Mathew has been a resident in the 
township of Hopkins since 1836. In this 
year he is recorded among the pioneer 
settlers of the township to which he came one 
year after the first permanent resident took up 
his abode here. He owns 525 acres of land 
in the township, and 500 acres are under good im- 
provements, and well furnished with excellent and 
necessary buildings. He first purchased 80 acres of 
land, on which he operated two years, and sold it in 
1838, buying 80 acres on the section where he has 
resided since, and which forms the nucleus of his 
present large estate. 

He was born in Scotland, where his parents, 
Thomas and Margaret (Thompson) Mathew, were 
born, lived and died. Their children, seven in num- 
ber, were born in the following order: Andrew, 
Robert, Thomas, Margaret, Euphemia, Elizabeth, Ag- 
nes and Jane. Mr. Mathew's birth occurred July 
15, 1808. He came from Scotland to the United 
States in 1835, and passed his first year on the soil 
of the New World in the State of Vermont, whence 
he came to Illinois. 

He was married Nov. 28, 1862, in Hopkins Town- 
ship, to Margaret, daughter of William and Jeannette 
Mathew, and widow of Reuben Dumire. By her 
first husband she became the mother of four chil- 
dren, Jeannette, Mary C., William T. and Reuben. 
The children born of the second marriage are named 
Thomas and Robert. The mother died Sept. 25, 
1865. Mr. Mathew was a second time married July 
9, 1868, in Hopkins Township, to Anna B. Thomp- 
son. She was born Feb. 28, 1849, ' n Scotland. Jean- 
nie B., William A., Robert A. and Elizabeth G. arc 




the names of the children of which she became the 
mother. Mr. Mat hew is again a widower, his wife 
having died July 7, 1876. 

In his political connection Mr. M. is a Republican, 
and he has held various official positions ; and, be- 
ing a prominent and representative citizen, as well 
?s one of the oldest pioneers of the county, his por- 
trait, on a preceding page, will naturally be expected 
in this connection by the reading public. 

R. Cobb, Secretary and Treasurer of the 
(ASK Sterling Gazette Company and its manag- 
ing editor, was born in Elizabeth City, N. 
C., Oct. 4, 1846. The greater part of his 
life since reaching manhood has been given 
to his newspaper profession. He was for four 
years an officer in the United States Navy. He 
came West in the fall of 1876; taught a country 
school for a year and a half; assumed editorial 
charge of the Fulton (Whiteside Co.) Journal in 
1879; became editor and secretary of the Sterling 
Gazette in 1880; and upon the reorganization of that 
institution in 1882 was made its general business 
manager and editor. 

Although a Southern man and a slave-holder by 
birth, Mr. Cobb's sympathies and "material aid" 
were with and for the Union during the late war. In 
polities he has always been a Republican: His peo- 
ple are among the oldest of the settlers of the " Old 
North State," the old homestead having been in the 
possession of his family for over 200 years. His 
mother and brother yet live in the ancestral home. 
Mr. Cobb married Laura E. John, of Elizabeth City, 
N. C., in 1869. There have been seven children by 
this marriage, three of whom, two daughters and a 
son, are living. 


ames A. Wessel, farmer, section 8, Union 
ji- Grove Tp., bought 40 acres of land on 
^ the same section on which he is now re- 
siding, where he pursued the vocation of farm- 
ing, to which he had been bred in his native 
State. In February, 1876, he sold the land of 
his original purchase, and bought 120 acres on the 

same section (8), where he has since prosecuted his 
agricultural projects. 

Mr. Wessel was born Jan. 31, 1835, in Oswego 
Co., N. Y. His parents, Luke and Nancy (Allen) 
Wessel, were natives of the Empire State and lived 
for some time after their marriage in Oswego County, 
removing thence, in 1842, to Jefferson County in the 
same State, where they both died. They had eight 
children, John, Maria, Belinda, Jane, Mary, Char- 
lotte, James A. and Henry. 

Mr. Wessel was seven years of age when he ac- 
companied his parents to Jefferson Co., N. Y. He 
there received his education and was brought up a 
farmer by his father, removing when he was 30 years 
of age to Whiteside County. His entire farm is un- 
der the plow and compares favorably as to value 
with the farms by which it is surrounded. 

Mr. Wessel is a Republican in political views and 

He was united in marriage to Esther J. Gooden- 
ough, Jan. 8, 1863, in Oswego Co., N. Y. He was 
married the same day of the month, and in the same 
town, county, house and room in which his wife's 
father and mother were married. She was born in 
Jefferson Co., N. Y., Sept. 9, 1845, and is the daugh- 
ter of Willard A. and Nancy J. Goodenough, who 
are now residents of Union Grove Township and 
whose sketch may be found on another page of this 

Mr. and Mrs. Wessel have four children, Frank 
E., Gertie J.. Bessie E. and Myrtle L. 

ichard Alldritt, general farmer, resident 
on section 20, Clyde Township, was born 
Jan. 4, 1819, in Staffordshire, England, 
and is the son of Thomas and Ann Alldritt > 
an account of whose lives may be found in 
the sketch of W. Alldritt in another portion of 
this work. 

He is the fifth son and fifth child of his parents, 
who had 12 children, and he was six years of age 
when they came with their family to America, land- 
ing at the port of Boston. Two years later they 
went to Lowell, Mass., where the father died about 

\ ^^ M&itffi> 



four years later. He was a manufacturer of earthen- 
ware in his native country. Mr. Alldritt lived in 
Massachusetts until 1844, when he came West and 
settled in Clyde Township, where he entered a claim 
of 200 acres of land on which he interested himself 
vigorously in establishing a home. The entire town- 
ship was chiefly in an unsettled condition. He is 
still a resident on the place of which he holds 163 
acres, and chiefly under the plow.. 

He was married Dec. 31, 1848, in Union ville, in 
Whiteside County, to Orrilla, daughter of Elisha and 
Clarissa (VVilber) Bosley. Her parents were born 
respectively in Pennsylvania and Vermont, and after 
their marriage they settled in Trumbull Co., Ohio, 
where her father followed the profession of a mill- 
wright for many years, and where Mrs. Alldritt was 
born in Farmington, April 9, 1828. She was in early 
womanhood when her parents settled in Whiteside 
Co., 111. She became the mother of nine children, 
three of whom are deceased. Emma is the wife of 
Julius Elftman, and resides in Canton, Minnesota. 
Her husband is a preacher in the M. E. Church. 
Albert married Anna Heacock, and is a stock-buyer 
at Friendville, Neb. Alonzo E. is a butcher by 
calling. Henry and Orrilla, and Frank also, live at 
home. The mother died March 21, 1875. Lucy 
died aged six years. Edward died at the age of 18 
months. Mr. Alldritt is a member of the Wesleyan 
Church, his wife belonged to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. He is a Republican in political connection, 
and has been Poor Master and Road Commissioner. 

Imer Perault, farmer, section 28, Union 
Grove Township, was born June 17, 1843, 
in Canada, and his parents, Peter and Betsey 
(Conkling) Perault, were also born in the Do- 
minion. They are still living there. When 
Mr. Perault was 18 years of age, he left Can- 
ada, where he had hitherto passed his life, and went 
to Vermont. He was employed one year in a tan- 
nery and went thence to Massachusetts, where he 
continued until 1866, engaged in the same occupa- 
tion. In the winter of that year he transferred his 
esidence to Whiteside County and bought 141 acres 

of land where he has since been occupied in farming. 
He has added several acres by later purchase, and 
owns 185 acres, constituting a farm which in pro- 
ductive value ranks fairly with surrounding estates. 
In political connections and opinions Mr. Perault 
adopts the principles and issues of the Republican 
party, and he has held the offices of Highway Over- 
seer and School Director. He belongs to the Ma- 
sonic fraternity. 

The marriage of Mr. Perault to Martha R. J. Coe 
occurred Dec. 4, 1867, in Union Grove Township. 
John I. and Rebecca (Moon) Coe, her parents, were 
natives of Ohio. They came to Whiteside County in 
1841 and settled in the township of Union Grove, 
where they both died. Mrs. Perault was born in 
October, 1847, in Erie Co., Ohio. She has been the 
mother of four children, one dying in infancy. Jen- 
nie E., Charles O. and Eva A. are still living. 

i Ilium Mensch, farmer, section 18, Hopkins 
Township, is a son of John and Chribtiun- 
, na (Heinbach) Mensch, who were natives 
(' of Pennsylvania and of German descent, and 
passed their entire lives in that State. They 
had a family of nine children who lived to grow 
up, namely : Sarah, Michael, Eliza, Jesse, Christian, 
Maria, William, Catherine and Abby. 

William, the subject of this sketch, was born in 
Columbia Co., Pa., April 3, 1826. He lived in his 
native State till 1860, where he followed farming, and 
in the spring of that year came to Whiteside County 
and bought 165 acres of land in Hopkins Township, 
on section 18, where he settled and has since lived. 
He is now the owner of 337 acres, most of which is 
well cultivated. He has erected fine buildings on 
his farm, and in many ways enhanced its value. He 
was married in Columbia Co., Pa., about Dec. 26, 
1847, to Anna C. Leiby, who was born in Columbia 
Co., Pa., Jan. 9, 1826. She was a daughter of Jacob 
and Mary (Harmon) Leiby, who were also natives of 
the Keystone State. They had a family of 12 chil- 
dren, namely: Reuben, Mary, David, Rebecca, 
Jacob, Isaac, Samuel, Anna C., John, Emeline, Har- 
riet and Ira Jackson. Mr. and Mrs. M. have had 16 
>tiH-^v>, ^ 

">rv-;4HXDMM.'y"v w 

children, ten surviving: Martin L., William A., Eva, 
John H., Alice, Harriet, Jacob M., Clarence H., 
Laura J. and Ida are living, and Maria, Emeline, 
Lovina, Mary M., Sarah C. and Ellen M. are 

Mr. Mensch has been Overseer of Highways, School 
Director and Highway Commissioner. Mr. and Mrs. 
M. are members of the German Lutheran Church. 
In politics, Mr. Mensch is identified with the Demo- 
cratic party. 

teiram P. Smith, a farmer of Clyde Township j 
resident on section 7, was born in Black 
Creek Township, Luzerne Co., Pa., May 
20, 1834. His parents, Abraham and Cath- 
erine (McMurtrie) Smith, were born in New 
Jersey. Their parents were natives of New 
England and were of Irish extraction. His paternal 
ancestors emigrated to New England previous to the 
days of the Revolution. His father and mother 
were married in Black Creek Township, and they 
lived there all the years of their united lives, attain- 
ing a respected and useful position in society. The 
father was prominent in military affairs and held the 
rank of Major in the militia alxnit 17 years. He 
died Sept. 30, 1876,' aged 79 years. The mother is 
84 years of age and is still resident on the home- 
stead. Five of their nine children are living. 

Mr. Smith is the fifth child in order of birth and 
until he reached his majority lived at home, mean- 
while obtaining such education as was possible at 
that period, and also acquiring a complete knowledge 
of agricultural arts. On obtaining the control and 
direction of his own time he attended Wyoming 
Seminary for some time, and completed an entire 
course of study. He afterwards engaged in teach- 
ing in his native county, passing the alternate sum- 
mer seasons in agricultural labors. He passed six 
years in this manner and meanwhile came West, ar- 
riving in Lee Co., 111., in October, 1858. Nov. 19, 
1861, he was married to Catherine, daughter of John 
and Jane (Flick) Smith. Mrs. Smith is of German 
descent, her grandparents having emigrated from 
Germany to Pennsylvania. Her parents were mar- 
. ried in Columbia Co., Pa., and afterwards located in 

Lycoming County, in that State, whence they came, 
some years later, to Clyde Township and are now 
living on a farm on section 18. Mrs. Smith was born 
in Briar Creek Township, Columbia Co., Pa., Nov. 
19, 1841. She was about two years old when her 
parents went to Lycoming County, where she was 
principally educated. She was 1 7 years of age when 
her father removed to Illinois. The family first lo- 
cated in Ogle County, removing later to Lee County, 
fixing their residence near Dixon. She became a 
teacher and taught school two terms in Lee County 
and was married there. The family circle now in- 
cludes six children, Wellington L., Emma J., Mary 
A., Clement R., Eva M. and Hiram P., Jr. 

Soon after their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Smith set- 
tled in Fair Haven Township, Carroll County, this 
State, whence they removed, two years afterward, 
to Clyde Township. They managed a farm two 
years in the interests of John F. Demmon, after 
which they purchased 80 acres of land on section 7, 
Clyde Township. The property is finely located 
and the homestead no rV contains 1 60 acres of land, 
all under good improvement and well stocked. At 
the time it came into the possession of Mr. Smith it 
was all unbroken prairie. The cattle or. the place 
are valuable grades of Short-Horns. 

Mr. Smith affiliates with the Democratic party and 
has held the minor offices of the township. With 
his wife, he is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 

Joseph W. Bump, farmer, Clyde Township, 
resident on section 27, was born June 16, 
1831, in De Ruyter Township, Madison 
Co., N. Y. His father and mother, Marcus 
and Mary A. (Winegar) Bump, were natives 
respectively of New England and the State of 
New York, and were both of New England origin. 
They were farmers and resided after their marriage 
in Madison County until their death. They were 
both members of the Friends, a society of Quakers. 
The father was about 70 years of age when he died, 
in 1871. The mother died in 1858 and was nearly 
60 years of age. 

Mr. Bump remained at home until he was 18 years 
of age, engaged principally in obtaining his educa- 







tion. In 1849 he went to Cayuga County, in his 
native State, where he entered into an apprenticeship 
with his uncle, Edward Mitchell, to learn the busi- 
ness of a blacksmith. He remained under his 
instructions three years, removing meanwhile to 
Onondaga County in the same State. He pursued 
his trade in his native State until he was 23 years of 

In March, 1855, he came, unaccompanied, to Illi- 
nois and at once purchased 160 acres of land in 
Clyde Township. The broad acres of the prairie 
were still unbroken by the plow and stretched away 
under the summer sun and the wintry snows in 
glorious promise, which the energetic, industrious and 
judicious farmer has brought to realization. He gave 
little attention to his farm for a few years, but began 
to prepare for his future success by working at various 
points at his trade and as a farm laborer. 

He was married Dec. 27, 1865, in Fairview, Mer- 
cer Co., Pa., whither he went to accomplish that 
purpose, to Alvira L. Converse. She was born Aug. 
4, 1836, in Medina Co., Ohio, and is the daughter of 
Winthrop and Laura (Wentworth) Converse. Her 
father was a farmer and was a native of Massachu- 
setts. Her mother was born in Canada. Both par- 
ents were of English descent and of New England 
origin. The former died in Mercer Co., Pa., in 
August, 1868, and was 66 years of age. After that 
event the mother went to liv x e with her son in Iowa, 
and died in September, 1882. She was 81 years of 
age. "Mrs. Bump was five years old when her parents 
went to Mercer Co., Pa., where she was educated. 

The children belonging to the household of Mr. 
and Mrs. Bump were born as follows: Myron C., 
Sept. 2, 1866; Winthrop M., March 26, 1869; Mar- 
cus S., Nov. 1 6, 1873. 

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Bump settled 
on the farm in Clyde Township, which has since 
been the field of their labors and where they have 
reared their children. The improvements include a 
fine residence and good farm buildings, and the 
place is well stocked with a good grade of Durham 
cattle. Mrs. Bump is a member of the Baptist 
Church, of which her father was at one time a minis- 
ter. Mr. Bump is a believer in the tenets of the 
Friends, in which he was brought up. He is a Re- 
publican of vigorous views. 

In August, 1862, he entered the Union army, lay- 

ing aside his peace principles in the cause of his 
country. He enlisted in the 751)1 Regiment of Illi- 
nois Volunteers, enrolling in Company C, under 
Captain Altman, of Morrison. He was with his reg- 
iment in the battle of Perrysville, Ky., Sept. 8, 1862, 
and, six days later, was engagad in a lively skirmish 
with the rebels at a point between Lancaster and 
Danville, Ky. Soon after he contracted camp diar- 
rhea which was attended with typhoid fever, and 
was placed on the sick list at Danville, where he was 
sent to the hospital. He was removed to the hos- 
pital at Lexington, Ky., and received honorable dis- 
charge from thence in the spring of 1863. He 
escaped the risks of the battlefields to encounter 
those of the army hospitals. 

Bwsro W. Terpenning, general farmer, resi- 
itM : f dent at Coleta, Genesee Township, was 
born May 22, 1842, in Cayuga Co., N. Y. 
Peter Terpenning, his father, was born in the 
same State, and was of New England parent- 
age and German descent. He was a farmer 
and married Lydia Anable, also a native of New 
York and of mixed English and French extraction. 
They removed after some years to Lenawee Co., 
Mich., settling in the township of Addison. The 
father died there March 16, 1857, at the age of 46 
years. The mother died in April, 1884, aged 78. 
They were prosperous and became prominent in the 
community where they resided. They had ten chil- 

Mr. Terpenning is the eighth child, and he was 
tow years of age when his parents came to Michigan. 
When he was ten years old he came to Genesee 
Township, and lived with relatives. He obtained a 
good fundamental education and was sent to Mt. 
Carroll Seminary, where he completed a more thor- 
ough course of study. 

He was married Nov. 22, 1865, to Angelina. 
daughter of Ivory and Alzina (White) Colcord. (See 
sketch of W. H. Colcord.) She was born Nov. 22, 
1847, in Genesee Township. Mr. and Mrs. Terpen- 
ning have three children : Frank I. was born Jan. 
i, 1868; Harry E. was born Jan. 24, 1869; Aeolia 
V., Sept. 3, 1871. 

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Terpenning re- 





j -. 

- .. - 


sided five years on a farm, which at that time con- 
tained 40 acres, and in 1876 they settled on the 
Colcord estate, where they were residents until 1883, 
the date of their removal to the village of Coleta, 
where they own 24 acres of land on the south bound- 
ary. Mr. Terpenning is also the owner of 260 acres 
of land in Genesee Township, nearly all under im- 

Mr. Terpenning is Steward in the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, of which his wife is also a member. 
He is a Republican of consistent and honorable 

B. Shirk, of the mercantile firm of 
Shirk Bros., at Morrison, dealers in cloth- 
ing and furnishing goods for gentlemen, 
was born May 23d, 1840, in Clarion Co^ 
Pa. He is a son of Charles and Sarah (Gal- 
braith) Shirk, residents of Morrison, of whom 
an extended sketch, with a record of their several 
children, may be found on another page of this work. 
The father of Mr. Shirk has been and is still an 
extensive land proprietor of Whiteside County, and 
the son was reared on a farm. He lived on a farm 
until the fall of 1878, when, in company with his 
brother William, he came to Morrison and embarked 
in the business in which they have since been en- 
gaged, and have operated with success. 

Mr. Shirk formed a matrimonial Alliance with 
Jennie G. Gates Dec. 20, 1864, at Cooperstown, 
Venango Co., Pa., and they have had three children, 
namely : Elizabeth, George and Mary. 

Mrs. Shirk was born in Clarion Co., Pa., and is the 
daughter of George and Elizabeth Gates. 

i illiam Alldritt is a farmer of prominence 
on section 29, Clyde Township, and was 
born Oct. 6, 1823, in Bradley, Stafford- 
shire, England. His parents, Thomas and 
Ann (Jackson) Alldritt, were natives of the 
/same country and of unmixed English descent, 
and his father was engaged in active business life in 
his own country until 1824, when he left England to 
found a home in the New World. 

Mr. Alldritt is the seventh son and was less than a 
year old when the family emigrated to America. He 
was too young to walk alone, but he learned while 
on ship-board, and made his first trip on fool across 
the cabin of the captain. They made port in Bos- 
ton harbor, and went from that city, after a short 
residence, to Lowell, in the same State. In that 
place Mr. Alldritt grew to a suitable size and age to 
attend school. His father died there in February, 
1831, and when he was 12 years of age his mother 
removed to a farm in the country. The family re- 
mained there until 1845. I' 1 May f tnat y ear the 
mother, with four children, came to Whiteside 
County, whither Richard, an elder son, had come pre- 
vious. They located on a farm which included 180 
acres situated on sections 20, 29 and 33, and bought 
by the mother and her son Richard. 

William Alldritt was an inmate of his mother's 
home until his first marriage, which occurred Jan. 
24, 1855, to Mary C. Griffin. She was .born in 1827 
in Methuen, Mass., and her parents were of New 
England origin. They have been dead some years. 
After their decease she came to the township of 
Clyde with an elder brother, and she was there mar- 
ried to Mr. Alldritt. She died Dec. 25, 1855, sur- 
viving her marriage but about one year. She was a 
lady of prominent Christian character, and was 
highly respected. Mr. Alldritt was a second time 
married March 4, 1860, in Clyde Township, to Julia 
A., daughter of Leonard and Mary (Sparr) Hiner. 
Her parents were born in Pennsylvania of German 
ancestors, and were among the earliest settlers of the 
Keystone State. The daughter was born Jan. 2, 
1841, in Wayne Co., Ohio, whither her parents had 
removed several years before her birth. When she 
was seven years of age her parents went to Mercer 
Co., Ohio, remaining there seven years. The fam- 
ily came to Illinois in 1855 and located in the east 
part of Whiteside County. Later they settled in 
Clyde Township, where the mother died in the fall 
of 1878, aged nearly 71 years. The father is yet 
living. Mr. and Mrs. Alldritt have had six children : 
Charles J., lx>rn May u, 1864; William R., June 4, 
1866; Benjamin F., Aug. 10, 1868; Nathan G., 
July 31, 1870; William was born Feb. 2, 1861, and 
died July 19, 1863; Minnie M. was born Aug. 15, 
1862, and died July 13, 1863. But six days inter- 
vened between their deaths. 

At the date of his second marriage, Mr. Alldritt 



became a resident on the homestead in Clyde-Town- 
ship, which he has since occupied. It contains 145 
acres, all under cultivation, except ten acres, which 
is in timber. The buildings on the place are credit- 
able to its proprietor and a great addition to the 
general appearance. His stock is valuable, and in- 
cludes excellent grades. He is a practical apicul- 
turist, and has about 30 stands of bees in his yard 
on an average. He is a Republican of liberal views, 
and has officiated in various town offices. 

fohn S. Green, dealer in drugs, books and 
stationery, at Morrison, and senior member 
of the firm of J. S. Green & Co., grain, 
lumber and coal merchants at the same place, 
was born Dec. 13, 1831,111 Walton, Delaware 
Co., N. Y., and is the son of Thomas J. and 
Delilah N. (Fitch) Green. His father was a native of 
Vermont, where he was born Feb. 10, 1810. He 
went in early life to Walton, where he was married, 
his wife being a native of that place (born in July, 
1812). In 1842 the family removed to Deposit, in 
the same State, where the demise of both parents 
occurred, that of the mother being in 1870, and 
that of the father in May, 1877. They had eight 
children, of whom six survive. Mr. Green of this 
sketch is the oldest. Sherman K. is a. boot and 
shoe dealer at Kansas City, Mo. Charles H. is a 
salesman with the latter. Elizabeth N. is the wife 
of Lyman M. Fitch, a farmer of Walton, N. Y. 
Emma M. is the wife of Charles H. Bradshaw, of 
Galesburg, 111. Eliza J. is unmarried. 

Mr. Green was about ten years of age when his par- 
ents removed from his native place to Deposit. 
His education was conducted with the judgment 
which characterizes the better classes in the mental 
training of their children, and he was sent for sev- 
eral years to an academy. After completing his 
course of study,' he obtained a position as clerk and 
later as a station agent on the line of the Erie Rail- 
road, in which capacity he operated until he was 
about 25 years of age.' 

In 1857 he went to Kansas City, Mo., where he 
was occupied as a book-keeper, and also became in- 
terested in speculations in real estate, in which he 
was occupied until the war between the North and 
South destroyed all business relations in the latter 
section. In April, 1862, Mr. Green closed his affairs 

in Missouri and came to Morrison. He formed a 
business opening in the drug trade, in which he has 
since been interested, purchasing the stock of Dr. 
VV. L. Coe. His business has been uniformly pros- 
perous and the average value of the stock he carries 
is about $10,000. He employs three assistants and 
occupies the two lower stories and cellar of the 
building of which he is the proprietor. It is con- 
structed of brick and is 21 by 52 feet in size. 

In December, 1883, the business firm of J. S. 
Green & Co. was formed, comprising Mr. Green, 
W. F. Johnson, a commission merchant of Chicago, 
and M. H. Potter, of Morrison. The business trans- 
actions of the house are extensive and include traffic 
in grain, coal, lumber, lime, salt, cement and all 
other building materials.. In the last named com- 
modities (builders' supplies) they hold a monopoly 
at Morrison, no other establishment in the city being 
similarly engaged. Their facilities for the transac- 
tion of their business are complete and consist of an 
elevator, lumber and coal-yard with sheds, lime- 
house and a dry-lumber room 50 by 98 feet in extent, 
the whole occupying an area of about two acres. 
Mr. Green has been actively interested in municipal 
affairs since his location at Morrison and has served 
1 2 years as City Treasurer. He has been Alderman 
two terms and officiated in other minor positions. 

Jan. 5, 1864, Mr. Green formed a matrimonial 
alliance with Nellie A., daughter of Harvey E. and 
Wealthy A. Williams. Their marriage took place at 
Dixon, 111. Mrs. Green was born Oct 31, 1844, in 
Genesee Co , N. Y. Four children have been born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Green as follows: Harvey S., April 
9, 1866; Ivy, July 6, 1869; Olive, June 28, 1877; 
and Florence M., Feb. 18, 1881. 

form Gsell, deceased, was formerly a resi- 
? dent upon section 30, Clyde Township, and 
was born Feb. 21, 1842, in Franklin Co., 
Pa. The full biographical sketch of his par- 
ents may be found in the account of William 
Gsell, which appears elsewhere in this work. 
Mr. Gsell was brought up on his father's farm, 
and was carefully trained in a knowledge of the de- 
tails of agriculture, in which he was engaged all his 
life. He lived at home until he was 21 years of age, 
and, a. few months after reaching that period, he be- 
came a householder. 


His marriage to Elizabeth Elter took place in 
Franklin Co., Pa., Oct. 25, 1863. She is the daugh- 
ter of John and Mary (Huber) Elter. Her father 
was a German by birth and was educated in his na- 
tive laud. He came in young manhood to the 
United States, and his passage across the ocean was 
memorable for its length and hardships. The scarcity 
f food necessitated the use of bread which had be- 
come so moldy from age that clouds of dust would 
fly from it when the pieces were bitten. Mr. Elter 
located in Pennsylvania and married his wife at 
Rocky Springs in the same State. He was a farmer, 
and, after their marriage, the parents of Mrs. Gsell 
always lived in the same place. The mother died 
in 1841, when her daughter was but five years of 
age. The father was a second time married, and 
died of paralysis about 1 86 1, after he had attained 
to a great age. Their family included four daugh- 
ters and two sons. 

The surviving children of Mr. and Mrs. Gsell 
were born as follows: Aaron, May 25, 1865; 
Maria, Jan. 20, 1867; Barbara, July 23, 1868; Sarah, 
June 13, .1870; William John, Oct. 8, 1873. They 
have all been educated with care in the public 
schools. Two children died in infancy. 

After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Gsell lived on 
a farm in Franklin Co., Pa., about two years, when 
they removed to Illinois. They settled on one of the 
best located farms in Clyde Township, which they 
improved in the best possible way until it was greatly 
increased in value by the character of the buildings, 
stock and fixtures. 

Mr. Gsell died Sept. 8, 1880. He was a Republi- 
can and a member of the Mennonite Church. 

Mrs. Gsell retains in her own right 133 acres of the 
original homestead estate, and is its manager. She 
belongs to the Dunkard Church. 

likamuel W. Robinson, senior member of the 
firm of S. W. Robinson & Bro., hardware 
merchants and dealers in agricultural im- 
plements at Morrison, was born Jan. 5, 1835, 
in Zanesville, Ohio. Robert P. Robinson, his 
father, was born in Pennsylvania in 1809, and 
acquired a knowledge of the business of a foundry- 
man and hardware merchant. He married Mary J. 
^Culbertson, who was born in 1812 near the city of 



Zanesville, Ohio, and was raised in Pittsburg, Penn- 
sylvania, and a few years after transferred his fam- 
ily and business interests to Zanesville, where he 
engaged in the sale of hardware, and operated there 
more than 20 years. In 1857 he came to Dixon, 111., 
and passed about four years in the foundry business. 
About 1 86 1 he went to Sterling and established a 
trade in agricultural implements, in which he was 
interested to the time of his death. The mother died 
at Zanesville. Of their seven children only the 
brothers who are conducting a joint business at Mor- 
rison are living. 

Mr. Robinson was placed at school as soon as he 
reached a suitable age, and his education was con- 
ducted with care in the best schools at Zanes- 
ville until he was 1 6 years of age, when he became 
an assistant in his father's hardware business. This 
he has made the vocation of his life, and he has 
pursued it without intermission for 34 years (1885). 
It is probably safe to venture the statement that he 
is the senior hardware merchant in the county of 
Whiteside. Entering his father's store in 1851, he 
continued in the position of salesman and assistant 
six years, and in 1857 came to Morrison and began 
business independently on the site now occupied by 
the Revere House. Almost simultaneously he be- 
gan to make arrangements to establish himself per- 
manently, and in the same year he built the store he 
now occupies. It is constructed of brick, is three 
stories in height above the cellar, and is connected 
with a large warehouse, of brick, located on the rail- 
road. In 1859 he admitted his brother, Frank H., 
to a partnership. (A biographical sketch of the 
latter may be found elsewhere in this volume.) The 
business of the Robinson brothers is extensive, and 
includes all the branches common to establishments 
of similar scope and purpose. Their stcck comprises 
full and complete lines of hardware and agricultural 
implements and machinery. They make a specialty 
of farm machinery of every description. Their busi- 
ness requires the aid of three assistants. 

Mr. Robinson was united in marriage, Dec. 6, 
1859, to Anna Gibbs, and they have had six chil- 
children : William G. was born Sept. 6, 1860, and 
is a clerk in his father's store; Paul, born Jan. 29, 
1862, is engaged in the same capacity ; Mary C. was 
born May 2, 1864; Maud was born May 6, 1870. 
Two children died in infancy. Mrs. Robinson was 





born in 1841, in Steuben Co., N. Y., and is the 
daughter of Alanson and Sophronia Gibbs. She was 
v ? brought up at Lyndon, this county, to which place 
her parents moved from New York when she was 
about six years of age. Her education was com- 
pleted at the seminaries of Mt. Carroll and Rock- 
ford, 111. 



aniel Long, retired farmer, residing at 
Morrison, was born in Somersetshire, Eng- 
land, Sept. 26, 1821. His father was Wil- 
liam Long, a miller and baker by trade ; his 
mother's maiden name was Susanna Follett. 
His father died in June, 1870. The subject 
of this sketch was brought up in his father's busi- 
ness, and was Married in 1848 to Miss Susan Chap- 
man. They had but one child, Frederick D., now 
a resident of England. Mrs. Long died in 185 r, and 
the following spring Mr. Long emigrated to America. 
He spent a few months in Rochester, N. Y., and 
then went to Lyons, Iowa, where he resided one year. 
He next removed to Clinton, where he engaged in the 
butchering business. He was an early settler of 
Clinton and continued in business there six years, 
and then engaged in farming, in Spring Valley, this 

He was married in Mt. Pleasant Township, Dec. 
8, 1854, to Mrs. Elizabeth Church, widow of Edward 
Church and daughter of John and Ann Link. 
Mrs. Long's paternal grandfather was John Link, 
and her paternal grandmother was Penelope Link, 
who was a daughter of Edward Beeks. Her maternal 
grandfather was Joseph Tyler, and her maternal 
grandmother was Mary Kollett. Mrs. Elizabeth 
Long was born in Tarrington, Herefordshire, Eng- 
land, and emigrated to America in 1852. She had 
one child by her former marriage, Alfred A., who 
married Mary Lourcher and resides in Spring Valley, 
Ustick Township, Whiteside County. They have 
three children, Arthur A., Elizabeth A. and Lizzie 
M. Mrs. Long lost her former husband in 1848. 
Mrs. Ann Link died in November, 1870. 

Mr. Long and wife continued to reside on their 
fine farm in Spring Valley till 1883, when they 
moved to Morrison, their present home. Mr. Long 
till owns a well improved farm in Ustick, of 160 

acres, situated on sections 3 and 4. He also has two 
dwelling-houses and five and a half city lots in Mor- 
rison, besides city property in Clinton, Iowa, and a 
quarter-section of farming land in Northern Dakota. 
Mr. and Mrs. Long have had one child, Alice A., 
who died in infancy. Mr. Long is a Democrat, and 
he and his wife are members of the Episcopal Church. 
He has made two visits to his native country since 
coming to America, on one of which his wife accom- 
panied him. During his last visit, his father died, at 
the advanced age of 89 years. 

illiam C. Page, of Sterling, is a hatter by 
trade, but is now retired from active busi- 
ness. He was born in York Co., Maine, 
July 31, 1810, his parents being Samuel 
and Sophia ( Goddard ) Page. He re- 
ceived a common-school education, and at the 
age of 17 years left home and served a four-years 
apprenticeship in learning the hatter's trade. Shortly 
after the expiration of this term, he opened a shop at 
New Market, N. H., where he followed his trade six 
years ; selling out, he removed to Exeter, that State, 
and followed the business four years; went next to 
Kennebec, Maine, purchased a farm and managed 
that for ii years, in connection with following his 
trade; selling out, he went to Haverhill, Mass., 
where he was employed in the manufacture of flannel 
three years ; then he went to North Berwick and in 
company with two others purchased a factory, which 
they ran for three years, manufacturing woolen 
blankets for calico printers ; selling out his interest in 
the latter, in 1857, he came to Sterling and opened a 
lumber-yard, since which time he has been engaged 
in milling and farming. He is succeeding well in his 
business, and is a prominent citizen of the county. 

Politically, he indorses Republican politics, and 
religiously he is a member of the Congregational 

Mr. Page was married in January, 1833, to Miss 
Dorcas Felker, a native of New Hampshire, and they 
have had six children, two only of whom are now liv- 
ing, Harriet N. and Soviah. Mrs. Page died Dec. 
20, 1872, and in 1874 Mr. Page married again, this 
time wedding Jane Stackpole, also a native of the 
old Granite State. She died in August, 1884. 


,rank D. Ramsay, attorney at Morrison, is 
one of the leading lawyers of Whiteside 
County, of which he is a native. Luther 
B. Ramsay, his father, is a pioneer of the 
county, and came here from his native State 
when he was at the threshold of manhood. He 
was born Sept. 19, 1818, and in 1839 came to the 
township of Coloma, as an assistant of Leonard H. 
Woodworth, chief engineer in the construction of the 
canal around the rapids in the river above Rock 
Falls. He spent six months in the work, meanwhile 
securing a claim in territory that is now included in 
the township of Hume. 

In the fall of 1839 he went back to his native 
State, returning in the autumn of the succeeding 
year to take possession of his property in Hume 
Township. He removed thence in 1843 to Prophets- 
town, and has since been a resident of that township. 
He has been prominent in its agricultural develop- 
ment, and is the proprietor of one of the magnificent 
fanns which gives Whiteside County its prestige 
among the agricultural districts of Illinois. The 
farm contains 320 acres and is contiguous to the vil- 
lage of Prophetstown, where Mr. Ramsay is now liv- 
ing in retirement, after a life of unusual activity. He 
spent some years in mercantile business at Prophets- 

Caroline M. (Smith) Ramsay, his wife, was born in 
May, 1827, in Poultney, Rutland Co., Vt. Her par- 
ents, Stephen D. and Tilly (Manly) Smith, settled 
at Prophetstown in 1840, where they are still living. 
Mr. Smith was born in 1798, and is 87 years of age. 
In 1855 he purchased a farm adjoining the village of 
Prophetstown, in which he then resided ; and in 
1871 it was platted and a portion of the village is 
now located thereon. The families of Smith and 
Ramsay are inseparably connected with the history 
of the early days of progress and improvement in 
Whiteside County. 

Mr. Ra nsay is the oldest child of his parents, arid 
he has one sister, Lucy E., who is the wife of George 
B. A lams, editor of the Morrison Herald. Christine 
is the adopted daughter of the senior Ramsay and 
his wife, and lives with them at Prophetstown. 

Mr. Ramsay was born in Prophetstown, Whiteside 
Co., IU. f 'Sept/7, 1846. He obtained his elementary 

education^in his native county and completed his 
course of study at Dixon University. After leaving 
school he engaged as a clerk and also became inter- 
ested in various other avenues of employment until 
1867, when he entered the law office of Frederick 
Sackett at Sterling, to fulfill a long cherished pur- 
pose and obtain a comprehensive knowledge of law 
and familiarity with office routine under competent 
instruction. He had, by previous study and reading 
at odd intervals, obtained a general knowledge of the 
profession he purposed to enter ; and, after a course 
of diligent application under the preceptorship of Mr. 
Sackett, he was admitted, in the spring of 1868, to 
practice in all the State Courts of Illinois. He has 
since been admitted to the privileges of the Federal 

On obtaining his credentials, he came to Morrison 
and opened an office in company with O. F. Wood- 
ruff. After a partnership of a year's duration, they 
severed their business relations. During the con-- 
struction of the branch of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroad through Whiteside County, Mr. 
Ramsay officiated as attorney for the corporation 
and acted in the same capacity for some years sub- 
sequent. His practice has gradually extended and 
is one of the largest in White.side County. 

The rank of Mr. Ramsay in his profession is sucli 
as might be expected of a man of his caliber, pos- 
sessing a disciplined mind, combined with persever- 
ance, energy and unimpeachable integrity. He 
inherits the directness, clear foresight and sturdy 
adherence to purpose which distinctively characterize 
the \ ancestral stock to which he traces his origin. 
The Scotch-Irish, who came from Londonderry to 
escape interference with what they considered their 
religious liberty, have given to this country an ele- 
ment which manifests as little deterioration through 
descending generations as any other which enters 
into our composite nationality. It is noted for inde- 
pendence of character and freedom from ostentation; 
and while its representatives possess a laudable and 
normal ambition to rank fairly with others in the 
world's contest, they covet no place or position which 
involves sacrifice of others. They are champions of 
common rights and arrogate to themselves no privi- 
leges save those which secure their right to lead pure 
and honorable lives of effort and usefulness. Of this 
class Mr. Ramsay is a representative. In his pro- 



fessional relations he holds a degree of confidence 
which is in itself the best possible evidence of the 
quality of his efforts in behalf of his clients. 
He is fitted by nature and training for an effect- 
ive advocate; he is direct in method, imbued with 
an earnest belief in his work, and formulates his 
comprehension of points at issue in language that is 
chiefly noticeable for its pertinence to the case, and 
its entire freedom from effort to produce oratorical 
effect. He is a clear logician and is able to present 
the course of an argument with a perspicuity that is 
far more effective than rhetorical display. Mr. Ram- 
say is still a young man, but has achieved through 
hard work and a persistent determination, a position 
in his profession and in his relations generally, which 
is a safeguard to his future. A determination to do 
well that which is to be done, leaves little possibility 
of retrogression. 

He was united in marriage, Feb. i, 1872, at 
Prophetstown, to Lovisa McKenzie. Their two chil- 
dren were born as follows: Luther R., May i8 ( 
1876; Robert M., Feb. 14, 1879. Mrs. Ramsay 
was born Aug. 7, 1848, in Prophetstown. Her par- 
ents, William R. and Harriet (Martin) McKenzie, 
came to that township in 1837. 

The portrait of Mr. Ramsay appears on a previous 
page. It is copied from a likeness taken in 1885. 

oyal C. Twitchell, farmer, section i, Union 
Grove Township, was born Dec. 8, 1812, 
in New Haven, Addison Co., Vt. His 
parents, Daniel and Lura (Clark) Twitchell, 
were also natives of the Green Mountain State, 
where they remained all their lives. Mr. 
Twitchell is the oldest of their children, ten in 
number. Following are the names of his brothers 
and sisters in the order of their birth : Edith, Lucius, 
Clark, Almeda, Ira, Urial, Francis and Damon. One 
child died in infancy. 

Mr. Twitchell received a common-school educa- 
tion, and at the age of 17 years he began to acquire 
a practical knowledge of the trade of his father, who 
was a mason and also a farmer. He pursued the 
former line of business in hie native State until 1854. 
In December of that year he came to Whiteside 

County, where he joined the army of Western agri- 
culturists, purchasing 86 acres in the township of 
which he has since been a resident, and has labored 
successfully as a farmer. He has made a later pur- 
chase of 40 acres additional, and his homestead now 
contains 126 acres of valuable land, nearly all of 
which is in good agricultural condition. 

He is a Republican in political sentiment and 
sustains the general and local issues of the party. 
He has held the several minor offices of the town- 

The marriage of Mr. Twitchell to Mary Harring- 
ton took place Nov. 2, 1834, at Weybridge, Vt., and 
they have three children, Alzina L., Alice A. and 
Volney M. Mrs. Twitchell was born in New Haven, 
Addison Co., Vt., Feb. 21, 1814. She is the daugh- 
ter of Silas and Betsey (Dickinson) Harrington, and 
had seven brothers and sisters. The children of her 
parents were born as follows: Earl, Sophia, Nelson, 
Noble, Mary, Lovisa, Lewis and Amelia. 

ev. Adelford J. Brown, Pastor of the 
First Baptist Church of Sterling, was born 
in Madison Co., N. Y., Oct. i, 1850. His 
parents were William (a mason by trade) and 
Elizabeth (Belknap) Brown. At the age of 
13 years he was " bound out " to Amos Hera- 
street, a farmer, until of age, with the understanding 
that he should then receive $150 and two suits of 
clothes ; but his behavior was so good that he was 
set free at 18 with this bonus. The reason that he 
was "bound out" was his father's entering the United 
States Army in 1862, when the family was too large 
and dependent to remain together at home. Two of 
the children were accordingly indentured. 

When Mr. Brown left Mr. Hemstreet, he attended 
the Cazenovia (N. Y.) Seminary three years and 
graduated, and then attended the Syracuse (N. Y.) 
University two years. Making a profession of religion 
at the age of 17, he continued his Christian career 
with zeal and began to preach the gospel while a 
student at Syracuse, having his appointment at Col- 
mar, six miles distant. He was Pastor of the Baptist 
Church at the latter place, and while sustaining this 
relation he was blest with a revival, resulting in 104 
conversions. After leaving Colmar he taught scl 






at Upper Lisle, Broome Co., N. Y., and next, by the 
advice of his father-in-law, he purchased a farm in 
Chenango County, and followed agriculture three 
years: then, receiving a call from West Danby, 
Tompkins Co., N. Y., he sold his farm and engaged 
in the ministry as a " supply " at that place. He was 
ordained May 7, 1879, at Scott's Corners, Seneca^Co., 
N. Y., and accepted a call from the Baptist Church 
at that place and was in their service three years. 
Next, he accepted a call from the Baptist Church at 
Sennett, Cayuga Co., N. Y., where he served two 
years; then he served the Church at Dansville, N. 
Y., about two years; and finally, in January, 1885, 
he received and accepted a call from the Sterling 
(111.) Baptist Church, and he removed here and com- 
nienced his pastoral labors on the i5th day of Feb- 
ruary following. His flock numbers 240. An account 
of the Church is given on a subsequent page, under 
the heading of " Sterling." 

Oct. 28, 1873, Mr. Brown married Miss Hattie R. 
Eaton, a native of Willett, Cortland Co., N. Y., and a 
daughter of Peter Eaton, a Methodist clergyman. 
Mr. and Mrs. Brown hive two children, Earl O. 
and Hattie E. 

; ames McCue, general farmer on section 
[^ 32, Hopkins Township, was born Sept. 24, 
1834, in the parish of Balanakiln, County 
Galway, Ireland. He emigrated thence in 
1854, arriving in the United States in Novem- 
ber after he was 20 years old. He worked 
by the month until the spring of 1859, when he 
rented a farm. He continued its management three 
years, after which he bought a farm in Hopkins 
Township, containing 80 acres, where he fixed his 
homestead. He is now the owner of 460 acres in 
the townships of Hopkins and Lyndon, which in- 
cludes about 300 acres under the plow. His place 
is well stocked with an average number of 90 head 
of cattle and 18 horses, and he fattens an annual 
average of 60 hogs. 

His parents, Thomas and Honora (Ternon) Mc- 
Cue, lived and died in Ireland. They had four 
children : William, James, Mary and Ann. 

Mr. McCuc was married at Dixon, Lee Co., 111., by 
Rev. Father Kinady, C. P., March i, 1859, to Mar- 

garet, daughter of James and Ellen (Kirk) Doyle. 
She is one of their nine children : Michael, James, 
Mary, Margaret, John, Patrick, Catherine, Sarah and 
Ellen. Mrs. McCue was born in Ireland, and is the 
mother of six children, named William, James, Mary, 
Thomas, John and Edward. 

Politically, Mr. McCue is a Democrat. He has 
held several official positions in local affairs. The 
family are Catholics. 

ouis Oltmanns, editor of the Sterling Be- 
obachter, was born in Jever, Oldenburg, 
Germany, April 30, 1836, his parents being 
(j Gerhard W. and Anna M. (Luemmen) Olt- 
manns, natives of Germany, who emigrated to 
this country in 1867 and settled in Sterling. 
The subject of this sketch attended private school, 
and college a short time, left his parental home at 
the age of 15 years and engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness for 14 years; then, in 1865, he came to America 
and first was employed by R. B. Witmer at Sterling, 
until Feb. i, 1883, when he assumed his present 
position. In his political views he is a Democrat. 
He is a member of the I. O. O. F., and of the Luth- 
eran Church, to which latter body his wife also belongs. 
Mr. Oltmanns was married in 1868 to Miss Annie 
Lederer, a native of Germany, and they have had 
four children, William, Anna, Louisa and Mary. 

-* H| *- 

ichard S. W. Ely, dealer in real estate at 
Morrison, is a native of Connecticut and 
was born in Mansfield, Oct. 27, 1834, the 
son of the Rev. William and Harriet (Whiting) 
Ely. His parents were born in Connecticut. 
His father was a well known Congregational 
minister of that State. 

Richard was left an orphan in his boyhood, and in 
such limited circumstances that he was obliged to 
depend entirely upon his own efforts for his advance- 
ment in life. His education was received in the 
public schools, and when 21 years of age he sought 
his fortune in the West. He came to Illinois in 
1851, and spent one year at Waukegan as a sales- 
man in a mercantile house. From there he went to 

^M^%ce: K&^s^f/$> 


De Kalb, where he engaged in real-estate business. 
A few years later he went to Columbus, Wis., pursu- 
ing the same business. Thence he went to Cedar 
Falls, Iowa, and thence to Geneva, 111. In 1864 tie 
came to Morrison, where he engaged in the grain 
business. ~ He also bought and sold real estate, and 
by the exercise of good judgment made many good 
investments, and acquired property rapidly. About 
1867 he formed a partnership in real-estate business 
with G. A. Whitcomb, which continued about two 
years. In 1873 he bought out the Morrison Carriage 
Works, and two years later took Mr. Whitcomb in as 
an equal partner. The business was conducted 
under the firm name of Ely & Whitcomb till Novem- 
ber, 1882, when they sold out. The Carriage Works 
employed an average force of 22 men and turned out 
from 250 to 300 carriages annually. Mr. Ely is still 
connected with Mr. Whitcomb in real-estate business, 
their transactions extending through Illinois, Wiscon- 
sin, Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska, besides 
heavy interests in city property in Minneapolis and 
other cities. Their agricultural lands aggregate up- 
ward of 7,000 acres, and are valuable. 

Mr. Ely continues to make his home at Morrison, 
where he has a handsome property. He formerly 
owned and remodeled the magnificent residence now 
the property of O. W. Woodruff. 

He was married at Sycamore, 111., Oct. 5, 1858, to 
Miss Mary E. Crawford, daughter of Charles and 
Frances (Billmeyer) Crawford. Mrs. Ely was born 
in Pennsylvania. They have three children, two 
sons and a daughter: William R., Spencer C. and 
Hattie G. Mr. Ely is a stanch Democrat, while he 
and his estimable wife are consistent members of the 
Presbyterian Church. 

Mr. Ely began the race of life an orphan boy with- 
out means or influential friends, but possessed of 
shrewd business instincts, sound judgment and good 
executive ability, backed by pluck, enterprise and 
unquestioned integrity. With these qualifications, 
success was only a question of time. At this writ- 
ing, having been a resident of Illinois 24 years, he 
has acquired the large property interests previously 
alluded to, and is reckoned among the most successful 
business men of Morrison. The wide range of his 
field of operations and the magnitude of some of his 
successful transactions have demonstrated his ac- 
curate judgment, cool nerve and keen business 

sagacity. Mr. Ely is possessed of many estimable 
qualities, both of heart and mind, while he is no more 
free from faults than many other good citizens. He 
is a frank, candid man, who says what he means and 
stands by what he says, his word being as good as 
his bond. Generous and free-hearted, his frequent 
and liberal aid to those in distress has often led to 
the abuse of his kindness. Notwithstanding such 
experience, his purse opens just as quickly to the 
next seemingly worthy applicant for his bounty. 
Friendship with him is sacred. Once having won his 
regard and confidence, his friends have always found 
him true as steel. Trouble or misfortune on the part 
of a friend, with him only strengthens the tie. It is 
often the case where one is so firm a friend, he will, 
where the occasion justifies it, prove as bitter an 
enemy ; but with the subject of our sketch such is 
not the case. Once having had his quarrel out, he 
harbors no animosity, but seems to forget the entire 

In matters of public interest he has always been 
found liberal and enterprising. There are but few 
citizens of Morrison entitled to more credit for a free 
and generous support of worthy public enterprises 
than Mr. Ely. In his domestic relations he is known 
at his best. His unselfish devotion to his wife and 
children is but another consistent characteristic of 
the man. 

avid B. Denison, one of the proprietors of 
the Economy Mill at Sterling, was born in 
Westmoreland Co., Pa., Jan. 6, 1840. His 
parents, David and Elizabeth (Rhodes) Den- 
ison, were also natives of that State. His father 
$ was a millwright and miller, and followed his 
trade in his native State until 1857, when he moved 
to Princeton, Bureau Co., Ill, and for a short time 
he was employed at farming : since then he has pur- 
sued his chosen vocation as a mechanic and miller. 
The subject of this sketch is the third of a family 
of eight children, in order of birth, received in his 
youth a common-school education and assisted his 
father at farming and also at his trade. At the age 
of 20 he left home and took a farm on shares near 
Princeton. Next he resided in Nelson, Lee Co., 111., 
for a time, following agriculture there for five years ; 



then was a millwright at Dixon, 111., until 1871 ; fol- 
lowed his trade three years in Neosho Co., Kan., 
and in 1874 he came to Sterling, where he continued 
his vocation as a millwright until July, 1884, since 
which time he has had his present position. In 
1882 he purchased a residence on the corner of 
Fifth and Spruce Streets. 

In 1862 Mr. Denison enlisted in the cause of his 
country, joining Co. A, 691)1 Regt. 111. Vol. Inf. (100 
days). His regiment was sent to Vicksburg, Miss., 
where he was mostly on guard duty in charge of 
prisoners. After being in the service six months, he 
was mustered out with his regiment at Chicago, re- 
ceiving an honorable discharge. Politically, Mr. D. 
is a Democrat. He is a member of the Masonic 
Order, of the A. O. U. W. and of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. To the latter, his wife also be- 

His marriage to Miss Clara S. Richardson took 
place July 29, 1873. She was the daughter of 
Joseph T. and Annie (Dorman) Richardson, natives 
respectively of England and New Jersey. Mr. and 
Mrs. D. have had three children ; Roy O., born May 
8, 1874; Grace E., Feb. 5, 1879; and Myrtle C., 
Jan. 5, 1884. 


I infield W. Woodruff, deceased, was for- 
merly a resident of Lyndon Township, 
whither he removed in 1852 from his na- 
tive State, New York. He "was born in 
Livonia, Livingston County, in3the Empire 
State, in 1817. His father, Landon J. Wood- 
ruff, M. D., was a prominent physician and surgeon 
of Western New York, and was desirous that his son 
should fit himself for the same profession, giving him 
a substantial education as preparatory to that pur- 
pose ; but the young man's proclivities led him in 
another direction, and on his marriage he settled 
himself to the pursuit of agriculture in his native 

He was married Jan. i, 1839, to Solemma F. 
Terry, and they became the parents of three sons : 
Orr F., of whom an extended sketch appears else- 
where in this work, is a distinguished lawyer at Mor- 
rison ; William M. is a farmer and stock dealer at 
Kearney, Neb. ; and John J. is an attorney by pro- 
fession and possesses uncommon talent, but is en- 

gaged almost exclusively in the sheep industry at 
Kearney, Neb. They are all worthy citizens, in 
whom their parents felt a just pride. 

The condition of public affairs in the State of New 
York, which existed when Mr. Woodruff found him- 
self qualified to enter upon the duties and privileges 
of citizenship, was such as to develop all the abilities 
with which he was endowed by nature. His boyish 
enthusiasm had been quickened and kept alive by 
the public training days, and he became an active 
member of the State militia. His commission as 
Ensign in the 2151)1 Regt. N. Y. Vol. Inf., is dated 
May 2, 1840, and bears the autograph signature of 
William H. Seward, Governor 'of New York. He 
was a Whig of intense partisan sentiment, and in af- 
ter years was fond of rehearsing the incidents of the 
"good old log-cabin times of 1840." He was stren- 
uously opposed to the slave element. 

He resided in Lyndon Township nine years pre- 
vious to the culmination of the discontent and dis- 
loyalty of the southern portion of the United States, 
watching the succession of ominous events with all 
the interest of a patriotic citizen. He manifested 
the stuff of which he was made and the quality of 
his loyalty, by enlisting when he was 44 years of 
age as a private in the Eighth 111. Vol. Cav., at the 
time of the organization of the regiment in 1861. 
His military career was in conformity with his char- 
acter, and he made an honorable record. After the 
war he resided in Whiteside County until October, 
1875, when he went to Kearney, Nebraska, to re- 
side. He died in November, 1884, from the re-* 
suit of injuries received while attempting to manage 
a powerful sheep. He had nearly accomplished the 
allotted period of three-score and ten years and 
passed to his reward in the enjoyment of the honors 
of a pure, worthy life of uprightness and usefulness. 
His wife survives him. 

\: ev. N. H. G. Fife, for the past 12 years 
Pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Ster- 
ling, was born in the village of Elizabeth, 
Allegheny Co., Pa., Feb. 19, 1840: both his 
parents were natives of the same State. His 
father, Andrew Fife, was a farmer and attained 
the age of 89 years. His mother, nee Sarah Robin- 
son, died at the age of 84 years. 




Rev. Fife received his academic training at El- 
der's Ridge, Indiana Co., Pa., and entered the Junior 
class in Jefferson College in September, 1857, grad- 
uating when 19 years of age. After teaching one 
year at Middletown, Ky., he entered the Western 
Theological Seminary in Allegheny City, Pa., at 
which he graduated in April, 1863. Immediately af- 
terward he was ordained to the work of the ministry 
by the Redstone Presbytery, and installed Pastor of 
the Presbyterian Church of Connellsville, Pa., which 
position he sustained five years. He then took charge 
of the Church at Long Run, in the same Presbytery, 
where he remained until November, 1873, when he 
came to Illinois and entered upon his present pastor- 
ate. (See the latter part of this volume for a sketch 
of the Church.) 

June 9, 1869, Mr. F. married Miss Maty E. Paull, 
of Connellsville, Pa. Three children have been 
born to them, Eliza P., Charles A. and J. Paull. 

Mr. Fife is a Republican in his political views, 
and his long service in such an intelligent com- 
munity as that of Sterling, with the continued ap- 
proval of his Church, is sufficient evidence of his 
ability and faithfulness in the gospel ministry. 

| esley Robinson, a prominent farmer on 

section 12, Clyde Township, was born 
March 20, 1820, in the village of Man- 
chester, Dearborn Co., Ind. Stephen Rob- 
inson, his father, was a native of Maine, and 
was of mixed English and Scotch lineage. He 
was married in the State of his nativity to Mahitabel 
Plumer, also born in the Pine-Tree State. She was 
of English extraction. Some years after their mar- 
liage they removed to Indiana, where the mother 
died, at the place already recorded as the birthplace 
of the son, in the spring of 1842. In 1850 the father 
removed to Illinois and was a member of his son's 
household until his death, about 1857, when he was 
nearly 87 years of age. They had six children, five 
sons and a daughter. 

Mr. Robinson is the second oldest child, and re- 
mained under the authority of his parents until 1843, 
when he removed to Lee Co., Iowa, where he spent 
some years as a general laborer. He then yielded 
to a fancy to try life on the river, and he engaged in 

boating. His route terminated at New Orleans, 
where he has passed several winters after having 
been occupied as a boatman through the summers. 

In the spring of 1844, he came to Whiteside 
County and located near Sterling, where he fixed his 
residence. In April, 1847, he was married to Maria, 
daughter of Martin and Lois (Waite) Montgomery. 
Her father was of Irish extraction and was born in 
Vermont. Her mother was of mixed Welsh and 
French origin and was born in Rhode Island. After 
their marriage they settled in Roxbury, Delaware 
Co., N. Y., and at that place Mrs. Robinson was 
born, Nov. 6, 1818. In 1839 her father moved his 
worldly belongings to Illinois, his family accompany- 
ing him, with the exception of two children. The 
family located near Sterling. 

Three years after their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. 
Robinson removed to Clyde Township, where they 
took up their abode on 241 acres of unbroken prairie, 
situated on sections n, 12, 13 and 14. Nearly all 
the place is under cultivation and it is fairly stocked. 

Frank C. Robinson is the only child of his parents, 
and he was born Sept. 4, 1855. He was married 
March 20, 1878, to Millie E. Barrett. They located 
on his father's farm in Whiteside, where she became 
the mother of a child, who is also deceased. She 
died in Wheaton, 111., in 1881, where she went for 
medical treatment. The son resides on the home- 
stead. Father and son are Republicans in political 

braham Zook, a retired farmer of Clyde 
Township, resides on section 3. He was 
born Dec. 2, 1820, in Lancaster Co., Pa., 
and is the son of Joseph Zook, who was born 
in Chester Co., Pa. In national descent Mr. 
Zook is of Swiss extraction, and records him- 
self as third in generation from three brothers in the 
paternal line who came to America just previous to 
the Revolutionary War. Joseph Zook was a woolen 
manufacturer in Pennsylvania until he was 43 years 
of age, when he turned his attention to farming. He 
died in his native State in July, 1852, aged 65 years. 
Anna (Shuck) Zook, the mother, was born in Lan- 
caster County, and was of mixed Swiss and Ger- 
man origin. Her progenitors were early settlers in 
the United States. She died in 1826, in the county 

where she was born, when her son was but six years 
of age. She had been the mother of six children. 
The father married again after the death of his'wife, 
and the children were'reared at home. 

Mr. Zook was educated in the common schools 
and instructed in the duties of farm labor. Feb. 18, 
1840, he was married in JFranklin Co. Pa., to Ann, 
daughter of John and Susanna (Raiher) Gsell." Both 
the latter were born in Pennsylvania, of German 
descent. They were farmers and died in Franklin 
County. The death of the father transpired May 
10, 1873, when he was 94 years of age. The mother 
died in 1832. They were the parents of 1 1 children. 
The children of Mr. and Mrs. Zook, 10 in number, 
are all yet living, and are all heads of families : 
Catherine is the wife of Jacob Swisher, a farmer in 
Adair Co., Iowa ; Sarah married Jacob Garwick, of 
whom a full sketch appears on another page ; Anna 
is Mrs. Henry Garwick, and lives In the township of 
Clyde ; Mary is the wife of Isaac Trump, a bishop 
in what is designated the River Brethren Church, 
and resides at Polo in Ogle County ; Joseph S. mar- 
ried" Adaline Law, and is a farmer in Adair Co., 
Iowa; Amanda is Mrs. George Hiller and is a resi- 
dent on a farm in Clyde Township : Elizabeth mar- 
ried Jacob Ditch, who is a farmer in Ogle Co., 111. ; 
Abraham married Rosa Bowers and is a resident of 
Clyde Township. 

John R. Zook was born Nov. 27, r857, in the 
township of Newton. When he was 20 years of age 
he began teaching in the public schools of the town- 
ship where he was born, and after spending two 
years in that vocation he went to the college at Val- 
paraiso, Ind., where he passed some time in study. 
Subsequently he engaged in teaching in Ogle County, 
but passed only one term in that avenue of business, 
returning at its expiration to the family homestead, 
of which he has since been the superintendent. He 
has been engaged for some years as a teacher of 
vocal music. 

Dec. 18, 1884, he was united in marriage to Sarah 
A., daughter of Jacob and Priscilla (Holley) George. 
She was born Feb. 22, 1865, in Carroll Co., 111. She 
was -only two years 'of age" when her father and 
mother came to the township of Clyde, where she 
grew to womanhood, was educated in the common 
schools and was married at her father's house. 

Melissa the youngest child of Abraham and Ann 

Zook, married John H. Gayman, a farmer in Fair- 
haven Township, Carroll Co., 111. Mr. and Mrs. 
Zook remained in Franklin Co., Pa., after their mar- 
riage, until 1857. In that year they removed to Illinois 
and resided between two and three years in the 
townships of Garden Plain and Newton. In 1860 
they removed to Clyde Township, where they pur- 
chased 1 60 acres of unbroken prairie. They pro- 
ceeded .with vigorous energy to make the usual 
improvements. Their efforts' resulted in a fine and 
valuable farm, all under cultivation, well stocked 
and supplied with commodious and necessary farm 
buildings. The present manager of the place is 
interested in the improvement of stock and is the 
owner of fine grades of Short-Horn cattle. All the 
members of the family, with one exception, belong to 
the River Brethren Church. The father and sons 
are Republicans of pronounced type. 


Ifred Bayliss, of the firm of Newcomer & 
Bayliss, publishers of the Sterling Standard, 
was born in Bledington, Gloucestershire, 
England, March 22, 1847. He came with his 
parents, John and Frances (Blake) Bayliss, to 
this country in March, 1854. The family re- 
sided two years in Cleveland, Ohio, then moved to 
Hillsdale, Mich. He was educated in public schools 
of Cleveland and Hillsdale and at Hillsdale College ; 
was graduated at the latter institution in 1870. He 
served from October, 1863, to August, 1865, in Co. 
H of the nth Mich. Cav. Was Superintendent of 
Schools at La Grange, Ind., in 1871-3, and in 1872 
was appointed School Examiner for the County. He 
was afterwards chosen County Superintendent of 
Schools, which office he resigned to take charge of 
the Second Ward School in Sterling in 1874, and re- 
mained in charge of that school for ten years. Since 
June, 1884, he has been associated with James W. 
Newcomer in the publication of the Sterling Stand- 
ard, a weekly newspaper, straight Republican. 

Mr. Bayliss was married June 28, 1871, to Clara 
M., daughter of Manasseh and Caroline Kern, of 
Porter, Van Buren Co., Mich. They have two chil- 
dren, Clara Kern, born Nov. 10, 1872, and Zoe, 
born Aug. 14, 1879. 

> ^fl 



Y"V. M H XD* H H V'V^^ 



(fames W. Newcomer, of the firm of New- 
Kf- comer & Bayliss, publishers of the Sterling 
Standard, was born in Centre Co., Pa., 
Nov. 23, 1841 ; came to Illinois {^1846 with 
his parents, and settled near Freeport; learned 
the printer's trade in the Freeport Journal 
office; enlisted in Co. D, 93d 111. Vol. Inf., in 1862, 
and served three years; was wounded at Altoona 
Pass in October, 1864; was commissioned ist Lieu- 
tenant in 1865. 

He published the Lena Star from 1869 to 1878 ; 
was United States Storekeeper at Sterling from 1878 
to 1883. Subsequently he entered the firm of Mack 
& Newcomer, which in June, 1884, became New- 
comer & Bayliss, publishers of the Standard, a 
straight Republican newspaper. 

Mr. Newcomer was married in 1870 to Miss Lola, 
daughter of Z. Stover, then of Lena, now of Repub- 
lic, Kan. They have one daughter, Lulu, born Jan. 
10, 1872. 

Tacob Garwick, a farmer on section 2, Clyde 
Township, is a citizen 'of the United States 
by adoption, and was born Dec. 13, 1834, 
in the province of Alsace, France. (This ter- 
ritory has since been recovered by its original 
owner, Germany, by whom it is still held.) 
Jacob Garwick, senior, his father, was a native of the 
same province and was of German parentage. He 
was a miller by vocation and married Magdalene 
Wolff. She was of mixed French and Swiss ancestry. 
Both her grandsires came to America during the 
progress of the Revolutionary War, under the com- 
mand of General Lafayette, and were among his 
corps of officers. Several other male relatives were 
among the French soldiery who came to assist in the 
Colonial struggle. 

The senior Garwick removed to the United States 
with his wife and children, the family locating on a 
farm in Butler Co., Pa. Mr. Garwick, of this sketch, 
is the oldest of his parents' children, and he left his 
native province in November, 1852," arriving ;in 
Pennsylvania a year before his parents. He made 

a'home for them, and after seeing them comfort- 
ably settled he set out for Illinois, locating, in 1854, 
in Clyde Township, this county. Three years later 
his father's family followed and fixed their residence 
in Fair Haven, Carroll County, locating on a farm. 
The father died in June, 1878, and in May, 1884, 
the mother followed him to the world of the here- 

Mr. Garwick operated as a general laborer after 
coming to Illinois, but while in Pennsylvania had 
followed the calling of a miller, in which he had been 
trained by his father in his native country. He had 
not sufficient money to pay for his breakfast on the 
morning of his arrival in Chicago, but he made his 
way to friends in Du Page County, where he ob- 
tained aid and employment. His life, to the age of 
27 years, was one of continued experience of toil and 
hardship. He spent three months on board the 
ship on his way to America, not knowing a soul on 
the vessel. The entire period was one of storm and 
peril by sea. Food was exhausted and distress sig- 
nals were flown from the masthead three successive 
days before their condition was discovered. They 
anchored near an island belonging to Portugal, in 
the South Sea, and secured supplies sufficient to en- 
able them to proceed on their voyage. After his 
arrival in Whiteside Co., 111., he became a farm 

He was married Feb. 27, 1 86 1, in Clyde Township, 
to Sarah, daughter of Abraham and Anna (Gsell) 
Zook. Her parents were of Swiss and German 
orgin, and were natives of Lancaster Co., Pa. Their 
ancestors settled in America about the date of the 
Colonial struggle for independence. They were farm- 
ers and were married in Franklin Co., Pa., where the 
daughter was born Jan. 19, 1843. She is one of a 
family of eight children and accompanied her par- 
ents when she was 13 years of age to Illinois. They 
located at first in Newton Township. Two years 
later they came to the township of Clyde and located 
on the section which has since been their home. 
Three of nine children born to Mr. and Mrs. Gar- 
wick are deceased. Those who survive are named 
George E., Anna, Sarah, Lizzie, Dora and Katie. 
The son was a student at college and all have received 
careful educational instruction. William H. died at 
the age of 17 years. Abraham and Lena were aged 
respectively five and two years at the time of their 
decease. The parents at first fixed their residence 


on 70 acres of land, and Mr. Garwick expended his 
last dollar to secure his place. (He had but $25.) 
In a few years he was free from debt and is now the 
owner of 300 acres of land, which is all in the best 
agricultural condition. Mr. Garwick is also inter- 
ested in improved cattle, and makes a specialty of 
the Short- Horn breed. His farm is as well stocked as 
any other of similar grade in Clyde Township and 
the farm buildings are of an excellent and creditable 
type. His entire acreage was wholly unbroken at 
the date of purchase. 

He has been for many years a minister in the 
River Brethren Church. In his native country 
he was educated in German and French and acted 
for some time as an assistant teacher in the schools 
where he had been a student. 

euben Davis, physician and farmer, resid- 
ing on section 3, Hahnaman Township, is 
" one of the extensive land-holders and truly 
practical and representative men of Whiteside 
County. The parents of Dr. Davis, William 
and Hannah (Appleton) Davis, were natives 
of Maine, from which State they moved to Ohio, 
where they resided the remainder of their lives. 
They were the parents of 13 children, namely : 
Eliphalet, John A., Mary A., Rhoda, Hannah, Reu- 
ben, Sarah, Francis A., Isaac, William, JanTes E. and 
Joshua C. One died in infancy. 

Reuben Davis, subject of this biographical notice, 
is a native of Ohio, where, in Morgan County, he was 
born Ott. 17, 1819. The country was new in the 
locality of his birth at that date, and his early educa- 
tion was consequently limited. His early years 
were passed on the farm and in working on the 
Ohio and Mississippi Rivers .which vocation he fol- 
lowed, more or less, until the date of his emigrating 
to this State. 

In 1845 Dr. Davis matriculated at the Medical 
College at Cincinnati, Ohio, and followed the entire 
curriculum of that institution, graduating with hon- 
ors in March, 1849. 

Soon after leaving the college, he engaged in the 
practice of his profession in Perry Co., Ohio, and 
followed the same with a flattering degree of success 
until February, 1853. He then came to this county 

and settled in Como, Hopkins Township, where he 
continued to practice medicine over two years, 
when he purchased land in Montmorency Township. 
He moved upon his land and began to cultivate it 
extensively, alternating his labors thereon by the 
practice of his profession. 

In the fall of 1858 Dr. Davis moved into Hahna- 
man Township and settled on section 3, his present 
residence. He determined to make this his perma- 
nent home, and at once entered on the improvement 
of the land, erected good buildings and otherwise 
ornamented and improved his homestead, and at the 
present time he has a home for himself and family 
in which they all take pride, realizing it was procured 
through arduous toil and untiring energy and deter- 
mination. The Doctor has been a very extensive 
land-holder in the county, owning at one time some 
1,400 acres. His landed possessions in the county 
at present comprise some 645 acres, all improved, 
and for his success in life he has none to thank ex- 
cept his own good judgment and energy, coupled 
with the hearty co-operation of his good helpmeets. 

Dr. Davis was united in marriage to Miss Mary 
Ann Geddes in Morgan Co., Ohio, Dec. 17, 1839. She 
was a native of Pennsylvania, in which State she 
was born in March, 1819. The issue of their union 
was five children. Two died in infancy and those 
surviving are Naomi W., Martha J. and Thomas 
H. B. 

The wife and mother died in Morgan Co., Ohio, 
March 28, r848. In the same county Dr. Davis was 
again married. This wedding occurred Oct. 2, 1849, 
and Miss Elizabeth H. Work was the bride. She is 
the daughter of David and Sarah (Ross) Work, na- 
tives of Ohio, and in which State she was born 
May 6, i83r. By the latter union 12 children 
have been born, namely : Francis C., Sarah X., 
Robert L., Thaddeus C., Hannah A., Mary G., W. 
Alice, T. McClellan, Dora S., Reuben H., Jessie L. 
and J. Darwin : ten of these are living. 

Dr. Davis, although not seeking office, has almost 
constantly been honored by the citizens of his town- 
ship with some office. He was Supervisor six years, 
Justice of the Peace 12 years and Assessor and Col- 
lector several years. In fact, he has held almost 
every office in the township, and at this writing is 
performing the functions of the office of Township 
Clerk and School Trustee. Politically, Dr. Davis 



- a supporter of and believer in the principles of the 
) Democratic party and cast his first vote for Martin 
. Van Buren in 1840. 

As a truly representative man of Whiteside County, 
and as one the citizens can but feel pleased to see 
represented among the portraits we give in this work, 
we give that of the subject of this biography. It is 
engraved from a photograph taken in 1884. 

, nines Houseman . is a farmer on section 
14, Ml. Pleasant Township, where he has 
prosecuted his agricultural projects since 
his removal to Whiteside County, in 1856. He 
was born April 7, 1825, in Montgomery Co., 
N. Y. He was reared to the vocation in which 
he is now engaged, and which he pursued in his 
native State. His farm of 160 acres is all under 

His parents, John and Ann (Scribner) Houseman, 
were lx>rn in the State of New York, where they 
reared a family of five children, named George, 
James, William, John and Emmett. The marriage 
of Mr. Houseman to Elizabeth Van Wagner took 
place June 10, 1856, in the township where they 
have since lived. She was born July 19, 1830, in 
Erie Co., N. Y. Gilbert and Lydia (Knox) Van 
Wagner, her parents^ were bom in that state, and 
their children are Edgar, Mary and Elizabeth. Fol- 
lowing are the names of the children of Mr. and Mrs. 
Houseman : Emmett P., Nora, Edgar M., Arthur and 
Emma A. 

Mr. Houseman is an adherent of the Democratic 
party in politics. 


eorge Pittman, farmer, section 3, Hopkins 
Township, is a son of Abraham and Mary 
(Alexander) Pittman, who were natives 
respectively of Virginia and Pennsylvania, and 
came to Whiteside County in the spring of 
I 1864 and settled in Hopkins Township, where 
they lived the remainder of their days. They had a 
family of seven children, viz.: George, James, Esther, 
Catherine, David, Rebecca and Caroline. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Fulton Co., 

*&* & 

Pa., Dec. 14, 1835. He lived in that State till 1864, 
when he came to Whiteside County, where he has 
since lived. He is the owner of 70 acres of land, in 
Hopkins Township, all of which is in a good tillable 
condition, and he has a valuable stone quarry on his 

He was married in Fulton Co., Pa, Feb. 5, 1859, 
to Elizabeth Clevenger, daughter of John and Julia 
A. (Carbol) Clevenger, natives of the Keystone State. 
They had a family of four children, as follows : 
Elizabeth, Ann, John and Catherine. Mrs. Pittman 
was born in Fulton Co., Pa., Aug. 12, 1841. Mr. 
and Mrs. P. are the parents of seven living children, 
namely: Martha E., Sophia J., James H., John H., 
Charles M., Mary M. and Homer. Sophia J. died 
when five years, five months and eleven days old. 

In politics Mr. Pittman is identified with the 
Democratic party. 

illiam H. Maxfleld, farmer, section 24, 
Mount Pleasant Township, was born Oct. 
21, 1841, in Bristol, R. I. Nathaniel and 
Susan (Sherman) Maxfield, his father and 
mother, were born in New England. After 
their marriage they located at Bristol, whence 
they came in 1855 to Whiteside County, settling at 
Como. The mother died in February, 1870, in Hop- 
kins Township. The father lives in the township of 
Mount Pleasant. Their ten children were named 
William H., Frank S., Mary A., Maria W., Georgi- 
anna, Nathaniel, Eva H , Elizabeth, Harriet and 
Winnifred L. 

Mr. Maxfield was 13 years of age when he came 
to Whiteside County, where he has since lived. He 
is now one of the heavy land-holders of Mount 
Pleasant Township, owning 240 acres, which lie 
partly in section 24 of the township, on which his resi- 
dence is located, and on section 1 9 of Hopkins Town- 
ship. The entire area is practically all under tillage. 
Mr. Maxfield deals quite extensively in stock, his 
herds containing 60 head of cattle and nine horses, 
and he raises an annual average of 100 hogs. 

His marriage to Jennie McElrath took place in 
Como, July 4, 1864. Their children were named 
Minnie E., William H., Jr., and Walter I. Mrs. 
Maxfield is of Irish and Scotch origin, her parents, 


John and Jane (Jackson) McElrath, having been 
natives respectively of Ireland and Scotland. They 
became residents of Whiteside County about 1856, 
locating in Mt. Pleasant Township, where they spent 
the remainder of their days. The demise of the 
mother occurred June i, 1872, and that of the fa- 
ther in the month of October following. Margaret, 
Thomas, John, Eliza, Jennie and William W. are 
the names of their children. Mrs. Maxfield was 
bom in Ireland, April 20, 1843, and was about five 
years old when her parents emigrated to the United 

Mr. Maxfield is a Republican in political connec- 
tion and views. He has officiated in several local 

rohn Harpham, dealer in harness and sad- 
fc dlery hardware, Third Street, Sterling, was 
rborn in Madison Co., N. Y., Oct. 27, 1828, 
being the seventh in a family of ten children, 
four sons and six daughters. His parents were 
Septibah and Jane (McAlpine) Harpham, na- 
tives respectively of England and Scotland. The 
senior Harpham \vas a farmer by occupation, and 
died |an. 11, 1840: the widow survived until 1863. 
John was reared on the farm and in the common 
school until 19 years of age, when he left home and 
went to Chenango Forks to learn the harness trade, 
remaining a year and a half. He then engaged in 
the same business for himself at Bridgport, N. Y., for 
one and a half years. Then he sold out and for 
about three years attended the Fulton and Cazenovia 
Seminaries, a portion of this time teaching school. 
Then he married and settled in Fayetteville, Onon- 
daga Co., N. Y., where he followed his trade a year 
and a half. Selling out, he came to Sterling, since 
which time he has been successfully engaged in the 
business stated at the beginning of this sketch, both 
wholesale and retail. In this line he is the leading 
man in Sterling. 

Mr. Harpham is a Republican and a Christian 

gentleman, belonging to the Congregational Church 

at Sterling. He was married May 22, 1853, to 

Nancy Terwilliger, a native of Onondaga Co , N. Y., 

and they have three children, Bertha A., Fanny E. 
and John L. Mrs. H. is also a member of the Con- 
gregational Church. 

ihauncey W. Reynolds, farmer, section 2, 
Mt. Pleasant Township, was born Nov. 12, 
1821, in Sudbury, Vt., and is the son of Allen 
and Lydia (Raymond) Reynolds. They were 
natives of Vermont, were married there, and 
there the mother died. The father died in 
'the State of New York. Their children, three in 
number, were named Raymond A., Oliver L. and 
Chauncey W. 

The youngest child was brought up by his maternal 
grandfather, with whom he lived until he was 22 
years of age. For about five years after, he was oc- 
cupied as a farm assistant, and about 1848 he became 
foreman of a saw-mill and filled 'the position seven 
years. In 1855 he came West to secure a broader 
and more hopeful field of operation, and spent one 
season in a saw-mill at Davenport, Iowa, after which 
he prospected in Iowa, Kansas and Missouri. He 
decided that Whiteside County offered as much in- 
ducement as any other locality, and in October, 1857, 
he made a purchase of a claim which included 1 20 
acres of unbroken prairie, situated in the townships 
of Mt. Pleasant and Clyde. His homestead build- 
ings are in the township first named, and his entire 
amount of land includes 700 acres, which is situated 
in the two townships and is practically all under 
tillage. Mr. Reynolds is identified with and supports 
the principles of the Democratic party. 

He formed a matrimonial union with Althea Dean 
Dec. 24, 1856, in Kane Co., Ill , and they have five 
children, Mary A., Walter D., Raymond A., Lydia 
L. and Chauncey W., Jr. The oldest daughter is the 
wife of Samuel McCune, and lives in Clyde Town- 
ship. Mrs. Reynolds was born July 10, 1833, in 
Putnam Co., N. Y., and is the daughter of S. A. and 
Delilah (Wright) Dean. The parents were natives 
of the same county where the daughter was born. 
They removed thence in 1846 to Kane Co., 111., 
where the father died, in April. 1849. Late in life 
the mother came to Whiteside County and became a 
member of ;he family of her daughter, and died at her 








home Dec. 2, 1882. She had been the mother of 
fp> eight children, Erastus, Altliea, John, Ada, Robert 
R., Lewis, Marion and Smith A. 

eter A. Quackenbush, section 10, Mt. 
Pleasant Township, has been a farmer in 
Whiteside County since 1856. He was 
born June 25, 1828, in Montgomery Co., N. 
Y. His parents, Peter P. and Magdalene 
(Speaker) Quackenbush, were also born in the 
Empire State. Mr. Quackenbush of this sketch had 
one sister, Margaret A., who was his senior in birth. 
In his native State he was principally interested in 
mercantile pursuits, and in February of the year 
named as that in which he removed to Whiteside 
County, he located in the township of Mt. Pleasant. 
His first farm consisted of 75 acres of land, which he 
purchased, and on which he located, putting into 
effective operation the purposes of his change of lo- 
cation and calling.' He has added by subsequent 
purchase, and is now the proprietor of a valuable 
farm of 160 acres of land, which is all under tillage. 
Mr. Quackenbush is identified politically with the 
Republican party. 

He was first married Dec. 12, 1850, in Montgomery 
Co., N. Y., to Harriet Becker. She was born in the 
Empire State and accompanied her husband to Illi- 
nois. She died Aug. 11, 1861, in the township of 
Mt. Pleasant. Mr. Quackenbush was united in 
marriage Jan. g, 1862, to Harriet Drum, at Sterling. 
To them four children have been born, who are 
named Maggif M., Ainsley, Estella and Edward D. 
The mother was born Aug. 21, 1841, in Schoharie 
Co., N. Y. Her parents, John and Margaret (Becker) 
Drum, were born in New York, and they had 1 1 chil- 
dren, named Mary, Julia, Martha, Delevan, George, 
Melissa, Harriet, Lucy, Clarissa, Ellen and Nancy. 

acob Kauffmann, retired farmer and a resi- 
~ dent of Sterling, was born in Lancaster Co., 
Pa., Jan. 26, 1820, and his parents were 
Rudolph and Elizabeth (Summy) Kauffman. 
Leaving home at the age of 15 years, he was a 
farm laborer for 18 months, at $4.50 per month 
for 10 months, and $8 a month the remainder of that 

period. Next, he devoted two and a half years of 
his time to learning the shoemaker's trade, then one 
year as a journeyman, and then opened a shop for 
himself and followed the business for eight years. 
Next, he was engaged in the furnace business for 18 
months, and then he came to Sterling Township, 
where he was a farm laborer for three years. He 
then bought 80 acres in Jordan Township, moved 
upon the place, and in 1855 purchased 40 acres ad- 
joining, and in 1 864 a quarter-section more : this last 
he afterward sold. At one time he owned as much 
as 440 acres. In 1871 he bought a lot in Sterling 
and built a residence upon it, where he now lives. 

Mr. Kauffman is a Republican in his political 
views, and has held local offices of trust. He was 
School Director in Jordan Township for 15 years. 
He is a substantial and worthy citizen. 

His marriage to Miss Anna E. Snyder, a native of 
Pennsylvania, took place Feb. 2, 1840, and they have 
five children living, namely: Tobias, who married 
Hattie Capp and has six children, Minnie, Lincoln, 
Frank, George, .Clarrie and Jessie ; Leander, who 
married Beckie Spivey and has four children, Carrie 
Fred, Florence and Grace ; Jacob, who married Flor- 
ence Robertson and has two children, Benjamin 
and Jesse; and the two other children of the sub- 
ject of this sketch are Adam and Cora. 

Tobias Kauffman, of the above family, enlisted in 
the last war, in 1864, in the cause of the Union, and 
was a member of the 34th Regt. 111. Vol. Inf., under 
Gen. Sherman. He was wounded at the battle of 
Bentonville, was engaged in many skirmishes, and 
served faithfully to the end of that great contest, 
when he was honorably discharged. 

ft liver S. Oakley is a farmer of Mt. Pleasant 
SJfe Township, located on 463 acres of land on 

section 29, which is all under advanced 
cultivation excepting about too acres. Mr. 
Oakley is a native of Sweden, where he was 
born Feb. 7, 1836. His father and mother, 
Swan and Christiana (Jenson) Oakley, lived and 
died in that country. Mr. Oakley was brought up 
by his parents at home, and when he was 18 years 
of age he came to this country. The track of the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railroad was being laid, 

. . * 

; -v^ /, '. 

'\ ^ 


and he was employed as a laborer in the vicinity of 
Round Grove for some time. He next engaged by 
the month at farm labor, in which capacity he oper- 
ated until 1862. He then began to rent farms, and 
devoted his attention to agriculture for about seven 
years, pursuing that method of operation. He went 
to Iowa in 1869, and bought 160 acres of land, which 
he continued to own and operate six years. In the 
spring of 1875, having sold his property in Iowa, 
he returned to Whiteside County, where he obtained 
possession, by purchase, of the fine estate he now 
owns. Since obtaining the privileges of citizenship, 
Mr. Oakley has supported the issues of the Repub- 
lican party. 

Mr. Oakley was united in marriage Jan. 3, 1865, 
to Jennie L. Maxwell. Alice M., Cora A., Ida S., 
Lottie C. and Freddie S. are the names of their 
children. Mrs. Oakley is the oldest of a large 
family of children, and is the daughter of David and 
Barbara (Cassels) Maxwell. Her parents lived and 
died in Scotland, their native land. She was about 
12 years of age when she came to the United States. 
She is a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

j illiam H. Reed is a farmer on section 13, 
Hopkins Township. He was born Dec. 8, 
1831, in Franklin Co., Pa., son of Isaac 
and Ann (Commerer) Reed, and his par- 
ents were also born in the same State, where 
they were residents until 1852. In that year 
they settled in Hopkins Township. In August, 1881, 
they went to Sterling, where they are now resident. 
Their children were born and named as follows : 
Elizabeth C., William H., Mary, Anna M., John C., 
Martin L., George T. and Emma R. 

Mr. Reed is the oldest son, and he received only 
a common-school education. He accompanied his 
parents and their family to Hopkins Township, lo- 
cating near Empire, where he has since resided. He 
owns 41 acres of land, which is under partial im- 

His marriage to Mary J. Hacker took place Oct. 
26, 1856, at Sterling. Her parents, William and 
Elizabeth (Jasper) Hacker, were born in England 
and came to the United States in 1834, settling in 
Ulster Co., N. Y. In 1845 they came to Whiteside 

County, settling in Elkhorn Grove, where they passed 
the remainder of their lives. They had nine chil- 
dren, born in the following order: Richard J., Na- 
thaniel S., Elizabeth G., Annabella V., Eliza B., Jane 
H., Mary J., Edward W. and John T. 

Mrs. Reed was born June 19, 1834, on Prince Ed- 
ward's Island. She is the mother of seven children, 
as follows: Nathaniel J., Charles H., Nettie B., 
Daniel E , Mary E., Ida L. and Lovie D. 

Mr. Reed is a Democrat. He has been somewhat 
active in local official matters. He belongs to the 
I. O. O. F., Lodge No. 174, at Sterling. 

.dward Scotchbrook is a farmer of Mt. 
Pleasant Township, resident on section 
31. He is a citizen of the United States 
by adoption, having been born Dec. 8, 1827, in 
Lincolnshire, England, where he grew to man- 
hood and was engaged in farming until 1851, 
when he emigrated to the United States. He first 
located in Tompkins Co., N. Y. In July, 1852, he 
came to Whiteside County, and in the autumn fol- 
lowing he bought 40 acres of land in Fenton Town- 
ship. He obtained employment as a farm assistant 
in Lyndon Township, where he worked by the 
month until the spring of 1854, when he rented the 
farm known as the Gibbs place, which he managed 
a year. He then bought 100 acres of land in the 
township of Prophetstown, where he was engaged in 
agriculture two years. In 1856 he exchanged his 
property for another farm in the same township, on 
which he was the resident proprietor eight years. In 
1864 he sold the place and bought the Patterson 
farm near the village of Lyndon, which he held eight 
years. In 1872 he sold it and bought 294 acres in 
Mt. Pleasant Township, which is situated on sections 
31 and 32. On this place he established his home- 
stead. The entire acreage is practically under till- 
age, and the proprietor stocks his place on an average 
with 75 head of cattle and eight horses, and he fat- 
lens about 50 hogs annually. 

Politically, Mr. Scotchbrook has been an adherent 
of the Republican party since he became in fact a 
citizen of the United States until the spring of 1884, 
when he joined the ranks of the independents. 

The parents of Mr. Scotchbrook, John and Char- 


* * 

> * 


lotte (Taylor) Scotchbrook, came from Lincolnshire, 
England, to the United States in 1853. They lo- 
cated in Whiteside County, where they both died. 
The date of the decease of the former was in July, 
1872. The latter died May 6, 1882. They had 
three children, Mary A., Edward and Elizabeth. 

Mr. Scotchbrook was married in Lyndon Township, 
March 27, 1854, to Mary A. Pope. Of their union 
five children have been born, Mary E., George P., 
Willard A., John T. and Sadie E. The mother was 
born Dec. 25, 1830, in Lincolnshire, England. Her 
parents, Abraham and Sarah Crampton Pope, were 
natives of the English shire where their daughter 
was born, and whence they emigrated to the United 
States in 1853. They came to Whiteside County 
and located in the township of Lyndon. In 1874 
they made another removal, to the western borders 
of the continent, to Vancouver's Island. The mother 
died there, Dec. n, 1878. Their children were 
named Mary A., Betsey, Thomas, Sarah, Louisa, 
Eliza, Emma and Aaron. 

harles N. Russell, a retired merchant of 
Sterling, was born Feb. 3, 1826, in Green- 
field, Mass. His parents, Charles and Ade- 
line (Nash) Russell, were natives respectively 
of Massachusetts and Vermont and of Eng- 
lish ancestry. 

From the age of 15 to 20 Mr. Russell lived with 
the Rev. A. Harding, of New Salem, Mass.; then 
coming to Como, this county, he worked a year 
on the farm belonging to S. B. Harding; then for 
two winters he taught school in Princeton, Bureau 
Co., 111.; next, he was employed at farm labor until 
the following August, when he went with a survey- 
ing party north of La Crosse, Wis. The next four 
years he was employed as clerk in Holmes & Hap- 
good's store at Como, and four years more he was 
engaged in the grocery business with A. C. Hap- 
good at Como ; then he bought out Mr. Hapgood 
and conducted the business alone for four years, .and 
sold out. Two years subsequently he removed to 
Sterling and purchased a house and lot on Spruce 
St.; subsequently built on the corner of Seventh and 
Spruce streets, which he now occupies as a resi- 

dence. He also owns a farm of 190 acres at Big 
Bend, which he rents. 

Mr. Russell is a Republican in his political prin- 
ciples. He takes special interest in public im- 
provements and institutions for the public welfare. 

He was married Dec. 25, 1851, to Miss Julia T. 
Sampson, a native of Duxbury, Mass. She came 
West in 1836 with her parents, Capt. Henry and 
Nancy (Turner) Sampson, who settled in Como, kept 
a hotel for a time and finally died there. Mr. and 
Mrs. Russell have two children, Annie F. and 
Charles T. 

armon E. Burr, farmer, section 12, Union 
Grove Township, was born Nov. 18, 1818, 
in Winsted, Connecticut. He is the son of 
Solomon and Mary (Ensign) Burr, and they 
were both natives and life-long residents of 
that State. The mother died Oct. 29, 1846 ; 
the death of the father occurred Dec. 19, 1851. 
Following are the names of their ten children : Maria, 
Rufus, Samuel, Mary, Rhoda, Sarah, Willard, Hul- 
dah, Harmon and Charlotte. 

Mr. Burr attended the common schools until he 
was 15 years of age, when he commenced teaching. 
After following that business seven years without 
intermission, he entered Oberlin College (Ohio), 
where he pursued a full course of study and was 
graduated in 1849. He taught during the'vacation 
seasons to obtain means to defray the expense of his 
collegiate course. He resumed teaching for a liveli- 
hood, and resided in Lorain Co., Ohio. In 1850 he 
was elected Sheriff and served a full term of tour 
years. On the expiration of his official life in 1865, 
he came to Illinois and located in Whiteside County. 
Since his removal to Union Grove Township he has 
been engaged in farming and in teaching. In the 
latter calling he is the senior in the county, having 
taught 50 years. He owns 200 acres of land on 
the section where he resides, which is principally in 
a good agricultural condition, and is largely devoted 
to stock purposes. Mr. Burr has 48 head of cattle 
and six horses, and sends to market about 60 swine 

He was married in Columbia, Lorain Co., Ohio, 
May i, 1849, to Ann Squire, and they have 



V"ViHHXrXHH- - y^V ^> 



three children : Harmon E. was bom Jan. 12, 1851 ; 
Charlotte A., born March 13, 1856, died Feb. 27, 
1883: John W., born Aug. 27, 1862, died July 23, 
1870. Mrs. Burr was born March 2, 1825, in Devon- 
shire, England, and is the 'daughter of Thomas and 
Susannah Squire. Her parents were born in Devon- 
shire, England, and in 1834 emigrated with their 
family to the United States. They located in Lorain 
Co., Ohio. The father died there Dec. 14, 1856; 
the mother died in October, 1861. Their children, 
of whom they had ten, lived to maturity. Their 
names were Thomas, John, Jonas, Hannah, William, 
Susan, Elizabeth, Ann,Tamsen and Margaret. 

Mr. Burr is identified politically with the Repub- 
lican party. In the fall of 1884 he was elected 
Supervisor of his township, and is still engaged in the 
discharge of the duties of the position. He and his 
wife are communicants in the Episcopal Church. 

William Bassett, deceased, formerly a 
resident of Fulton, and one of the pioneer 
physicians of Whiteside County, was born 
in Hinsdale, Berkshire Co., Mass., Sept. 20, 
1808, and was a son of Isaac and Mary (Knight) 
Bassett. He received his medical education at 
the Berkshire Medical Institute, of Pittsfield, Mass., 
and graduated in the class of 1834. 

He was married at Granby, Hampshire Co., 
Mass., April 16, 1835, to Miss Louisa A. Ayres, 
daughter of Chester and Lois (Preston) Ayres. Mrs. 
Bassett's people for many generations were natives of 
Massachusetts. Dr. Bassett removed to Bertrand, 
Mich., and began practice in 1836. The following 
year he removed to Sycamore, De Kalb Co., 111., 
where he was in practice till 1842. He then went 
to Iowa, and from Iowa he came to Fulton in 1849. 
He entered upon the duties of his profession at this 
place, where he had an extensive and successful 
practice. He was afflicted with lung trouble and 
was often obliged to decline answering calls on ac^ 
count of failing health. He made his home at Ful- 
ton i ontinuously from 1849 to the time of his death, 
which occurred June 23, 1867, except a few months 
at a time spent in Colorado and in Mt. Morris and 
Union Grove, 111., for his health. 

Dr. and Mrs. Bassett's family consisted of two 

sons and a daughter: William E. married Geneva 
Estabrook and resides in Alabama; Helen S. is the 
wife of B. F. Woodward, of Denver, Col. ; and Lang- 
don, the youngest son, died aged four and a half 

Dr. Bassett was a Republican and one of Fulton's 
most respected citizens. As a physician he was 
skillful in his profession, especially in the diseases 
incident to the early settlement of this country. His 
wife, an estimable lady, survives him and continues 
to reside at Fulton. She is a respected member of 
the Presbyterian Church. 

eander S. Kauffman is a farmer on sec- 
tion 25, Hopkins Township. He is the 
son of Jacob and Ann E. (Snyder) Kauff- 
man, who were born in Pennsylvania, of Ger- 
man descent. In 1850 they removed from the 
Keystone State to Whiteside County, locating 
primarily at Sterling and removing thence to Jordan 
Township. Later on they again settled at Sterling, 
their present place of abode, where they are living 
in retirement. Their seven children were born in 
the order in which they are named: Tobias, Ben- 
jamin F., Leander S., Jacob S., Adam E., Walter N. 
and Cora M. 

Mr. Kauffman was born May 20, 1847, in Lan- 
caster Co., Pa. He was three years of age when his 
parents removed with their family to Whiteside 
County. He secured a common-school education 
and lived at home under the care and authority of 
his parents until he reached his majority. He then 
began teaching and pursued that business five years 
in Whiteside County. At the end of that time he 
entered upon the prosecution of a plan he had pre- 
viously formed and engaged in farming. He bought 
80 acres of land in Jordan Township, which he 
managed five years. He sold his property at the ex- 
piration of that period of time and bought his 
present estate in Hopkins Township. At the date 
of purchase it included no acres, and it now em- 
braces 213 acres, which is practically all under culti- 
vation. Mr. Kauffman is a Republican in political 
preference and relations, and has held several school 
and local township offices. 

He was united in marriage Nov. 9, 1871, in Lee 





Co., 111., with Rebecca, daughter of John and Sarah 
(Robinson) Spivey. The parents were born in Eng- 
land, and the mother died there in 1850. In 1853 
the father emigrated with his family to the United 
States, settling in Ogle Co., 111. The father died 
there April 6, 1863. Mrs. Kauffman had two sisters, 
Hannah and Sarah, both older than herself. She 
was born April 20, 1849, in England. She has been 
the mother of four children, Carrie M., Fred W., 
Hattie F. and Grace L. Mr. and Mrs. Kauffman 
are members of the Christian Church. He belongs 
to the A. O. U. W. 

ohn Phelps, deceased, an early pioneer 
merchant of Fulton and one of her most 
enterprising and respected citizens, was 
born in Greenfield, Franklin Co., Mass., April 
8, 1819. His parents were John and Almeda 
(Newton) Phelps, of English descent. 
When 1 6 years of age John went to Hartford, 
Conn., where he was employed as a clerk in a dry- 
goods store nine years. In 1844 he came to Fulton, 
111., where he formed a partnership with an elder 
brother, Augustine Phelps, under the firm name of 
A. and J. Phelps, dealers in general merchandise. 
The firm continued to do business until the death of 
Mr. Augustine Phelps, after which Mr. John Phelps 
carried on the business alone till 1855, when he sold 
out to Patrick & Hollinshead. He then built the 
stone warehouse on the. levee, and was engaged in 
warehouse business for some years. 

He was married at Fulton, in June, 1848, to Miss 
Ellen Humphries, daughter of C. and Almira Hum- 
phries, and step-daughter of John Baker, the first 
white settler at Fulton. Mrs. Phelps was born at 
Collinsviile, Conn. Mr. and Mrs. Phelps had two 
children, a daughter and son: Hattie N. ,is the 
widow of Robert Robinson; the son, Dwight, mar- 
ried Louise C. Stetler, and is a resident of Iowa. 

In the fall of 1853 Mr. Phelps and Judge James 
McCoy purchased a printing-press and office outfit 
in St. Louis; but as the steamer having the press on 
board was caught in the ice at Rock Island, it was 
not until the following spring that it reached its des- 
nation. The first paper was issued in May, 1854, 

' ' 

and was called the Whiteside Investigator. This 
was the first paper published at Fulton. 

Mr. Phelps took an active part in the early rail- 
road projects, and was chosen a member of the first 
Board of Directors of the Mississippi & Rock River 
Junction Railroad, and aided materially in securing 
the construction of the first railroad to Fulton. He 
was frequently chosen to fill public positions, and 
served as School Director, Assessor, Township 
School Treasurer, Supervisor of the town, Alderman 
of the city and Township Clerk. He was a promi- 
nent Freemason, having taken the highest degree in 
that order, being a member of Fulton City Lodge, 
No. 189, A. F. & A. M., of which he was an officer 
many years. He was also a member and officer of 
Fulton Chapter, No. 108, R. A. M., and of the Dixon 
Commandery and Freeport Consistory. In politics 
he was Republican. 

Mr. Phelps was a man of many noble qualities, 
and remarkable for a keen sense of honor and the 
strictest integrity. His word was considered as 
good as his bond. While among his fellow citizens 
he was known as " Honest John Phelps." 

He lost his wife, an estimable lady, Oct. 10, 1877, 
and for several years prior to his death he was not 
in business, but lived quietly at his old homestead in 
the company of his only daughter, Mrs. Robinson. 
His death occurred Feb. 5, 1884. 

.amuel H. Greenawalt, dealer in grain, 
coal and lumber at Gait and Round Grove, 
was born Jan. 18, 1841, in Franklin Co., 
Pa. His father, Jacob Greenawalt, was born 
in Pennsylvania and there married Mary Diehl, 
I also a native of the same State. Their 12 
children were born in Franklin County, where the 
father died, in 1865. The mother survives. 

Mr. Greenawalt is the seventh child of his parents. 
He received the advantages of the common schools 
of his native county, where he remained during his 
minority, serving meanwhile two years in the shop of 
his father, who was a tailor. On arriving at the age 
of 21 years he came to Illinois. After passing a 
year in Lee County, where tie worked on a farm, he 
came in 1863 to Whiteside County and passed the 
first season as a farm laborer. In the winter of 




1864-5 he engaged as a clerk in a general mercan- 
tile establishment, and afterwards entered the ma- 
chine shop of Gait & Tracy. He continued in their 
employment until the fall of 1866, when he formed 
a partnership with J. K. Caro'lus, the firm style be- 
coming Carolus & Greenawalt. They transacled a 
business in general merchandise at Empire until the 
spring of 1885, when they disposed of their stock, 
in order to devote themselves exclusively to the 
management of the trade in which they are now 
operating, and which they inaugurated in 1881 at 
Gait, their firm style being transposed, and their 
business has since been managed under that of 
Greenawalt & Carolus. They have a branch estab- 
lishment at Round Grove. Mr. Greenawalt is a 
Democrat in political sentiment, and he has been 
Clerk of Hopkins Township four years. He is a 
member of the I. O. O. F., and belongs to the 
English Lutheran Church, with which his wife is also 

He was united in marriage in 1866 at Sterling, 
111., to Melinda, daughter of George and Elizabeth 
(Kuhn) Carolus, and is the sister of the business as- 
sociate of her husband. She was born in April, 
1842, in Franklin Co., Pa., and came in April, 1862, 
to Whiteside County. Ollie M. and Frank H. are 
the names of the two children of Mr. and Mrs. 

i eander Smith, banker at Morrison, is one 

fof the most prominent business men in 
Northern Illinois. He is senior member 
of the banking firm of Smith & Mackay, and 
has been president of the First National Bank at 
Morrison since its organization in 1865. The 
ancestors of Mr. Smith belonged to the old Puritan 
stock that settled in Massachusetts, and his imme- 
diate progenitors located at and near Ipswich, in that 
State. From there, Nathan Smith, his father, traced 
direct lineal descent. The grandparents of Mr. 
Smith settled in Mount Vernon, N. H., where Na- 
than was born in 1777. Nancy Lamson, who became 
his wife, was born in Mount Vernon, in 1^82, and 
they became the parents of two sons .Nathan, Jr., 


and Leander. The former died in Athol, Mass., in 
January, 1879, and left a wife and three children. 

Nathan Smith, senior, was by vocation a manu- 
facturer of woolen cloth, and, after marriage went to 
Templeton, Mass. In 1838 he removed to Royals- 
ton, in the same State, and died there in 1849. His 
wife died at the same place, in 1854. 

Mr. Smith was born Feb. 10, 1819, in Templeton, 
Mass. In addition to the business of a manufacturer 
his father owned and conducted a farm, where his 
family lived and where his sons were brought up. 
Mr. Smith lived on the farm until he was 16 years 
of age, when he was sent to an academy at New 
Ipswich, N. H., where he obtained a substantial ele- 
mentary education. At the age of 17 years he began 
teaching and spent six successive winters in the pur- 
suit of that vocation. Meanwhile he was engaged 
in studious preparation for a professional life, and, as 
opportunity offered, he began to read medicine. He 
matriculated in the Medical Department of Dart- 
mouth College, in Hanover, N. H., from which he 
was graduated with the degree of M. D. in 1842, 
when he was 23 years of age. He entered upon his 
initiatory career as a physician and surgeon at Rich- 
mond, N. H., where he practiced with success for 
about three years. He was not content with the 
scope and acquisitions of his life as a professional 
man, and in order to extend his business relations he 
left Richmond and went to Tioga Co., Pa., when the 
rich lumber resources of that section was being 
opened and which afforded a promising field for trie 
exercise of the abilities and ambitions of Mr. Smith. 
His professional skill was as valuable a resource as 
the energies and financial ability he brought to bear 
upon the situation, and he conducted his business as 
a physician with all the interest and ardor demanded 
by the exigencies of the location. He entered 
heavily into the manufacture and sale of lumber and 
combined therewith a mercantile enterprise of con- 
siderable proportions. His location was at Elkland, 
and he was engaged in the pursuit of his several 
business interests in Tioga County from 1845 to l8 53- 

Meanwhile, the glowing and exciting accounts of 
the golden harvest on the Pacific coast, ripe for the 
reapers, aroused all sections of the New World and 
Mr. Smith joined the "Argonauts," as the earliest im- 
migrants to California were designated. He went in 
March, 1849, to the sunset slope of the Western 

v Continent, to avail himself of the mining resources. 

; At that time the city of Sacramento was a hamlet of 
" tents, and a few unpretentious houses occupied the 
site of the present magnificent city of the Golden 
Gate. The local government was in a state of chaos 
from existing circumstances ; the rapid influx of 
population of a most miscellaneous character, setting 
aside all regulations of law and order; and, in the ab- 
sence of authority, every man was a power unto him- 
self and exercised his assumed prerogatives according 
to his own interpretations of the rights and privileges 

- to himself accruing, by virtue of his, understanding, 
his interests, or his pejudices, or whatever his stand- 
point might be. Mr. Smith engaged in prospecting 
on the North Fork of the American River, and he 
remained in California about a year. He was an 
efficient auxiliary in the administration of measures 
to secure the tranquillity and protection of the people, 
the government being in a formative condition and 
largely dependent on the efficiency of the authorities 
constituted irregularly in the absence of systematized 
municipal regulations. 

He returned to Pennsylvania in 1850, after a year 
of successful operation in the Golden State, and re- 
sumed the duties of his former business connections. 
In 1853 he went to Vinton, Benton Co., Iowa, under 
the same impetus which had led him to Pennsyl- 
vania. He established his practice there and be- 
came speedily and extensively identified with the 
general interests of the place. He acquired the pro- 
prietorship of large tracts of Government land, and 
he platted an addition to the village of Vinton, which 
is still designated by his name. After operating at 
that point a year, he went to Lyons, in Iowa, and 
prosecuted his professional business and other inter- 
ests two years. 

In 1856 he came to Fulton, Whiteside Co., 111., 
where he devoted his attention to the prosecution of 
financial projects and enterprises, and also engaged 
extensively in the manufacture and sale of lumber. 
He prosecuted his interests in that direction at Ful- 
ton ten years, and during that time he secured large 
tracts of Government land in Wisconsin and Min- 
nesota, covered with pine timber, the latter being re- 
moved and the land afterwards sold to settlers for 

Mr. Smith inaugurated the private banking enter- 
prise of Smith, Root & Co., at Fulton, in 1856, in 


which he retained a controlling interest until 1864, 
in which year the financial enterprise under the style 
of L. Smith & Co. was established at Morrison. In 
1865 the latter was converted into the First National 
Bank, with Mr. Smith as President and A. J. Jack- 
son, Cashier. In January, 1885, the bank com- 
menced business under its first extension of franchise, 
its original charter having expired at the end of 20 

In the fall of 1862, while a resident of Fulton, Mr- 
Smith was elected to represent his district in the 
Legislature of Illinois, and in the fall of 1864, he was 
re-elected to the same position. He served on 
Committees on Banks, Corporations and State Insti- 
tutions, and on several others of minor importance. 
Hi performed his duties in the interests of his con- 
stituency in an able and characteristic manner. He 
introduced several important bills, among which was 
that providing for the building of the Rockford, Rock 
Island & St. Louis Railroad, now the property of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy corporation. 

In 1868, Mr. Smith visited California in the pur- 
suit of health and relaxation from business cares, to 
find a wealthy and prosperous commonwealth, fair 
cities thronged with the most cosmopolitan popula- 
tion to be found on the earth, and a general con- 
dition which seemed the result of the operations of 
some superhuman instrumentality. 

In 1876 Mr. Smith became a resident of Morrison, 
ai d in 1878 he founded the private banking house of 
Smith & Mackay, of which he is the senior member, 
and which has been from the outset engaged in the 
transaction of extensive and satisfactory financial 
operations. He has continued his traffic in real 
estate and has devoted much attention to the general 
improvement of land in Whiteside County, where he 
is the proprietor of 2,000 acres of land under excel- 
lent cultivation. He is also the owner of several 
thousand acres of land in Iowa, Nebraska, Wisconsin 
and Minnesota. 

Since becoming a citizen of Whiteside County, he 
has been continuously identified with the local inter- 
ests of Fulton and Morrison. He officiated several 
years as member of the Council in the former place, 
and also served that municipality some years as City 
Treasurer. On the organization of the College of 
Northern' Illinois, at Fulton, he was constituted a 
member of the Board of Trustees, and, with the ex- 
^ r^ ^' 





ception of an interim of one year, he has acted as its 
Treasurer continuously. He has had entire charge 
of its endowment fund. Mr. Smith has been one of 
the Board of Aldermen at Morrison six years. He 
belongs to the Masonic fraternity at Fulton. 

Whatever political faith Mr. Smith possessed on 
arriving at the era of his legal freedom he had im- 
bibed from association chiefly, his ancestors having 
been Democrats of the Jacksonian school, and he 
acted in accordance with his transmitted principles 
until 1848. The crowning and significant events 
that characterized the presidential campaign of that 
year had a weighty influence with Mr. Smith, and he 
had, as by intuition, a comprehensive understanding 
of all that was implied by the term "Free Soil," and 
understood the responsibilities which, coming exi- 
gencies laid upon his manhood. He voted for Martin 
Van Buren as the exponent of his new faith in its 
embryo state. On the organization of the Republican 
party he enlisted earnestly in its ranks, and has ever 
since accorded to its issues his zealous support. 

He is equally sincere in religious sentiment, and 
although he favors the tenets of the Baptist creed, he 
is liberal and tolerant of all denominational bodies 
who base their organization upon the principles of 
Christianity. He gives to all generously without dis- 
tinction of sect, and since the outset of his career of 
prosperity he has been known as the helpful assist- 
ant of all evangelical projects. He was one of the 
largest contributors to the new church edifice built by 
the Presbyterian society at Morrison, in 1884. 

It is conceded that Mr. Smith is at the head of the 
long catalogue of financiers in Whiteside County, 
which presents an array of names of uncommon 
ability and success. Men are born with the Midas 
touch, and every community comprises one or more 
in its category of types of business pre-eminence. 

Mr. Smith was united in marriage Aug. 18, 1843, 
in Richmond, N. H., to Elizabeth Parkhurst. She 
was born in Richmond and was the daughter of Dr. 
John Parkhurst, of that place. She died Jan. 31, 
1851, at Elkland, Pa. Mr. Smith entered into a 
second matrimonial alliance May 2, 1855, with Dolly 
Ann Allen. She was born in Cortland Co., N. Y. 
Mr. and Mrs. Smith have been the parents of six 
children. Elizabeth, second child, is deceased. 
Alice is the oldest. Frank L. is cashier in the bank- 
ing house of Smith & Mackay. Louis W. is his suc- 
-SM&-. - ^-axa.^ ,-s v^ 

cessor in the order of birth. Edward A. is a book- ' 
keeper in the bank. Harry W. is the youngest child. 

The portrait of Mr. Smith is presented on another * 
page. It will be welcomed by his own generation 
through personal motives of appreciation, and those i! 
of the future will cherish it as the likeness of one who 
brought his abilities and resources to bear upon the 
permanent foundation of Whiteside County. 

r'ohn Yager, retired farmer, resident at Ster- 
'* ling, was born in Union Co., Pa., Jan. 30, 
1808, his parents being John and Mary E. 
(Phillip) Yager, farmers, of German ancestry. 
In their family of six children, the subject 
whose name heads this paragraph was the 
second in order of birth. His parents moved to 
Ohio in 1812 and lived there eight years, clearing 
and improving a small farm. This they sold and 
removed to Jackson County, that State, where they 
purchased a farm of 160 acres and then retired, in 
1837. Mr. Y. died Feb. 13, 1856. 

John remained at home until 2 1 years of age, as- 
sisting on the farm and receiving a limited education. 
After leaving home he purchased 80 acres of the 
Government, which he improved and occupied for 
seven years. He then sold out, and in 1836 came 
to Ogle County, this State, and took up a claim that 
had no bounds, as " Uncle Sam " owned all the land 
that was "joining him! " Residing there until 1843, 
he sold out his interest and removed to Genesee 
Township, this county, buying 600 acres, which he 
occupied till 1880, when he moved to his present 
residence in Sterling. He still owns 540 acres of 

In his political views Mr. Yager is a Democrat, 
and both himself and wife are members of the 
Christian Church, of which he has also been a min- 
ister. He was ordained in 1836, and followed 
preaching the gospel, as well as farming, up to 1880. 
At Coleta he built a house of worship, at his own 
expense. He has, accordingly, exhibited a high de- 
gree of philanthropy ; and, being a consistent Chris- 
tian, he has won the respect and maintained the 
highest esteem of the community. 

April 19, 1829, Mr. Yager married Miss Elizabeth 
Ayers, and they had nine children, only two of whom 




v < 



are living, Mary and Harriet. The first named 
married Henry Miller, and they have six children, ' 
William, Oran, John, Bell, Hattie and Samuel. Har- 
riet Yager married Ephraim Brookfield, and has three 
children living, Edwin, Nellie and Helen. Mr. 
Brookfield died in Florida, and his widow afterward 
married Henry Green, and by this marriage had one 
child, Charles by name. For his second wife Mr. 
Yager married Catharine Nance, Dec. 12, 1853, and 
lived with her nine years. 

Nov. 1 6, 1863, Mr. Yager married for his present 
wife, Mrs. M. A. McCray. 

W. Bastian, of the firm of F. K. & A. W. 
Bastian, publishers and proprietors of the 
Fulton Journal, a semi-weekly independent 
paper, was born ' in Geauga Co., Ohio, June 
26, 1846, and is the son of Van S. and Ann E. 
Bastian. He removed to Rochester, N. Y., 
with his parents in 1850, and received his primary 
education in the schools of that city. In 1861 he 
came to Prophetstown, this county, where he was 
engaged in farming and teaching school. He sub- 
sequently removed to Bureau County, this State. 
Being ambitious to acquire a thorough education, 
while his circumstances did not justify the necessary 
expense, he was obliged to earn the money with 
which to pay his way through college. This he did 
in teaching school and working on a farm till he 
succeeded in obtaining three terms at Dover College 
and two at Wheaton, finally receiving a State certifi- 
cate. His attendance at Wheaton occurred after he 
was married. He taught the Yorktown school, or- 
ganized the Tampico school, graded it and served as 
Principal seven years. 

He came to Fulton in August, 1881, and pur- 
chased a half interest in the Journal office, and has 
since devoted his entire attention to conducting that 
business. The history of the paper under the man- 
agement of the Bastian Brothers proves that it is 
ably edited and that the office is conducted on sound 
business principles. 

Mr. A. W. Bastian was married in Yorktown, 111., 
March 4, 1872, to Miss Eva A. Patterson, daughter 
of Orrin and Lucy M. (Chubbuck) Patterson. Mrs. 

Bastian was born in Bureau Co., 111. They have 
one child, Sidney A., born Dec. 13, 1875. 

Mr. Bastian is a Democrat in his political views. 

_dward J. Hempstead, liveryman, Sterling, 
was born in Oswego Co., N. Y., April 28, 
1816, his parents being Col. William and 
Miriam (Hyatt) Hempstead, natives of the Em- 
pire State. His father dying in 1834, he as- 
sisted in support of the family until he was 25 
years of age, when he bought a small farm and cul- 
tivated it six years. He then sold out and entered 
the livery business at Oswego City, which he fol- 
lowed for 14 years. Then he came to Sterling and 
engaged in the same business, in which he is enjoy- 
ing fair success. He is the oldest liveryman in the 

Politically, he is a Democrat in his principles, and 
religiously he is in sympathy with the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. 

He was married Oct. 8, 1846, to Miss Julia King, 
and they have one son, Frederick, born May 21, 

red K. Bastian, senior partner of Bastian 
Bros., publishers and proprietors of the 
Fulton Journal (see history of the paper 
elsewhere in this work), was born in Roches- 
ter, N. Y., Sept. 23, 1856, and is the son of 
Van S. and Ann E. Bastian. He came to 
Illinois with his parents in 1861, and was brought 
up on a farm near Prophetstown, this county. He 
received his primary education in the district school, 
became a student of Princeton (111.) High School 
and of Wheaton (111.) College, and subsequently at- 
tended the Whiteside County Normal School three 
terms. He received a first-grade certificate and 
taught school three years. He was engaged in vari- 
ous employments till October, 1879, when he was 
employed as reporter on the Sterling Gazette. That 
connection continued till April, 1881, when he pur- 
chased the Journal office of the Sterling Gazette 
Company. He changed its politics from Republican 
to Independent-Democratic. Aug. 21, 1881, his 

-N X. 

^^^V-MMxrXMM-:/^ W 


- - 

elder brother, A. W., purchased a half interest in 
the office, and the business has since been conducted 
under the firm name of Bastian Brothers. In Sep- 
tember of that year they changed the paper from an 
eight-column folio to a nine-column folio, weekly, 
patent inside ; and in November following the patent 
business was discontinued and the paper wholly 
printed at home. The paper was issued in that 
form till October 30, 1882, when it was made a 
seven-column semi-weekly, all home print, and pub- 
lished Tuesdays and Fridays. The Journal was 
the official paper of the county during the years 
1883-4-5. The office is supplied with a power press 
and good outfit of material for all sorts of job work. 
Without severing his connection with the Journal, 
Mr. Bastian went to Grand Forks, Dak., in July, 
1882, and engaged as a reporter on the Grand Forks 
Daily and Weekly News. He continued on the 
News staff until November of that year, when he re- 
turned to Fulton and the Journal office. 

Mr. Bastian has served one year as City Marshal 
of Fulton. In politics he is a Democrat. 

He was married at Mendota, 111., Aug. 21, 1884, 
to Miss Nellie J. Barton, daughter of William and 
Maria L. Barton. Mrs. Bastian was born in fcsr 

salience., 111. 

i ashington Loomis, deceased, was formerly 
a farmer on section 34, Hopkins Town- 
ship. He was born Feb. 9, 1827, in the 
State of New York. He settled at Como, in 
Hopkins Township, in 1854, where he was 
resident a little more than two years. He then 
bought 1 60 acres of land on section 34, Hopkins 
Township, and later made a further purchase of 103 
acres. He continued the management of his farm- 
ing interests until the fall of 1867, when he removed 
to Sterling. In the spring of 1868 he went to 
Waverly, Iowa, and engaged in the sale of agricul- 
tural implements, and was occupied in that business 
until his death, which occurred July 30, 1870. 

While a resident of Hopkins Township he was 
prominent in local township official matters and 
acted in the capacity of Supervisor nine years, be- 
sides filling the position of Treasurer and other 
minor offices. 

He was married Nov. 9, 1854, to Marcia G. Bur- 

dick, by whom he had six children, named William 
H., Carlton W., Frank W., Carrie A., Blanche A. and 
Henry E. The three last named are deceased. Mrs. 
Loomis was born Aug. 7, 1831, in the State of New 
York, and is the daughter of Joel C. and Mary 
(Baker) Burdick. The former was a native of Mas- 
sachusetts and the latter was born in New York. 
Their children were Marcia G., William R., Joel C., 
Alexis C. and Clarence A. 

enry May, farmer, section 35, Hopkins 
j Township, has lived in Whiteside County 
since the autumn of 1854, when he came 
hither with his wife and two children ; and, as- 
sociated with his brother, bought 167 acres on 
the section on which his homestead has since 
been established. He is the owner of 70 acres of 
land, chiefly under tillage. He is a Democrat in 
political choice and relations. 

Mr. May was born Oct. 19, 1815, in Massachu- 
setts. He spent his youthful years in obtaining a 
common-school education, and passed the time in- 
tervening between that age and his majority in ac- 
quiring a knowledge of carriage-making and the 
trade of wheelwright. He followed these occupa- 
tions until 1840, when he began running an omnibus 
line between Roxbury and Boston, in which he was 
interested four years. In January, 185 r, he went to 
California, making the route there by way of the isth- 
mus of Panama. He engaged in mining in the 
Golden State, and was occupied in that business 
three years, meeting partial success. He returned 
to Massachusetts in the spring of 1854; and in the 
fall came to Illinois. 

He formed a matrimonial alliance with Martha 
Jane Currier Nov. 27, 1846, in Methuen, Mass. She 
was born Feb. 20, 1822, in that place, and is the 
daughter of John and Harriet (Burr) Currier. Her 
parents lived and died in the State of Massachusetts. 
She is the oldest of their six children, and her broth- 
ers and sisters were named Eunice B., John M., 
Jonathan G., Ada B. and Cynthia E. 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. May have been four 
in number, and they were born in the following order : 
Mary H., Esther E., William A. and Henry C. Es- 



ther died Oct. 14, 1853, when about three years of 
age. Mary married Delos Olds and lives at Como. 
Mr. and Mrs. May are members of the Congrega- 
tional Church. 

Christian Kurkholder, proprietor of the 
general agricultural depot on Spruce 
Street, Sterling, was born Sept. 29, 1848, 
his parents being Elias and Maria (Blair) Burk 
holder, natives of Pennsylvania, who moved 
to Clinton Co., Ohio, in 1857, and to Sterling 
in the fall of 1859. Mr. Burkholder, the senior, fol- 
lowed farming until 1882, since which time he has 
been engaged in the live-stock business. 

Christian, the subject of this notice, attended 
the Rock River Seminary at Mount Morris, 111., 
four terms. Then he started out in business by 
entering the employment of H. S. Street, in the ag- 
ricultural warehouse, and was with him until 1877, 
when he purchased his interest and has since then 
managed the business alone. 

In his political views, Mr. B. is a Republican, is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and is 
a consistent Christian gentleman, being liberal and 

Mr. Burkholder married Miss Mary P. Irvine, the 
daughter of Joseph and Electa S. (Parsons) Irvine, 
of Rockford, Oct. 7, 1869. By this marriage there 
have been six children, Nellie M., Charles J., Lotta 
A., Harry E., Homer S. and Alice M. 


Naniga & Co., dealers in dry goods, gro- 
ceries, boots and shoes, etc. This is a 
new mercantile firm, established at Fulton 
April r, 1885, with a fine general stock valued 
at $3,000. The members comprising the firm 
are Garrett Naniga and Herman Sikkema. 
The senior partner, Garrett Naniga, was born in Ful- 
ton Township, this county, Feb. 18, 1861, and is the 
son of George and Dereke (Felt) Naniga. He was 
reared on a farm, and in 1882 engaged as clerk for 
George DeBey, a general merchant of Fulton, and 
continued with him till April i, 1885, when he formed 
the existing partnership with Mr. Sikkema. He was 

married in Ustick Township, this county, Oct. 15, 
1884, to Miss Helen Sikkema, daughter of Jacob 
Sikkema. Mrs. Naniga was born in Holland and 
came to the United States in 1865. Mr. Naniga's 
parents are also natives of Holland and came to the 
United States in 1855. He is a Republican ; he and 
his wife attend the Presbyterian Church. 

Herman Sikkema, junior partner of the above men- 
tioned firm, is a native of Holland and was born 
June 21, 1858. He is the son of William and Annie 
(Housenga) Sikkema. He emigrated to the United 
States in 1872 and arrived in Fulton, 111., the same 
year. He has been engaged in farming, mill work 
and teaming till April, 1885, when he formed the ex- 
isting partnership with Mr. Naniga. He is Repub- 
lican in politics and attends the Presbyterian Church. 

Messrs. Naniga and Sikkema are energetic young 
business men, who have hosts of friends who will re- 
joice to see them prosper in their newly established 

eremiah K. Carolus, member of the firm ot 
' Greenawalt & Carolus, dealers in grain, coal 
and lumber, at Gait and Round Grove, 
was born in Franklin Co., Pa., July 23, 1844. 
and he is the son of George and Elizabeth 
(Kuhn) Carolus. His father was born in 
Pennsylvania and died there July 15, 1856. In 
1860 the mother came to Whiteside County and has 
since resided at Sterling. Their ten children were 
born in the order in which their names are given, as 
follows : John F., Isaac, Joanna, Margaret, Elizabeth, 
William, Josiah, Melinda, Jeremiah K. and Emanuel. 
In 1860 Mr. Carolus came to Whiteside County, 
where he arrived in April. He engaged as a farm 
laborer at various points and spent three years work- 
ing by the month, after which he operated as a car- 
penter at Sterling about the same length of time. He 
then came to Empire in Hopkins Township, and in 
December, 1866, entered into a business association 
with Samuel H. Greeanwalt, his brother-in law, for the 
purpose of prosecuting mercantile transactions. They 
maintained their establishment at Empire until the 
spring of 1885, when they sold their stock. 

In 1 88 1 they began their operations in coal, grain 
and lumber at Gait, under the firm name of Green- 




' await & Carolus, and in the spring of 1885 they 
started a branch establishment, at Round Grove. 
They are managing their business relations with 
profit to themselves and satisfaction to the public 

Mr. Carolus is a Republican in political connec- 
tion, has been actively interested in school matters 
in his locality, and was elected Town Clerkin the 
spring of 1885. 

His marriage to Mary A., daughter of Joseph and 
and Louisa Lytle, occurred Nov. 28, 1872, in Hop- 
kins Township. Her parents were born in Pennsyl- 
vania and settled about 1857 in Whiteside County. 
Her father died in 1884. Mrs. Carolus is one of six 
children, who were born as follows : Joseph, Lucy, 
Mary A., Harry, Maggie and Lizzie. She was born 
Sept. 23, 1844, in Lancaster Co., Pa., and she is the 
mother of four children George L., Bertie, Herbert 
J. and Edith M. Mr. and Mrs. Carolus are mem- 
bers of the English Lutheran Church, and he is a 
member of the I. O. O. F. 

i ufus E. Dade, dealer in boots and shoes, 
and sewing-machines, Fulton City, estab- 
lished his business Jan. i, 1880. He was 
born in Ogdensburg, St. Lawrence Co., N. Y., 
June 12, 1844. When three years of age he 
went -with his parents to Fulton, N. Y.; six 
years later the family removed to Spring Wells, 
Mich., where Rufus learned the shoemaker's trade. 

On the breaking out of the late war he enlisted, 
Sept. 10, 1861, in Co. F, 5th Mich. Vol. Inf. He 
participated in the siege of Yorktown, Va., from some 
time in April to Mays, 1862; battles of Williams- 
burg, May 5; Fair Oaks, May 31, and June i; 
Chickahominy, June 26 ; Malvern Hill, July i ; 
second Bull Run, Aug. 30; Chantilly, Sept. i; South 
Mountain, Md., Sept. 14; Antietam, Md., Sept. 17; 
Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13 ; Chancellorsville, May 
2, 1863; Gettysburg, Pa., July 2 and 3; Locust 
Grove, Va., Dec. 27 and 30; and the Wilderness, 
May 5, and 6, 1864, where he was wounded. He 
was then in the hospitals at Washington, D. C., and 
York, Pa., and was sent from the last named place to 
Detroit, Mich., where he was mustered out of the ser- 
Oct. 27, 1864, receiving an honorable discharge. 

He re-enlisted June 6, 1866, in the 43d Veteran Re- 
serve Corps, and performed duty as an artificer, with 
the rank of a non-commissioned officer. He was 
stationed at Fort Mackinaw and served till May 26, 

He then came to Fulton, 111., where he was em- 
ployed as foreman by S. B. Boyer, boot and shoe 
manufacturer, until he closed business in 1877. He 
then formed a partnership with Fred Fell in the boot 
and shoe trade, which connection continued two 
years. Jan. i, 1880, he entered upon his present 

He was married at Fulton, 111., Jan. 26, 1871, to 
Miss Elizabeth R. Webb, daughter of E. K. and 
Anna M. Webb. Mrs. Dade was born in Fulton, 111. 
They have four children, two boys and two girls: 
Myrtie E., Laura A., Edwin R. and Bertie A. 

Mr. Dade has usually voted with the Republican 
party, but at present is inclined to be an independent. 

ames Drew, one of the proprietors of the 
(f- Economy Mill, Sterling, was born in the 
Dominion of Canada, Dec. 3, 1832, his par- 
ents being Elisha and Anna (Dart) Drew. His 
father was by trade a carpenter, and in 1852 
came ^to Stephenson County, this State, en- 
gaging in agriculture; but he is at present a resident 
of Lena, having retired from active business. 

James, the eldest in his father's family of nine 
children, remained at home until 21 years of age, 
assisting his father at his trade and on the farm and 
receiving a common-school education. He left Can- 
ada in 1851, came to Stephenson Co., 111., worked at 
the carpenter's trade and assisted his father on his 
farm until of age. Then he went to Lena and 
worked at the carpenter's trade till the fall of 1855, 
when he came to Sterling and followed his vocation 
until, in 1861, he commenced as a miller for a man 
named Ross ; the mill changed proprietors at the 
end of a year, and Mr. Drew continued in his 
capacity as miller several years longer, for the new 
firm. He next entered the employment of J. McKen- 
ney in the Sterling Mills, working for him several 
years, then four years for Church & Patterson. In 
1880 he purchased a third interest in the Economy 
Mill, in company with Dillon & Harris; in 1881, in 
company with Harris, he purchased Mr. Dillon's 





X v- 


^TX-'.HHXDfHH-'X'V ^ 




^ f interest ; and he bought out Mr. Harris in 1883. In 

\ 1884 he sold a half interest to D. R. Denison. They 
bought the building lot and water power, and have 
since conducted the establishment as a merchant 
(&j and custom mill, with acceptability to their patrons. 
Mr. D. owns his fine residence on Pine and Sixth 

In his political views, Mr. Drew is a Republican, 
and in his religious connections a member of the 
Presbyterian Church at Sterling, of which body Mrs. 
Drew is also a member. He is also a member of the 
v Masonic Order. 

June 4, 1856, Mr. Drew was married to Melinda 
Olinghouse, a native of Ohio, and they have had 
three children, namely, Florence E., Laura F. and 
Charles E. 

.arius Gould, furniture dealer in the Far- 
well Block, on Locust Street, Sterling, was 
born March 9, 1824, in Saratoga Co., N. 
Y., and was one year old when his parents, 
Tobias and Dinah (Degroff) Gould (also natives 
of the Empire State), moved to Bradford Co., 
where his father, a farmer, died, in 1831 : his 
mother died in Georgia, in 1875. 

On the death of his father, Mr. Gould went with 
his grandparents to Cayuga Co., N. Y., and remained 
with them until 17 years of age, attending school 
winters. He then went to Tioga County, same State, 
and served a three years' apprenticeship at shoe- 
making. His health failing, he returned to Cayuga 
County and worked at carpentry three years, when 
he came to Genesee, this county, purchased a farm 
of 40 acres, cultivated it and also worked at his 
trade. This farm he sold in 1860, and purchased 
another in the same town, comprising 120 acres. 
Two years afterward he sold this farm also, went to 
Hickory Grove, bought 80 acres and followed farm- 
ing there until 1870, when he sold out and moved to 
Sterling, where for 14 years he followed building by 
contracts, being very successful. Sometimes he had 
as many as ten men in his employ. Jan. i, 1884, he 
purchased the interest of Joshua McKenny in the 
furniture and undertaking business. He has one 
partner, and now the firm of Stakemiller .& Gould 
enjoying a prosperous trade. Mr. Gould owns a 

house and lot on Sixth Street, between Locust and 
B, where he resides. 

Politically, Mr. Gould is a Republican ; religiously, 
a consistent Christian gentlemen, being a member of 
the Baptist Church at Sterling, to which body Mrs. 
G. also belongs. He is also a Freemason. 

Mr. Gould was married to Miss Lucy Ann South- 
ard, of Cayuga Co., N. Y., March 17, 1848. She 
died in 1876, leaving four children, Francis A.> 
William L., Sarah A. and Ida A. Mr. Gould was 
married a second time, Sept. 5, 1877, to Mrs. E. 
S. Phillips, of Sterling, and by this marriage there is 
one daughter, Jessie by name. 

jarlton W. Loomis is a farmer on section 
34, Hopkins Township. He is the son of 
Washington and Marcia G. (Burdick) Loomis, 
of whom a succinct personal narration is given 
on another page. He was born March 24, 
1 86 1, in Hopkins Township. He obtained as 
good a common-school education as the public 
schools afforded, which he attended until he was 16 
years of age. He then went to Valparaiso, Ind., 
where he attended the Normal School six months. 
Later he entered the Iowa Business College at Cedar 
Rapids, where he was graduated in February, 1878. 
He is engaged in farming on the homestead of his 
father, of which he is the owner. In political prefer- 
ence he is a Republican. 

Mr. Loomis was married Feb. 22, i88i,in Sterling, 
to Lydia, daughter of Henry S. and Elizabeth (Eshle- 
man) Williams. Her parents are natives of Lancas- 
ter Co., Pa,, and she is one of seven children, born in 
the following order: Benjamin F., Albert A., Jacob 
E., Lydia, Henry E., Ulysses G. and Minnie E. 
Mrs. Loomis was born March 3, 1864, in Sterling. 
She is the mother of two children, William W. and 
Charles E. 


!' F. Eastman, now connected with the 
Sterling Gazette, was born in Ellisburg, N. 
i/""' Y., Nov. u, 1844, his parents being 
P Charles W. and Cynthia (Fiske) Eastman, ijf 
'^ natives of New England. He graduated at 
Schenectady, and taught school at Maquoketa, 
Iowa, and at different points in this county until 


Utt!VtR,S"> of if 


1872, when he assumed the editorship of the Red 
Oak (Iowa) Express. In a few months, however, he 
returned to Sterling, and was connected with the 
Gazette, as editor and proprietor, for ten years ; then 
was engaged in banking and farming in Dakota for 
two and a half years, and finally, in 1885, he came 
to Sterling again and engaged in the Gazette office. 

In his political views Mr. Eastman is a zealous 
Republican and a prohibitionist. He belongs to 
the Christian Church of Sterling, of which he was 
one of the founders in 1875, and one of the Elders 
and Sunday-school Superintendent before he went 
to Dakota. He is a member also of the Legion of 
Honor, and is an influential citizen of Whiteside 

Mr. Eastman was married July 23, 1872, to Miss 
Frances Adams, of Sterling, who died in 1877. For 
his second wife Mr. E. married Myra Christopher, a 
native of Byron, Ogle Co., 111. They have one child, 
born in the month of October, 1881. 

["ohn Wolfersperger, retired farmer, resid- 
^ ing at Sterling, was born in Lebanon Co., 
Pa., Oct. 14, 1820, his parents being John 
and Margaret E. (Trautman) Wolfersperger, 
natives of the same State. Remaining at home 
until 31 years of age, he came to Jordan Town- 
ship, this county, and bought a saw-mill and 100 
acres of land, where he remained three and a half 
years. In the fall of 1853 he entered 240 acres, in 
the same township; in the following spring he en- 
tered 80 acres more ; and in the fall of 1854 he 
moved upon this tract, aggregating at the time 320 
acres. He resided upon that place until 1883, when 
he went to Kansas and spent a winter there to attend 
the tract of 960 acres of land which he had bought 
in 1873. In 1884 he returned to Sterling and pur- 
chased a residence, which he now occupies. He 
has, since his first purchases of land, bought and 
sold real estate, so that he is now the proprietor of a 
total amount of 720 acres in Jordan Township, and 
i, 600 acres in Prairie Co., Ark. 

In his political principles, Mr. W. is a Democrat. 
He and his family attend the Lutheran Church. 

He was married Oct. 20, 1844, to Lydia A. Kapp, 
a native of the Keystone State, and they now have 

four children living, Henry F., Aaron, Cassie and 
Margaret. Henry F. married Tillie Duefflinger, and 
they live in Kansas, with a family of six children, 
John, Dan, Lydia, Maggie, Maud and Bent. Aaron 
married Anna Hendricks, and they have two chil- 
dren, Lelia and John J. Cassie married William 
Seidel and they reside in Kansas. Margaret mar- 
ried W. W. Davis, and they have one son, John 

.dmund N. Birdsall, farmer, section 8, 
Hopkins Township, is a son of James and 
Lydia (De Garmo) Birdsall, natives of 
New York State, who married and resided 
there till 1845, when they came to Whiteside 
County and settled in Sterling Township. They 
died in fhe city of Sterling, he July n, 1866, and 
she June 27, 1868. They had a family of five chil- 
dren, as follows : Edmund N., Elias D., Henry L., 
Harriet W. and George A. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Dutchess 
Co., N. Y., Feb. 16, 1830, and was 15 years old 
when he came to Whiteside County. He received a 
common-school education and lived at home till he 
was 30 years of age, although he was married some 
years previously. He has been engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits. He is the owner of 154 acres of land 
in Hopkins and Genesee Townships, besides prop- 
erty in the village of Sterling; 140 acres of his land 
is tillable. In 1876 he erected a fine frame house, 
and in 1881 built a fine barn, and his buildings are 
second to none in the county. 

He was first married in Genesee Township, Feb. 
16, 1854, to Clarissa Danes, a native of this State, 
who bore him one child, George D., but he died at 
the age of five months. Mrs. Birdsall died Aug. 
9. t8 55> a d Mr. B. was again married, in Carroll 
Co., 111., Oct. 20, 1860, to Sarah J., daughter of Rob- 
ert L. and Jane (Wilson) Fleming: her parents are 
natives respectively of New York State and Pennsyl- 
vania, and came to Carroll County in 1848, where 
they lived till their deaths. He died January 27, 
1879, and she Sept. 9, 1881. They had a family of 
eight children who lived to grow up, namely : Jas- 
per, Sarah J., Hugh M., Angeline, Margaret, Nancy, 



Bruce and Eveline. Mrs. B. was born in Washing- 
ton Co., Ind., Feb. 22, 1836. Mr. and Mrs. B. are 
the parents of two children, Charles and Pinkie. 
Charles was married Sept 6, 1883, to Ida Baker, 
daughter of George and Mary Baker. They have 
one child, Edmund G. 

In politics Mr. Birdsall is an Anti-monopolist. 

As a gentleman worthy to be classed among the 
representative men of Whiteside County, we place a 
likeness of Mr. Birdsall in the gallery of portraits 
given in this ALBUM. Accompanying his we also 
give that of Mrs. Birdsall. Both these portraits are 
made from photographs recently taken. 

ohn Dyer, retired merchant, Fulton, was 
g born in Jefferson Co., N. Y., March 6, 1824, 
the son of John and Eunice (Hurd) Dyer. 
He was educated in the public schools of his 
native county and learned the shoemaker's 
trade in the city of Watertown. In May, 1842, 
he went to Lockport, Niagara County, where he was 
first employed as journeyman and subsequently as 
foreman in a large boot and shoe making establish- 

He was married in Lockport, March 12, 1843, to 
Miss Sarah A. Webb. The ceremony was performed 
by the Rev. Elon Galusha, son of ex-Gov. Galusha, 
of Vermont. Mrs. Dyer was born in the town of 
Perry, Geauga Co., Ohio, and is the daughter of Lea- 
mon and Eunice (Anderson) Webb, and is a cousin 
of the well-known Baptist minister and college presi- 
dent, Galusha Anderson, of Chicago. 

In April, 1856, Mr. Dyer went to Wisconsin, and 
a few months later to Clinton, Iowa. He spent one 
year in Clinton and came to Fulton, Oct. 7, 1857, 
opening at once in the boot and shoe trade, which 
he continued till 1861, when he closed. 

On the breaking out of the late war he enlisted, in 
September, 1861 ; was commissioned Second Lieu- 
tenant of Co. F, 52d 111. Vol. Inf., and was mustered 
into the service in November following. He con- 
tinued in active service till March, 1862, when he 
was compelled to resign on account of physical dis- 
ability caused by exposure in the field. In August, 
following the President's call of July, 1862, for addi- 
tional troops, he assisted in recruiting Co. F of the 

93d 111. Vol. Inf., of which he was commissioned 
First Lieutenant. The regiment went into active 
service early that fall, under Sherman's command. 
The following spring Lieutenant Dyer was again 
prostrated by a serious illness, and was obliged to 
resign, in April, 1863, on account of physical dis- 
ability brought on in the service. His health im- 
proved slowly, and he was unable to resume business 
till the beginning of 1864, when he again engaged in 
his former business at Fulton. He continued in trade 
till 1873, when he sold out and retired from business. 

Mr. Dyer has held various public positions of 
honor and trust since a resident of Fulton. He has 
served as Alderman one term, Collector of the town- 
ship in 1860, Supervisor five years, three of which 
were in succession. He was elected Police Justice 
and Justice of the Peace. He has held the latter 
office 12 years, and has just been re-elected this 
spring (1885). He has also been Township School 
Trustee six years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Dyer are members of the Baptist 
Church of Fulton. Mr. Dyer was a Free-Soil Demo- 
crat in Van Buren's time, and on the organization of 
the Republicans he joined that party, and has voted 
that ticket continuously since, excepting the cam- 
paign of 1872, when he voted for Greeley. 

Mr. Dyer's family was represented in Illinois in a 
very early day, his brother, the Rev. Sidney Dyer, 
Ph. D., a popular Baptist minister, now of Philadel- 
phia, having explored the territory as early as 1832. 

|j oswell Champion, Justice of the Peace, 
Sterling, was born in Lyme, New London 
Co , Conn., May 26, 1827, his parents be- 
ing John and Sophia (Lay) Champion, natives 
of Connecticut and of the old Puritan stock. 
When he was nine years old his mother moved 
with the family to Herkimer Co., N. Y., where they 
lived until their death, that of his mother occurring 
in 1875, and that of his father in October, 1884. 

He lived at the parental home until 2 1 years of 
age, having the usual experiences of farm and school 
life (of the common district school, with the excep- 
tion of one term at the Institute in Clinton, Oneida 
County, being a teacher the last two years of the above 
period.) Next he was employed four years in a mer- 


cantile house at Albion, Mich. In 1855 he came to 
Sterling, continuing in the mercantile business, and 
soon purchased a grocery house, which he conducted 
a short time. Selling out the latter, he then engaged 
as book-keeper for the firm of Gait & Brother, then 
in the same capacity for the firm of Patterson, Witmer 
& Co., and continued for some time with Mr. Wit- 
mer after the old firm was dissolved. His health 
failing, he accepted an agency for the ^Etna Fire 
Insurance Company of Hartford, Conn., and subse- 
quently for other fire insurance companies, in which 
business he still continues. In 1869 he was elected 
Justice of the Peace, and has held the office ever since. 
In 1873 he accepted a position as cashier in one of 
the banks at Sterling, which he fulfilled for three 
years. In the same year he was appointed School 
Treasurer, and he still holds the office. He is a Re- 
publican in his political views, and as to religious 
views he favors the Swedenborgian explanation of 
the Word, believing it to be the most reasonable. 
He is a member of the Presbyterian Church, as is 
also his wife. 

In December, 1869, Mr. Champion married Agnes 
Wallace, a native of Pennsylvania, who came to 
Sterling with her parents, Hugh and Mary (Gait) 
Wallace. Mr. Wallace was a lawyer here for many 
years, retired from the profession and devoted his 
attention to his real estate until his death, in August, 
1864. Since the spring of 1879 the interests of his 
estate have been in the charge of Mr. Champion. 

Y. Jackson, farmer, section 25, Union 
Grove Township, is a prominent citizen of 
Whiteside County, where he has been a 
land-holder since 1856. His parents, Aaron 
C. and Charity A. (Young) Jackson, were na- 
tives of New Jersey, and were married and 
settled in Ohio. They came thence about 1837, and 
purchased a claim in the township of Mt. Pleasant, 
which had been located in the year previous. The. 
senior Jackson was an able and influential man, and 
was active in promoting the general welfare of the 
community. The township of Mt. Pleasant, which 
was organized in 1852, received its name from him. 
The farm on which he settled was situated near the 
city of Morrison, and included 160 acres of land, 


with 40 acres of timber. His local public life com- 
prised his operations as president of a society of 
settlers to prevent claim-jumping, as Justice of the 
Peace, and as Supervisor. In 1842 he was elected 
Representative on the Whig ticket, and served two 
years in the Legislature of Illinois. In 1847 he was 
chosen a member of the Constitutional Convention. 
He officiated as Postmaster at Morrison during the 
administration of President Lincoln. His wife died 
Sept. 5, 1855. His demise occurred June 10, 1879. 
Their children were n in number, and were born as 
follows: Daniel B., Flavius J., Susan L., John Y., 
Tryphena, Elizabeth, Silas, Phebe, Amanda and 
Lafayette ; one child died in infancy. 

Mr. Jackson was born September 14, 1829, in 
Knox Co., Ohio, where his father was a pioneer. He 
was about eight years of age when he accompanied 
his parents to Illinois, and he passed the years of 
his minority in attendance at the district school and 
in farm labor. On reaching his majority he engaged 
in efforts in his own interest, working out by the 
month one year on a farm. In 1852 he went to 
California, making his way there overland, with the 
purpose of operating as a miner. He spent four 
years in that vocation, with reasonable success, 
although he was unable to work during the first 
; winter. 

He returned to Whiteside County in 1856, and 
purchased 120 acres of land on section 25, Union 
Grove Township. The prairie sod was still lying 
under the skies as it had lain through the centuries 
of the past, and was first broken by Mr. Jackson, by 
whom the farm has been put in first-class agricul- 
tural condition. It is now all under the plow, and 
five acres of timber belong to the estate. It has 
been supplied with an excellent class of buildings. 

He was united in marriage to Cordelia Huntley, 
Dec. 17, 1857, at Morrison. She was born in Ogden, 
Monroe Co., N. Y., Feb. it, 1830, and is the daugh- 
ter of Erastus L. and Phebe (Eldridge) Huntley. 
Her parents were natives of New England, were 
married and settled in the State of New York, 
whence they removed to Michigan, where her father 
died. Her motherwas born Jan. 15, 1803, in Sharon, 
N. Y. After the death of her husband she returned 
to the home and associations of her earlier years in 
the Empire State, where her life terminated, at War- 
saw, Aug. 29, 1849. Her father, Seth Eldridge, was 



'IT V-. M H Z> M M ;j/V^ 


- .. - 



born Oct. 2, 1773, and died May 20, 1865, in Yates, 
Monroe Co., N. Y. March u, 1826, she married 
Erastus Little Huntley, who was born Dec. 21, 1797, 
and died Nov. 14, 1848, in Hartland, Livingston Co., 
Mich. They had nine children. Following are their 
names in the order of their birth : Rebecca E., Hen- 
rietta S., Cordelia, Phebe A., John E., Erastus L., 
Edwin, Seth E. and Robert A. 

Mr. and Mrs. Jackson have no children. In 1869 
they adopted Lillie M. Weaver, who was born May 
28, 1864, in Mt. Pleasant Township. 

Mr. Jackson is identified with the Republican 
party in political relations, and he has officiated 
through a long series of years in local positions of 
trust. He acted in the capacity of Magistrate nine 
years, as Commissioner eight years, and seven years 
as Assessor. He and his wife are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

eslie Williams, druggist, established his 
present business at Fulton in August, 1872. 
He is a native of Boston, Mass., was born 
Feb. 17, 1848, and is the son of George and 

Catharine (Ravis) Williams, of Welsh descent. 

He was adopted by John L. Thompson, with 
whom he went to Burlington, Iowa, in April, 1856. 
He came to Fulton the following June, and was ed- 
ucated in the public schools of this city. When 15 
years of age he began business as a clerk with his 
half-brother, H. J. Ravis, dealer in general merchan- 
dise, and remained with him till 1867. He spent 
the next two years as a salesman in a hardware store 
at Fulton. In 1869 he bought out a stock of fancy 
goods, books and stationery, and started in business 
for himself. He was doing well until a fire occurred, 
Jan. 2, 1872, that swept away his entire stock, by 
which he suffered a loss of $1,500, and on which he 
only realized by insurance $500. In 1872 he opened 
in the drug business. He has conducted this es- 
tablishment about 13 years with marked success, 
and now has a large, tasteful and well stocked store 
in his line. His stock averages in value about 
$5,000, and includes everything usually found in a 
first-class drug store. 

He was married at Fulton, Nov. 22, 1872, to Miss 

Anna Gerrish, daughter of B. S. Gerrish. Mrs. 
Williams was born in Portsmouth, N. H. 

Mr. Williams has held various offices of local im- 
portance, and is the present Township Clerk and 
Township School Treasurer. He has held the for- 
mer office six years and the latter eight. He has 
always taken a warm interest in politics, is an earn- 
est Democrat, and in 1880 was a Delegate to the 
Illinois State Democratic Convention. 

He was made a Freemason immediately after be- 
coming of age, and is a member of Fulton City 
Lodge, No. 189. He is also a member of Fulton 
Chapter, No. 108, R. A. M. 

With his characteristic earnestness, Mr. Williams 
applied himself to acquiring a knowledge of Masonry, 
and is recognized as one of the most efficient mem- 
bers of the order. He is a man of good executive 
ability, quick perception and sound judgment, sup- 
ported by a habit of earnest application to the mat- 
ter in hand, which assures a prompt and correct 
discharge of public and private duties that may de- 
volve upon him. 

ra Heath, farmer, section 30, Hopkins 
Township, has been identified with the ag- 
ricultural development of Whiteside County 
since 1846. He passed the first year of his 
residence within its limits in the township of 
Mt. Pleasant, and in 1847 bought 53 acres, 
which is now a part of his homestead estate, which 
includes 100 acres, nine-tenths being in tillage. In 
political conviction and connections he is a Repub- 
lican ; has officiated as School Director in his dis- 
trict about 30 years, and has held other offices. 

Mr. Heath was born May 22, 1818, in Berkshire 
Co., Mass. His father, William Heath, was also a 
native of the Bay State, and married Olive Brown. 
After their marriage they located in Berkshire 
County, where they became the parents of 12 chil- 
dren, Alvin, Samantha, Caroline, Laura, Ransom, 
Thetis, Lucian R., William, Ira, Russell B., Philena 
and Heman. Their father died March i, 1853, and 
their mother survived until Dec. 14, 1859. 

Mr. Heath spent the years of his childhood and 
earlier youth in obtaining a common-school educa- 
tion, and at 19 years of age began to work as a farm 


- .. - 


laborer, which vocation he pursued until he was 22 
years old, when he built a saw-mill. He conducted 
its affairs three years, after which he sold it and 
again engaged in farming in his native State until 
the year in which lie moved to Whiteside County as 
stated (1846). 

He formed a matrimonial alliance in Berkshire 
Co., Mass., May 21, 1840, with Mary A. Harmon. 
She was born in that county Feb. 22, 1822, and is 
the daughter of Walter and Azubah (Hyde) Har- 
mon. Both her parents were born in Massachusetts 
and were residents there until 1848, when they set- 
tled in Hopkins Township, and there passed the re- 
maining years of their lives. The father died Aug. 
30, 1865; the mother survived until Nov. 27, 1875. 
Their children were five in number, Porter J., Mary 
A., George W., Truman. W. and William M. Mr. 
and Mrs. Heath have had five children, but only 
one survives, Henry D. George W., Samantha C., 
Rosella A. and Frank W. are deceased. 

i; obert B. Johnson, farmer, section 9, Hop- 
kins Township, is a son of Aaron and Sally 
* (Law) Johnson, natives of Pennsylvania, 
who removed to Ohio, where they lived till 
their death. They had a family of nine chil- 
dren, as follows : Rachel, Mary A., Robert R., 
Margaret, Ephraim, Rebecca, Thomas, Aaron and 

The subject of this sketch was born in Washington 
Co., Pa., June 16, 1819, and was 17 years old when 
his father removed to Ohio ; he continued to live at 
home till 24 years of age. He engaged in farming in 
Ohio till the fall of 1854, when he came to Whiteside 
County and lived in Jordan Township about nine 
months, and since then has lived in Hopkins Town- 
ship. In 1856 he settled on section 9, where he 
had bought 400 acres previous to his coming to the 
county to reside. He has disposed of all but 165 
acres, and all this except five acres is in a state of 
good cultivation. 

Mr. Johnson was married in Perry Co., Ohio, May 
12, 1852, to Susan, daughter of Isaac and Nellie 
(Chenoweth) Brown. The former was born in Ire- 
land, and at the age of three years moved to Virginia; 
he was an Elder in the Presbyterian Church for a 

$. S^ n *< 

number of years. Mrs. Johnson's mother was a 
native of Virginia. They settled in the State of Ohio, 
where they finally died. They had a family of nine 
children, viz.: Ellen, Margaret, Susan, Eliza, Isa- 
bella, Absalom, Matilda, Martha and Harriet. Mrs. 
J. was born in Perry Co., Ohio, Feb. 15, 1827, and 
has become the mother of eight children, as follows : 
Alice C., Sarah E., Monroe, Julius A., Herbert H., 
Hattie E., Effie E. and Ida B. Monroe died Dec. 
13, 1872, when 14 years old. 

Mr. Johnson in his political views is a Democrat. 
Mrs. J. is a member of the Lutheran Church. 

h avid Mathew is one of the leading agri- 
culturists of Mt. Pleasant Township, and 
a resident on section r. He was born in 
Fifeshire, Scotland, June 3, 1824, and was a 
resident of his native country until he was 
24 years of age. He emigrated thence in 
1848 and landed at New York. He spent six 
months in the State of Maryland, going thence to 
West Virginia, where he continued his stay 12 years. 
He came from that State to Illinois in 1860, and lo- 
cated in Whiteside County. His estate includes 572 
acres, lying in the townships of Mt. Pleasant and 
Hopkins. It is chiefly under cultivation. 

The parents of Mr. Mathew, William and Jean- 
nette (Wylie) Mathews, were natives of Scotland, 
who about 1851 came to the United States, first lo- 
cating in Tucker Co., W. Va. ; and six years later 
they made a change of their residence to Whiteside 
County, settling in Hopkins Township. The death 
of the mother took place in that township and the 
father died in Mt. Pleasant Township. Their chil- 
dren were named Thomas, David, William, Jeannette, 
Andrew, Margaret, Ann, Jane, Robert and Alex- 

The marriage of Mr. Mathew to Ann Wolf took 
place in November, 1857, in West Virginia. Mrs. 
Mathew is the daughter of George and Catharine 
(Barb) Wolf, and they were natives of Virginia. 
Their seven children were. named: Isaac, George 
A., Elizabeth, Mary, Ann, Catharine and Israel. 
Mrs. Mathew was born July 4, 1830, in West Vir- 
ginia. To her and her husband have been born 13 
children, named as follows : William B., Jeannette 



and George (twins), Catharine, Robert, Mary, Anna, 
David W. and George W. (twins), James A., Ezra, 
Simon and Samuel (twins.) One child is deceased, 
George, twin brother of Jeannette. Mrs. Mathew 
belongs to the family from which the celebrated hero 
of Quebec descended. Mr. M. is an adherent 
of the Republican party and belongs to the Pres- 
byterian Church. He has held several offices. 

ohn Phinney, a citizen of Union Grove 
Township, located on a farm on section 13, 
is engaged in the twofold calling of agri- 
culturist and teacher. He was born April 
29, 1825, in Monkton, Addison Co., Vt, where 
he obtained a common-school education, and 
he extended the scope of his intellectual attainments 
at the academy at Bakersfield, Vt. His parents, 
Martin and Sally (Mallory) Phinney, were natives of 
Vermont and were of Scotch and English lineage. 
They remained in the State of their nativity through- 
out their lives. They had three children. John, 
Harris and Sally. The mother died in 1830 and 
the father contracted a second marriage, with Mercy 
Brown. To them two children were born, Dan A. 
and Ellen M. The former died near Iowa City, of ty- 
phoid fever, in 1856, and is buried in the Quaker 
burying-ground near that city. 

On completing his education Mr. Phinney applied 
himself to the occupation of teaching, which he fol- 
lowed in Vermont between two and three years. In 
April, 1854, he came to Whiteside County and first 
located in the township of Union Grove, where he 
pursued the vocation of teacher two years. In 1856 
he went to Como, and was there occupied in the 
same capacity four years. In 1860 he bought a 
farm in the township of Montmorency, where he en- 
gaged in farming two years, spending the winters in 
teaching. In 1862 he sold his farm and went to 
Sterling, where he taught one year. At the expira- 
tion of that time he made an engagement to take 
charge of the school at Unionville, where he was 
employed three years. He then returned to Sterling 
to enter upon an engagement as teacher, which ex- 
isted five years, after which he taught two years in 
Unionville. From there he went to Hopkins Town- 
ship, and after teaching there two years he engaged 

in the same capacity at Como, where he continued 
to operate four years. In the fall of 1883 he began 
to teach in Mt. Pleasant township, where he was en- 
gaged seven months. The aggregate of his teach- 
ing in Whiteside County covers a period of 31 years. 
He bought his farm in Union Grove Township in 
the fall of 1872, consisting of 88 acres, and where 
he has maintained his residence since the property 
came into his possession. It is nearly all under cul- 
tivation. In political relations Mr. Phinney is inde- 

He formed a matrimonial alliance with Alzina L. 
Twitchell, April 18, 1855, and they have had three 
children, Burritt E., Martin Loyal and Effie B. 
The oldest son died Oct. 20, 1883, in Union Grove 
Township, at the age of 25 years. He fixed upon 
the calling of a jeweler, and spent four years in 
preparation for making that the business of his life, 
serving his apprenticeship at Morrison. He con- 
tracted consumption and went to California in the 
vain hope of recovery. He returned home and died 
at the home of his parents in Union Grove. He 
lies buried in the cemetery at Morrison. The second 
son is a student at Oberlin, Ohio. Mrs. Phinney 
was born in New Haven, Vt., May i, 1836. She is 
the daughter of L. C. Twitchell, of whom a sketcli 
appears on another page. 

eter Kitchen, manufacturer of and dealer 
in harness and saddlery at Fulton, began 
business here in June, 1858, and has the 
oldest established house in his line in the city. 
He was born in Ithaca, Tompkins Co., N. Y., 
Dec. 15, 1837, and is the son of William and Mar- 
tha (Van Buskirk) Kitchen. He learned his trade 
in his native town, and in 1856 went to Pennsyl- 
vania. Two years later he came to Fulton, 111., and 
established his present business. He has carried it 
on continuously, since, at this place, covering a 
period of 27 years. Starting in a moderate way, 
he has increased his stock and facilities for manu- 
facturing till he now has an extensive establishment, 
well stocked with everything in his line and most 
complete in its appointments. 

Mr. Kitchen has been twice married, first at Ful- 
ton, 111., March 24, 1860, to Miss Letitia Fitzpatrick 





by the Rev. Ben. Close. Two children were born of 
this union, namely : Frank, the eldest, is employed 
on the Mississippi River ; the younger died in in- 
fancy. Mrs. K. died Dec. 13, 1862, and Mr. Kitchen 
was married again, at Fulton, Nov. ir, 1863, to Miss 
Sarah E. Price, by the Rev. J. B. McClure. Mrs. 
K. is the daughter of William Price, and was born 
in Monroeville, Ohio. 

Mr. Kitchen is a member of Fulton City Lodge, 
No. 189, A. F. & A. M. In politics he is a Demo- 

L amuel S. Keefer, liveryman, Sterling, was 
born in Franklin Co., Pa., Sept. 2, 1845, 
his parents being John (a farmer) and 
Ann M. (Grove) Keefer. Receiving a com- 
mon-school education and being brought up 
at farm labor, he emigrated West in 1865, and 
in 1866 he left home, worked at the occupation of 
carpenter two years, then was engaged in the grocery 
trade in Sterling the same length of time; next he 
resided on a farm of 160 acres in Genesee Township 
12 years, and returned to Sterling in 1882. In 
March, 1883, he bought out the stock of F. M. May- 
nard in the livery business, and has since been en- 
gaged in that line, now having about 12 horses. His 
livery equipment is the largest in Sterling. 

In his political views, Mr. Keefer is a Republican, 
and in his social relations he is a member of the 
Order of Modern Woodmen of America. 

He was married Sept. n, 1866, to Miss Anna M. 
Kurtz, a native of Pennsylvania. They have two 
children, Emma F. and Ida May. 

y illard A. Goodenough, farmer, section 
10, Union Grove Township, has been a 
resident on the same farm which he now 
occupies since he first took possession of it 
at the time of his settling in the county in 
J 1865. 

He is the third child of John and Betsey (Cob- 
leigh) Goodenough. His parents were natives of 
Vermont, and removed from there to Jefferson Co., 
N. Y., where they were farmers and reared their 
children, 1 1 in number. 

Mr. Goodenough was born March 24, 1822, in 

Jefferson Co., N. Y., where he grew to manhood and 
there obtained a good common-school education. 
About the time he arrived at the period of his legal 
freedom, he bought a farm in his native county, on 
which he labored until his removal to Illinois in the 
year named. He made a purchase of 120 acres of 
land on the section where he has since maintained 
his homestead. He is now the owner of 230 acres 
of the valuable land which is the source of the 
wealth and prosperity of Whiteside County. It is 
chiefly under cultivation. He is a Prohibitionist in 
his political views. 

His marriage to Nancy J. Hull took place Jan. 
13, 1842, in Oswego Co., N. Y., and they have been 
the parents of five children : George E., Esther J., 
Lewis E., Emma L. and Ella L. (twins). Lewis died 
at the age of 16 months. Mrs. Goodenough was 
born Aug. 22, 1820, in Morristown, St. Lawrence 
Co., N. Y., and is the daughter of Nathaniel and 
Prudence (Fish) Hull. Her mother was born in 
Massachusetts, and her father in Connecticut. They 
had four children. Mr. and Mrs. Goodenough are 
members of the Baptist Church. 

aron A. Wolfersperger, attorney at law, 
Sterling, was born in Jordan Township. 
Whiteside, Co., 111., March 22, 1856. His 
parents, John and Lydia (Kapp) Wolfersperger, 
natives of Lebanon Co., Pa., came from the 
Keystone State in 1851 to Jordan Township, 
Mr. W. purchased land at different times, so that he 
is now the proprietor of 640 acres. 

Aaron, the subject of this notice, remained at his 
parental home until 15 years of age, laboring upon 
the farm and attending the district school ; then, 
leaving home, he attended a college at Naperville, 
111., one year, an institution under the auspices of 
the Evangelical Church ; then four years at the col- 
lege at Carthage, 111., where he graduated ; next, a 
term of six months at Eastman's Business College at 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., receiving a diploma; followed 
farming the next summer; and the ensuing fall he 
went to Chicago and attended the Union College of 
Law for two years, receiving a diploma : finally, in 
the spring of 1879, he came to Sterling and com- 
menced the practice of law. In 1881 he was elected 
Justice of the Peace and has held the office since. 


*f In 1884 he was elected City Attorney, and re- 
& elected in the spring of 1885. He is one of the 
**, leading and rising lawyers of Sterling. Politically 
he is a Democrat, and in his social relations he is a 
member of the Orders of Odd Fellows, Knights of 
Pythias, and of the A. O. U. W. 

Mr. Wolfenperger was married Nov. 4, 1880, to 
Miss Anna Hendrick, a native of this State. They 
have had two children; Lelia S., born Aug. 4, 1882 ; 
and John J., Aug. 26, 1884. 

>rs. Phebe Worthington, a resident of 
Coloma, and a widow of Artemas W. 
Worthington, deceased, was born in Col- 
chester, Conn., in 1813, and was married 
Oct. 9, 1837. She came West and settled in 
Harrisburg, this county, July 3, 1839, and 
afterward moved across the river and located on 
what is now called Coloma, where Mr. Worthington 
died in 1855. 

She has had six children, four of whom are still 
living. Isabella was born in 1839; Robert, 1845; 
Alfred, 1847 ; Alice, 1849; and Robert E., 1853. She 
has a farm of 160 acres, on which she resides, and 
which is managed by her son Alfred. The latter 
married Martha Wright, a native of Pennsylvania, 
where she was born March 3, 1873. They have 
five children, namely Mabel, Ollie M., Artemas W., 
Edgar S. and one not yet named. 

Mrs. W.'s parents were Richard and Phebe 
(Ketchum) Sammis, natives of Long Island and 
members of the agricultural community. 

obert S. Norrish, an extensive farmer of 
Mt. Pleasant Township, located on sec- 
tion 2, is a representative of a large class 
- N in Whiteside County, who have been in- 
strumental in its development, though he 
was born under another government. His 
farming interests also demonstrate the results of a 
life of honorable, judicious effort under the protec- 
tion of a republican form of government. He is 
the owner of 680 acres of land, which is all under 

cultivation with the exception of about one-sixth. 
His farm is stocked with about 100 head of cattle 
and 1 6 horses, and he fattens for market an annual 
average of 75 hogs. 

Mr. Norrish was born Oct. i, 1826, in Devon- 
shire, England, and he is the son of Samuel and 
Frances (Snow) Norrish. His parents lived and 
died in their native shire. Their children were 
named Samuel, Elizabeth, Mary, Francis, Edward, 
Robert S., John, Jane and Ann. Mr. Norrish was 
educated in his native country and lived there until 
1850, when he came to the United States. He went 
at first to Ohio, where he was married, July 6, 1852, 
in Lorain County, to Tamzin Squire. They remained 
in Ohio until 1853, when they removed thence to 
Mt. Pleasant Township. The wife died there in 
October, 1863, having borne two children, who were 
named Samuel and Margaret A. The plder child 
died in infancy. March 2, 1865, Mr. Norrish was 
again married, in Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, to Ann Adams. 
Their three children were named Robert A., Mary 
and John W. The daughter died in infancy. Mrs. 
Norrish was born Feb. 17, 1827, in Yorkshire, Eng- 
land, and is the daughter of George and Martha 
(Hargate) Adams. Her parents came to the United 
States in July, 1846, and located in Ohio. They 
had four children, named James, Ann, William 
and Maiy. 

Mr. Norrish is in sympathy with the principles of 
the Republican party. He is. active in township lo- 
cal interests. Mrs. Norrish is a communicant in the 
Episcopal Church. 

eorge W. Clendenen, M. D., Fulton, is a 
native of Boone Co., Va. (now West Vir- 
ginia), and was born Dec. 4, 1844. His 
parents were Robert A. and Amanda (Hinch- 
man) Clendenen. George W. came to Cass Co., 
Mich., with his parents in childhood, and when 
six years of age his father died, leaving his family in 
indigent circumstances. 

The subject of our sketch was left to shift for him- 
self at an early age. He began by working out sum- 
mers to earn money to pay his way through school in 
the winters. He attended the union school of Niles, 
Mich., till he fitted himself to enter the State Normal 



School at Ypsilanti, which he did, and passed exam- 
ination in the literary department and entered upon 
the classic course. He then became a school-teach- 
er, to provide means of support while he should 
be engaged in the study of medicine, he having de- 
termined to adopt that profession as his calling. He 
began to read medicine in 1872, with his brother, Dr. 
Floyd Clendenen, of Dowagiac, Mich., now of La- 
Salle, 111. He soon afterward became a traveling 
salesman for a wooden-ware establishment. Carry- 
ing medical books on the various branches with him 
in his travels, he read and studied them as he could 
find opportunity. He came to Fulton in 1874, and has 
since made this his home. He continued on the road 
till 1876, since which time he has devoted himself to 
the study and practice of medicine. He took a 
regular course of lectures at the Bennett College of 
Eclectic Medicine and Surgery, of Chicago, from 
which he received his degree of M. D., March 25, 
1884; and since that time he has been engaged in the 
practice of his profession at Fulton, with the very 
best of success. 

He was married in Tuscumbia, Ala., Jan. 15, 1869, 
to Miss Ellen A. Ferriss, daughter of E. W. Ferriss. 
Mrs. Clendenen was born in St. Joseph Co., Mich- 
They had four children : Blanch, who died aged two 
years; Gracie, who died aged one year; Eddie W. 
and Kittie G., who are living. 

Dr. and Mrs. Clendenen are members of the Pres- 
byterian Church, and he is also a member of Lodge 
No. 189, A. F. & A. M., and in politics is a Democrat. 

Although young in the profession, Dr. Clendenen is 
securing a rapidly increasing practice as a reward for 
a zealous and faithful discharge of his professional 

|rr F. Woodruff, attorney at law at Mor- 
li rison, was born June 30, 1840, in the town- 
s' ship of Clarendon, Orleans Co., N. Y. 

Winfield Woodruff, his father, was a native of 
the State of New York and was a farmer by 
vocation. He married Sole m ma Terry, who 
was also born in New York. Of their three chil- 
dren, Mr. Woodruff of this sketch is the oldest. 
William M. is an agriculturist and dealer in stock 
near Kearney, Neb. John J., resident at Kearney, 

was formerly an attorney and is now interested in 
sheep industry. In 1875 the parents went to Kear- 
ney, where the father died in November, 1884. The 
mother survives. 

Until he was 19 years of age, Mr. Woodruff con- 
tinued under the direction of his parents on the 
homestead farm and acquired a high-school educa- 
tion. He came to Morrison in November, 1859, 
where he became a student of law in the office of 
Hon. Henry M. Teller, Secretary of the Interior 
under President Arthur. Mr. Teller was then en- 
gaged in legal practice at Morrison, and under his 
preceptorship Mr. Woodruff enjoyed unusual ad- 
vantages and derived much practical benefit from 
the associations of the office. In May, 1861, he 
was admitted to practice in all the courts of Illinois, 
and on receiving his credentials he established his 
business in the former office of Mr. Teller, who 
went to Colorado. Mr. Woodruff has since con- 
ducted the relations of an extensive and popular 
law practice with success, and chieflly unaided. He 
has risen through ability, industry and undeviating 
devotion to his business interests, as well as through 
high-minded integrity, to distinction in his profes- 
sion. He is still engaged in the management of a 
large and lucrative practice in the County, Appellate 
and Supreme Courts of Illinois and in the Federal 
Courts at Chicago. 

Mr. Woodruff has won an honorable and enviable 
position at the Bar as a criminal lawyer ; and has 
been connected with a number of prominent cases 
involving the liberty and sometimes the lives of in- 
dividuals. He is a logical and effective advocate, 
and possesses an exhaustive comprehension of legal 
principles. He is noted for keenness of perception 
and discrimination in presenting his argument, and 
when fully aroused to his work, exercises a magnetic 
influence which proves a controlling element in the 
courts where he pleads. He possesses the rare-quality 
of sinking his own personality in the merits of his 
case, and fully imbuing himself with its justice and 
equity, a trait which rarely fails to achieve a purpose. 
He is a thorough student of human nature and re- 
cognizes above all other considerations that penal- 
ties are designed for reformation rather than punish- 
ment. Standing firmly on the fact that the results 
of crime are irretrievable in most instances, he is 
just as inflexible in taking the humanitarian view, 

< *^ ' 


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f i\ 




and in his advocacy presents his views and appeals, 
to the tribunals before which his clients are arraigned, 
in the strength of the unwritten code of mercy and 
forbearance. He frames his argument with sagacity, 
and clothes it in simple, effective language calcu- 
lated to reach the better part of the human heart, 
and wields a masterly power over the sympathies 
and emotions of both court and jury. The late 
Judge Heaton once said of him: "When Woodruff 
is thoroughly convinced that his cause is just, or 
that his client should win, he is often a dangerous 
adversary to meet, either before court or jury. " 
Before the court in argument, he never fails to sup- 
port his position with a long array of authorities, and 
to that extent that victories have in some instances 
been won that even the judge had doubts about 
sustaining upon more mature deliberation. 

Mr. Woodruff finds opportunity for the exercise of 
his peculiar abilities in the cross-examination of wit- 
nesses, and it is the opinion of those who observe his 
methods and admire his achievements, that his 
splendid repute as an attorney is due to the tact and 
shrewdness with which he manipulates an adverse 
witness, rather than to any other qualification he 
may possess. His ability and skill are universally 
conceded, and he is regarded as a safe counselor and 
a jurist of more than ordinary claims. He will al- 
ways be a leader in his profession. 

In connection with his legal business he has ex- 
tensive agricultural interests in Whueside County, 
and is the owner of 1,000 acres of land at Alpena, 
Jerauld Co., D. T. On the latter he is making a 
specialty of fine stock. His herds there comprise 
150 head of short-horn cattle and 20 horses of Per- 
cheron grades. He owns two farms in Whiteside 
County, comprising 280 acres, located five miles 
southwest of Morrison, in Fenton Township, and 
240 acres situated 14 miles distant from Morrison in 
the same direction, in Newton Township; and they 
are stocked with about 40 head of thoroughbred 
Durham cattle and 30 horses. 

He has obeyed the obligations of his citizenship 
at Morrison and responded to the demands of the 
general public by serving two terms as Mayor of the 
city, the aggregated period of his official career as 
the chief executive of the municipality including the 
years 1879 to 1882. 

He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, be- 
longing to Dunlap Lodge, No. 327, at Morrison. 

Mr. Woodruff has been married twice. He first ^ 
formed a matrimonial alliance with Victoria O'Hara, 
Nov. it, 1862, and they became the parents of two * 
children, Maitland J. and Maud, both now deceased. ' 
The death of the wife and mother took place at Mor- , 
rison in October, 1867. She was a native of the 
Dominion of Canada. Mr. Woodruff was a second 
time married Feb. 22, 1869, at Morrison, to Mary 
Lathrop. She was born in August, 1843, in Canada. 

The portrait of Mr. Woodruff presented on a pre- 
ceding page is a copy of a likeness taken in 1882. 

.Isworth Dill, furniture dealer and uphol- 
sterer, Sterling, was born at Hamden, Vin- 
ton Co., Ohio, June 22, 1847, and is a son 
.Iji. of Benjamin and Armada (Catlin) Dill, natives 
> of Ohio. The senior Mr. Dill, who was en- 
gaged in a stove manufactory and in a tannery, 
sold out in 1864 and came to Coleta, this county, 
engaging in farming and stock-raising. 

Three months afterward Elsworth came West, 
stopping with his father six or eight months, when, 
arriving at the age of legal freedom, he struck out in 
the world for himself. He commenced to work for 
Gait & Tracy before the fire, continuing only two 
months ; then for six months he followed the butcher- 
ing business with his father; next, he was an em- 
ployee in the Boyington Hotel at Sterling for ten 
months ; then a clerk in the Wallace Hotel three 
months; after three months out of employment, was 
clerk at the Boyington again, four months ; followed 
farming one season in Nebraska, but a hail-storm 
nearly ruined his crop; returning to Sterling, he 
engaged again as clerk at the Boyington Hotel for a 
year; put in and attended another crop in Nebraska, 
this time with success; returned to Sterling and for 
three months was engaged in the coal business ; sold 
out and for a time worked for Mr. Seely in his res- 
taurant, and then went with him into the Wallace 
Hotel and clerked for two years; employed for six 
months, most of the time as superintendent, by the 
Sterling Gas Company; clerked again at the Wallace 
Hotel until the Gait House was opened, where he 
was chief clerk a year, then in the same capacity at 
the Wallace one year; ran a meat market for six 
months; sold out and engaged in a restaurant a 


month; sold again, and from 1878 to 1883 he was 
employed as traveling agent by the Rock Falls Man- 
ufacturing Company ; then was manager of the Gait 
House one year; and finally, June i, 1884, he rented 
the Sterling' Mercantile Block and opened out with a 
large stock of furniture, where he is at present carry- 
ing on a prosperous trade. Ralph Waldo Emerson 
remarks that he is not the greatest man who succeeds 
by sticking to one business, but he who, in trying 
many kinds, falls every time like a cat, lighting 
upon his feet. E. Dill & Co. now carry a stock of 
$5,000 worth of goods and have a large aiid increas- 
ing trade. They do much in the line of upholstering. 

Mr. Dill is a member of the A. O. U. W., of the 
Select Knights and of the Modern Woodmen of 

He was married Feb. 12, 1872, to Miss Addie E. 
Bowen, of Rock Falls, and they have two sons, 
Edwin E. and E. Leroy T. 

eorge Terwilliger, attorney at law, Justice 
of the Peace, Notary Public and insurance 
agent, at Fulton, was born in the town of 
New Scotland, Albany Co., N. Y., and is the 
son of John and Margaret (Reid) Terwilliger, 
his father being of Holland descent and his 
mother of Scotch. 

At the age of nine years he moved with his par- 
ents to De Witt, Onondaga Co., N. Y., and remained 
with his father on the farm, receiving the ordinary 
common-school education, until he entered the Onon- 
daga Academy, located at Onondaga Hollow, where 
he took a four years' course and graduated in the 
class of 1850. He then commenced the study of the 
law with Forbes & Sheldon, in the city of Syracuse, 
and was admitted to practice in all the Courts of New 
York State on the 5th of July, 1852. During the 
time he was studying law he frequently assisted in 
editing the Syracuse Daily Journal, one of the lead- 
ing newspapers in the interior of New York State, 
and after his admission to the Bar became editor-in- 
chief of that paper. He remained in this position for 
about two years, when he resigned on account of a 
change in the proprietorship, he being Free-Soil in 
his proclivities, while the new proprietors were pro- 
slavery in their views. Shortly after his resigning he 
was elected City Attorney of the city of Syracuse, re- 

ceiving the highest vote cast for any one on his ticket 
except the candidate for City Treasurer. In 1857 
he removed to New York city, where he practiced 
law, and was also honored with positions in the Cus- 
tom House, and in the Tax Commissioner's office. 
While a resident of New York he was admitted to 
practice in the United States District and Circuit 

In the summer of 1870 he came West in accord- 
ance with a long considered intention, and purchased 
the Sterling Gazette, which paper he conducted with 
ability and success until March, 1872, when he sold 
out and moved to Fulton, purchasing the Fulton 
Journal. In the fall of 1872 he sold a one-half in- 
terest in the Journal to Dr. W. C. Snyder, now State 
Senator, he taking the editorial department, and Dr. 
Snyder the business department. In 1876 he sold 
his interest in the Journal, and virtually laid aside 
the editorial quill. When the Legislature of 1877 
convened, his reputation was such that he easily se- 
cured a clerkship in the House of Representatives, 
and served during the session. In the spring of that 
year he was elected Justice of the Peace of Fulton ( 
and on his return from Springfield entered upon the 
duties of his office. In June, 1877, he was employed 
in editing and compiling Bent's History of Whiteside 
County, and completed the work in the following 
January. At the session of the Legislature in 1879 
he was elected First Assistant Secretary of the 
Senate, and was re-elected at the session of 1881, the 
Senators being so well pleased with his services that 
at this session they presented him with an elegant 
gold watch. At the special session of 1881 he was 
elected Secretary of the Senate. During the years 
1874, 1875 and 1876, he was City Clerk of the city of 
Fulton. He has been Justice of the Peace of the 
town of Fulton for eight years, and at the late spring 
election was again elected, without opposition, for 
four years more. 

Mr. Terwilliger has been a member of the Masonic 
Order since 1862, having been made a Mason in 
New York city. He was married while editing the 
Syracuse Daily Journal, to Miss Matilda B. Fowler, 
daughter of John and Eliza Fowler, Mrs. Terwilliger 
being a native of New York city. They have two 
children, both girls : Lillian, wife of Henry H. Den- 
ton, of Newtown, Queens Co., N. Y., and Georgiana, 

Mr. T. is Republican in politics, and has been an 

A r* ?m*&a^. ^Sig^sA 

W'^ <i'X 


* ' 





active member of the party since its organization. 
He is a popular Justice, his thorough knowledge of 
law and judicial turn of mind enabling him to make 
his rulings and decisions in accordance with law and 
evidence, so that his judgments are seldom reversed. 
As a writer Mr. Terwilliger is favorably known 
throughout Northern and Western Illinois by his con- 
nection with the press, and his able compilation of 
tha History of Whiteside County in 1877. 

f doniram Judson Booth, publisher of the 
Sterling Blade, is a son of Gifford John 
and Mary A. Booth, and was born in Dun- 
dee, Yates Co., N. Y., Feb. 3, 1846. When 
three years old he removed with his parents 
to Elmira, N. Y., and resided there till 1855, 
when his farther 's family removed to Illinois, resid- 
ing for one year in Rock Island, and then in Fulton, 
Whiteside County. Here he completed his studies 
at the Fulton High School. In 1859 his father 
leased (and subsequently bought) the material of the 
Fulton Advertiser and commenced the publication 
of the Fulton Courier; he entered the office to 
learn the printing trade, and remained therein till 
1866, when he took a joint interest in the paper, 
which had in 1863 been changed in name to " Ful- 
ton Journal." Mr. Booth and his father continued 
the business till March, 1872, when the establish- 
ment was purchased by George Terwilliger, of Ster- 
ling. For one year prior to the above sale Mr. 
Booth had been pursuing a special course of medical 
instruction, under the supervision of Dr. John Eddy, 
a thoroughly educated regular physician of Fulton; 
he subsequently gave his entire attention to his med- 
ical studies till the summer of 1873, when he went 
to Chicago and attended a regular course of med- 
ical lectures at the Hahnemann Medical College in 

While home from college in 1874 he joined his 
father in purchasing the Investigator printing-office- 
at Morrison, this county; the name of the paper was 
changed to Morrison Times, and conducted as a 
Greenback organ. In 1876 this office was removed 
to Rock Falls, and the name of the paper changed 
to Whiteside Times ; it was Democratic-Greenback in 

ix)litics, and had a very extensive circulation in ev- 
ery township in Whiteside County. In the fall of 

1877, Mr. Booth successfully issued a creditable his- 
tory and directory of the two cities, Sterling and 
Rock Falls, bound in cloth and gold leaf. In May, 

1878, A. J. Booth & Co. leased the Whiteside Times 
to Messrs. Hyde & Seade. 

In June, i88r, Mr. Booth decided to commence 
the publication of the Daily Blade, a morning daily 
paper, in the city of Sterling, notwithstanding four 
failures in that line by former parties. This enter- 
prise was a success, and was continued for nearly 
three years, until Dec. i, 1883, when impaired 
health necessitated a change of business. In Novem- 
ber, 1884, having recovered health, Mr. Booth re- 
turned to Sterling and resumed the publication of 
the Blade as a weekly paper, Democratic in politics, 
six-column quarto in size. 

Feb. 3, 1869, Mr. Booth married Miss Alma C. 
Sperry, of Lee Center, 111., to whom were born five 
children, to wit: Gifford M., Harry Judson, Ida 
May, Charles Edwin and Anna Maude. Mr. and 
Mrs. Booth are both members of the Sterling Bap- 
tist Church. 


'ames S. McCauley, farmer on section 5, 
Hopkins Township, has been a resident of 
Whiteside County since 185 3, and has been 
identified with its agricultural development 
and progress for more than 30 years. He was 
born Nov. n, 1821, in West Virginia. Corne- 
lius McCauley, his father, was born in Scotland, 
whence he emigrated and came to Maryland, where 
he was married to Mary Butler, after which they set- 
tled in Virginia. James was an infant when his 
parents went to Ross Co., Ohio, after which they 
moved to Pickaway County in the same State. The 
father died there March 13, 1837. The death of the 
mother occurred in Ross County, July 7, 1851. Their 
children were n in number and were naii'ed as fol- 
lows : William, Anna, Sarah, Susan, Elizabeth, Mary, 
John, Rebecca, Margaret, Catherine and James S. 

Mr. McCauley was 16 years of age when his father 
died ; and until that event he remained at home en- 
gaged in obtaining his education at the common 
schools. Until the age of 23 years he operated as a 






farm assistant, and in 1848 rented a farm, which he 
continued to manage five successive years. In the 
fall of 1853 he came to Whiteside County, and pur- 
chased 80 acres on section 8, in Hopkins Township. 
It was wholly unimproved, and he rented a farm in 
the same township, which he conducted four years. 
He then purchased 1 20 acres where he has since lived, 
and the buildings he has since erected are located on 
the home place on that section. He is now the 
owner of 408 acres of land, most of which is in Hop- 
kins Township, and which is practically all under 
cultivation. He supports the principles of the Re- 
publican party, and has officiated in several local 

Mr. McCauley was married Jan. 7, 1847, in Ross 
Co., Ohio, to Hester A., daughter of Henry and Mary 
(Caug'hey) Hanawalt. They were born in Pennsyl- 
vania and located in Ohio after their marriage. The 
father died July 28, 1831, and the mother survived 
him until July 17, 1846. The brothers and sisters of 
Mrs. McCauley were named Christopher, Samuel, 
Jane, George and John. She is the youngest of all, 
and was born Jan. 10, 1822, in Ross Co., Ohio. Only 
two of eight children of which she has been the 
mother are living. Mary C. and Clara still survive. 
Marcellus, John W., Ida R., Alice A , Willie and an 
infant child unnamed are deceased. 

F. Strock, member of the firm of Dillon, 
'< Bowers & Strock, proprietors of the Rock 
Falls Roller Mills, Sterling, was born 
in Franklin Co., Pa., May 4, 1844, his parents 
being Daniel and Mary (Over) Strock, natives 
also of that State. Mr. Strock, senior, a man- 
ufacturer of agricultural implements, came to Sterling 
in 1864. 

The subject of this biographical sketch remained 
at his parental home until he was 25 years of age, 
receiving a common-school education. At the age 
of 20 he entered a hardware store at Chambersburg, 
Pa., as clerk, remaining one year. He then came to 
Sterling and engaged as clerk for Patterson, Witmer 
& Co., continuing for three years, and then accepted 
a position in the interests of the Sterling School 
Furniture Company, continuing for eight years. He 

is an active and influential business man, a Repub- 
lican, a member of the A. O. U. W., Select Knights 
and the Lutheran Church, to which latter organiza- 
tion his wife also belongs. 

Mr. Strock was married Sept. r4, 1869, to Miss 
Martha, daughter of Joel and Rachel (Cole) Harvey, 
natives of New York and early immigrants to Sterl- 
ing. By this marriage there have been three chil- 
dren, two of whom are still living, Willoughby C. 
and John F. After the death of Mr. Harvey, Mr. 
Strock took charge of his estate and business affairs, 
and did not engage in any other business until 1882, 
when he bought a third interest in the Rock Falls 
Roller Mills, where he has since been interested. 

illiam Pratt, general farmer in the Town- 
ship of Hopkins, has been a resident of 
Whiteside County since 1854, and a citizen 
of the State of Illinois since 1842, when he 
removed from New York to Kane County. 
After a stay of about one year's duration at 
Elgin, he went to McHenry County, where he was 
engaged in farming, and building the Fox River Val- 
ley Railroad. On coming to Wbiteside Co., he took 
a contract to grade the railroad from Sterling to Ful- 
ton. While fulfilling his obligations with the build- 
ing corporation, he bought, in 1856, a farm in 
Hopkins Township. On this he settled on the ter- 
mination of the business mentioned, and has since 
pushed his agricultural operations with profit. 

He was born May 16, 1817, in Chenango Co., N. 
Y., and is the son of William and Cynthia (Case) 
Pratt, who were born in the State of Connecticut. 
He is one of a family of four children named Har- 
riet, Jerome, William and Ralph. 

Mr. Pratt was married Oct. 8, 1855, in Prophets- 
town, Whiteside County, to Euphemia J., daughter 
of David and Lydia (Butler) Ramsay. Her parents 
were natives of New England and were of Scotch 
lineage. William, Hannah M., Luther B., Euphemia 
J. and Lydia A. were the names of their children. 
Mrs. Pratt was born Sept. 9, 1822, in Rome, Oneida 
Co., N. Y. Le Roi W. Pratt, her only child, was 
born Jan 25, 1857, and graduated in 1882, at the 
Union College of Law, Chicago. 

Mr. Pratt is a Democrat in political preference 




^f and acts in local and general issues in consonance 
with the principles of that party. Mrs. Pratt is a 
! ''j communicant of the Episcopal Church. 

L rederick B. Hubbard, of the firm of Dill 
& Co., furniture dealers of Sterling, was 
born Oct. 26, 1859, in Dover, Bureau Co., 
111., and remained at home until 18 years of 
age, receiving a fine education. He then went 
to Yankton, Dak., arriving there June 19, 1878, 
and spending a year and a half in the jeweler's busi- 
ness. Next, he engaged in the same business for 
himself in Hiawatha, Brown Co., Kan. A year and 
a half after, he sold out, came to Sterling and made 
a commencement in the same line of business ; but, 
his health failing, he sold out, and engaged with his 
present partner in the furniture trade, which they 
have to the present carried on with success to them- 
selves and satisfaction to their patrons. 

Mr. Hubbard was married to Miss Louisa H. 
Brown, of St. Joseph, Mo., March 27, 1881. They 
have one daughter, Ada L , who was born May 24, 
1883. He belongs to the Knights of Honor, the 
Modern Woodmen of America and the Knights of 

Mr. Hubbard is a liberal and public-spirited citi- 
zen of Sterling, worthy of official trusts. 

: enry M. Kennedy, physician and surgeon, 
Head Clerk of the Order of Modern Wood- 

f"~~ men of America, and residing at Fulton, 
. was born in Mishawaka, St. Joseph Co., Ind., 
Jan. 4, 1851, and is the son of Henry D. and 
Charlotte (Steere) Kennedy. He came to Elgin, 
111., with his parents in infancy, and was educated 
at Wheaton (111.) College. After some experience 
as a clerk in Chicago he spent several seasons in the 
the fruit business at Benton Harbor, Mich., teach- 
ing school winters. 

He took a regular 'three years' course at the Hahn- 
emann Medical College, of Chicago, at which he re- 
ceived the degree of M. D. He began practice in 

Jackson Co., Iowa, which he continued till 1880, 

when he removed to Fulton, 111., and has pursued 
his profession in this city continuously since. On < 
the organization of the " Modern Woodmen," a ben- 
eficiary fraternity, he was chosen Head Physician, 
and in May, 1884, he was elected Head Clerk, or 
Grand Secretary, of the order. He is also Ihe edi- 
tor of the Woodman's Echo. 

He was married Nov. 10, 1874, at St. Joseph, 
Mich., to Miss Lillie Overacker. Mrs. Kennedy 
was born in Otsego Co., N. Y., June 14, 1854. They 
have three children, all boys, Harry, Fred and 

The Doctor is a Prohibitionist in politics, and 
served as City Clerk of Fulton in 1883-4. He is an 
earnest temperance advocate, and a member of 
Leota Lodge, No. 428, I. O. G. T. The Dr. and 
Mrs. K. are members of tlie Baptist Church. 

Although a resident of Fulton but a few years, Dr. 
Kennedy has made many warm friends, and has de- 
veloped a very satisfactory practice. 

Cornelius Bachellor, farmer, residing on 
section 12, Montmorency Township, is a 
son of Ebenezer and Hannah (Ellis) 
Bachellor. They were married and settled 
in Vermont, where the mother died. 

Cornelius was the only child born of his 
parents' union, and was born in Essex, Chittenden 
Co., Vt., Aug. 30, 1829. Four years after that 
event, in 1833, his father moved to Ohio, his mother 
having previously died. In the latter State he 
passed his years of minority, working on his fathers 
farm and attending the common schools. 

In 1856, Mr. Bachellor purchased 80 acres of 
land in Montmorency Township, this county. From 
1857 to 1861 he resided at Rock Falls, and during 
the latter year moved on his land in Montmor- 
ency Township. He erected good substantial farm 
buildings on his land, and entered vigorously and 
actively upon its cultivation. By energetic effort 
and good management Mr. Bachellor has increased 
his landed possessions in the county to 240 acres, 
one-half of which is in a good tillable condition. 

Mr. Bachellor was united in marriage, in Licking 
Co., Ohio, April 8, 1852, to Tabitha MacClintic, 



-, . - 


daughter of James and Elizabeth (Frank) MacClintic, 
natives of Ireland and Virginia. The parents set- 
tled in Ohio, where the father died. The mother 
afterward came to this county and died in Rock 
Falls, Aug. 30, 1877. The issue of their union was 
one child, Mrs. Bachellor. She was born in Colum- 
biana Co., Ohio, Jan. 29, 1831. Mr. and Mrs. 
Bachellor are the parents of eight children, namely: 
Mary E., William A., Cordelia, Martin R., Ida M., 
Clarence, Charles and Lewis. The two latter are 

Mr. Bachellor has been Highway Commissioner, 
School Trustee and Overseer of Highways in his 
township. Politically, he is identified with tenets of 
the Democratic party. 

>,harles Foster, one of the solid business 
men of Whiteside County, resident at 
Morrison, has been for 30 years connected 
with its leading business enterprises. In 
1855 he came to Sterling, and obtained em- 
ployment as a clerk ; but, his abilities in cer- 
tain lines soon becoming apparent, he was intrusted 
with important duties, and in the course of a year he 
began to operate in his own interests, beginning on a 
moderate scale, and regulating his efforts as oppor- 
tunity served to make profitable ventures, until he 
received the reward of his energy, thrift and exercise 
of judgment and good sense, and has for years 
ranked as one of the most deservedly successful 
men of his generation. 

He was born Sept. 2, 1831, near Ithaca, Tompkins 
Co., N. Y. His father, William Foster, was born 
in England, Oct. iq, 1807, and married Catherine 
Chandler, also of English nativity, having been born 
in that country, Oct. i, 1805. On coming to Amer- 
ica they settled in Tompkins Co., N. Y., where the 
father still resides, on the homestead, and where his 
children were born and reared, and where, also, his 
wifa and mother died. Their children were born in 
the following order: Henrietta was born Jan. 8, 
1828, and married John Supplee, of Yates Co.,N. Y.; 
Mr. Foster is the next in order of birth ; James E. 
was bom March 16, 1833, and is a farmer in Iowa; 
John Chandler was born June 6, 1835, and is a sea- 
man and ship-owner; Harriet E., born June 13; 
1839, is the wife of Oscar Saunders, a farmer in the 

vicinity of Robinson, Mich.; George W. was born 
March 3, 1850, and is engaged in farming in Wells 
Co., Dak. 

Mr. Foster was brought up on the homestead of 
his father, and when he was 23 years of age he be- 
came the owner of a small farm in his native county, 
which comprised 53 acres of land. On this he 
operated one year, and in 1854 he determined to 
seek the broader scope of the West, and test the 
virtues of its promises, which were so glowing as to 
tax credulity and tempt an ambitious man to risk his 
time, if not his resources, in the trial of their merits. 
Accordingly he came to DeKalb Co., and for a time 
was employed on a farm in the Township of Syca- 
more. In the spring of 1855 he came to Sterling, 
and spent three months as a clerk in a dry-goods 
store. At the end of that time he was sent by his 
employers to Morrison to buy grain and live stock, 
and he operated in their interests about a year. In 
1856 he engaged in similar transactions on his own 
account, and from a small but profitable beginning 
he gradually increased his operations until the aggre- 
gate of his business amounted to $150,000 yearly, 
and his relations were quite as extensive in Iowa as 
in his own State. In addition to grain and stock, for 
a long term of years, he dealt largely in butter, eggs 
and poultry. As a representative of his operations 
some generation in the future may be interested in 
knowing that his purchases of butter reached 310,000 
pounds in a single year; and at the time he was, 
without doubt, the heaviest dealer in butter in Illi- 
nois outside of Chicago. 

In 1882 he relinquished this business, and turned 
his attention to financial enterprise, and organized 
the First National Bank of Norfolk, Neb., with a cap- 
ital of $50,000, his own investment therein being 
$26,000. A year later he disposed of his interest in 
the banking house, with the design of withdrawing 
from active business life, which he has practically 
done, only occasionally yielding to force of habit and 
circumstances when he traffics in real estate and 
engages in lending money. 

Mr. Foster has never parted ownership with his 
original landed property in Tompkins Co., N. Y., of 
which he is still the proprietor. He is also the 
owner of 60 acres of land in Whiteside County, a 
portion of which lies within the corporate limits of 
the city of Morrison. His other claims of real 


- . 



estate include liis residence and two other dwell- 
ings at Morrison, 320 acres of land in Clark Co., 
Dak., 480 acres in Stanton Co., Neb., city property 
in Benton, Iowa, and in Oneida, Knox Co., 111. 

The first wife of Mr. Foster was formerly Miss 
Lydia A. Drake, and their marriage took place Nov. 
i, 1860. She was born March 19, 1839, and was 
the daughter of Charles L. and Roxana (Bruce) 
Drake. From this union five children were born: 
William C. completed the prescribed course of study 
in the High School at Morrison, afterward becoming 
a student at Beloit College, Wisconsin, where he 
studied two years. He is now Deputy Treasurer of 
Brown Co., Dak., and is the owner of a half interest 
in the abstracts of that county ; Gertrude M. is a 
graduate of the school at Morrison, and of the New 
England Conservatory of Music at Boston ; she is a 
thoroughly accomplished musician ; Josephine and 
Anna B. are the names of the younger children who 
survive; Charles E. is deceased. The death of the 
mother occurred at Morrison June 6, 1875. Mr. 
Foster contracted a second matrimonial alliance, with 
Lottie L. Corey, Oct. 3, 1876, at Sturbridge, Mass. 
She was born in that place April 9, 1844, and is the 
daughter of George V. and Martha Corey, both of 
whom are living. 

Barren Bond, resident at Morrison, was 
born April 13, 1823, in Denmark, Lewis 
Co., N. Y., and is the son of Henry and 
Betsey (Graves) Bond. He was reared to 
man's estate in the State of his nativity, and 
in 1842 came to Illinois. On the i6th of April 
in that year he located in Fulton Townsh p, and 
while a resident of that township he became promi- 
nent in the management of local affairs, holding sev- 
eral official positions. In 1852 he purchased 240 
acres of land situated on section 32 and lying on the 
Morrison and Fulton road, in the township of Ustick. 
He has given much attention to raising stock, and is 
entitled to much credit for his 'efficiency in improv- 
ing the grades of Whiteside County cattle. He has 
been for many years identified with the energetic, 
intelligent and prosperous farming element of the 
township where he has resided. The contrast in his 
earlier and later circumstances is to be inferred from 

the facts that, in his native State he used to labor 
from sunrise to sunset, threshing with a flail and 
cleaning grain, and receiving compensation at the 
rate of five cents a bushel. On coming to Whiteside 
County he worked for John Hollinshead in the town- 
ship of Ustick, at $12 a month. In less than 20 
years his gross receipts from his stock and farm 
averaged about $2,000 annually. Mr. Bond is the 
owner of 160 acres of land in Kearney Co., Neb. 
He sold his land in Ustick Township, and in the 
spring of of 1883 retired from active agricultural life, 
removing to Morrison, where he built a residence 
and is living in the enjoyment of the accumula- 
tions of the efforts of his years of prime. 

He is a Republican in political bias, and has de- 
voted reasonable attention and effort to the interests 
of his party in view of his understanding of the obli- 
gations of his citizenship. He was always active in 
local politics in Fulton and Ustick Townships, and 
has served as a member of the County Committee. 
He served the town of Ustick as its Supervisor for 
ten years, also served as Census Enumerator for 
Ustick Township in 1880. Has taken a lively inter- 
est in school affairs, having held the office of School 
Director, Trustee and Treasurer. He is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity and belongs to the Royal 
Arch Chapter. 

Since his retirement to Morrison, Mr. Bond has 
engaged to some extent in financial operations. 

The marriage of Mr. Bond to Harriet N. Camfield 
occurred July 13, 1844. Following is the record of 
their children: Edna E., born Nov. 5, 1847, mar- 
ried Delos P. Martin, Oct. 18, 1865, and lives in 
Nebraska; Loretta H., born Feb. 15, 1850, was 
married Dec. 31,. 1868, to William J. Reed, and 
lives in Ustick Township; Viola E. was born Dec. 
21, 1851, and was married March 18, 1872, to Aus- 
tin Goff, and died Dec. 3, 1872; George E. was 
born June 5, 1854, married Sarah Bulkley Dec. 20, 
1876, and died July 15, 1881 ; Vesta M. was born 
July 10, 1856. She was married Jan. i, 1874, to 
\Yilson Springer, and now resides in Kearney Co., 
Neb.; Olive J. was born Aug. 28, 1858, and was 
married Aug. 15, 1876, to Alonzo Springer, a farmer 
in Union Grove Township; Ada A. and Ida A., 
twins, were born March 2, 1861 ; they died respect- 
ively Sept. 14 and Sept. 21, of the same year; Isa- 
bel I. was born Aug. 29, 1863, and was married in 


August, 1881, to Walter Webber, a farmer in 
Kearney Co., Neb.; Alva W. was born Sept. 26, 
7865, and is still with his parents. 

M. Martin, merchant at Sterling, was born 
in Franklin Co., Pa., Nov. 13, 1841. His 
father, Joseph R. Martin, died in January, 
1877; and his mother, whose maiden name 
was Martha Meshy, is still living. Both his 
parents were natives of the Keystone State, 
and had seven sons and four daughters. 

At the age of seven years, the subject of this no- 
tice left home and lived until 15 years old with 
Michael Ebersole, a farmer. He continued in agri- 
cultural pursuits until the summer of 1862, when he 
enlisted for the Government in the i26th Regt. Pa. 
Vol. Inf., Co. A. He went from Chambersburg to 
Harrisburg, where he was mustered into service. 
After remaining in camp three weeks at Arlington 
Heights, he went to Leesburg, Va., where he par- 
ticipated in the second battle of Bull Run. He was 
then ordered back to Washington and to Antietam, 
where he was held in reserve in camp on the battle- 
field, until October, when he went up the Loudoun 
Valley and thence to Fredericksburg. Engaging in 
action at the latter place, he received a wound and 
was confined six weeks in the hospital. He returned 
to his regiment in time to engage in the battle of 
Chancellorsville, soon after which his term of enlist- 
ment (nine months) expired and he was mustered 
out at Harrisburg. In the summer of 1864 he came 
to Freeport, 111., and in February, 1865, re-enlisted, 
in the 147111 Regt. 111. Vol. Inf., went to Nashville, 
Tenn., and Dalton, Ga., where he received a com- 
mission HS Second Lieutenant of Co. E, of the i47th. 
After a delay of two months at Dalton and a month 
at Resaca, he went with a detachment to Albany, 
Ga., and with the remainder of the regiment to 
Americus, same State, where he was appointed 
Adjutant for the battalion; and after serving a 
month in this capacity he was appointed As- 
sistant Provost Marshal for Starkville, Lee Co., Ga. 
Three months afterward he returned to his regiment, 
which soon was moved to Savannah, Ga., where Mr. 
Martin did Provost duty in the city uutil 1866, 
when the regiment was mustered out. 

Returning to Freeport for a month, he came to 
Sterling and acted as clerk in a grocery store during 
the summer (1866); next, in the same capacity for 
Carpenter & Edison until 1874 ; then he went to Cali- 
fornia and was employed for two months in the freight 
office of the Central Pacific Railroad; and then served 
as station agent at Modesto, Cal., until the fall of 1875, 
when he came to Sterling and engaged again as 
clerk for E. W. Edison. In the spring of 1877 he 
was employed as salesman for M. B. Rutt & Co., of 
Sterling, for a year, and then he formed a partner- 
ship with D. B. Strickler in the dry-goods business. 
Two years afterward C. A. Sheeting purchased 
Stickler's interest, who in turn sold to Mr. Kintzle, 
and the firm name became Martin & Kintzle, the 
present style. Their store, 40 x 90 feet, is at Nos. 
118 and 120, Locust Street, and they are carrying on 
a prosperous business on honorable principles. 

Mr. Martin is a Republican and a member of the 
Masonic Order. 

April 17, 1878, he married Miss Emma Sheeting, 
of Freeport, and they have one daughter, born Dec. 
10, 1881. 

amcs G. Gridley, one of the prominent 
land-holders in Union Grove Township, 
resident on section 12, became a citizen of 
Whiteside County in 1855. He located at 
Morrison, then in its first year of existence, and 
his genius as a mechanic was in immediate 
requisition to meet the demands of the throng of 
new comers to the incipient city. He was active in 
the work of incorporation, and was elected one of 
the first Trustees. He was a member of the Board 
for several successive years, and he was a resident 
there until 1861. He was the builder of the main 
part of the school building at Morrison, and the 
church edifice of the First Presbyterian Society. He 
built the second warehouse in Morrison, which is 
now occupied as a livery stable by M. G. Preston, 
and, in partnership with L. H. Robinson and J. V. 
Giles successively, engaged in the business of ship- 
ping grain and stock, and in the sale of lumber. On 
relinquishing his business at Morrison, he purchased 
a farm in the township of Ustick. He is now a res- 
dent of Union Grove Township, and is the owner of 




- . 


500 acres of land in the county, which is all prac- 
tically under excellent cultivation. 

Mr. Gridley was born Oct. i, 1811, at Middle- 
burgh, Schoharie Co., N. Y., and is the son of John 
and Margaret (Stopplebeen) Gridley. His parents 
were born in the State of New York and had nine 
children. Mr. Gridley is the third in successive 
order, and he grew to man's estate in the place 
where he was born. Previous to his removal to 
Whiteside County,- he lived some years in the coun- 
ties of Columbia and Otsego respectively. 

He has been thrice married. His first matrimonial 
alliance was formed with Jane E. Miller, in Colum- 
bia Co., N. Y., June u, 1837, and thsy had three 
children, Margaret, Stephen and Rachel. The 
oldest child is the wife of Joseph Sholes,of Nebraska. 
Rachel died at Moline, 111., Oct. 15, 1877. Mrs. 
G. died Jan. 4, 1849, and Mr. Gridley was again 
married Oct. 15, 1850, to Sarah J. Duffin, in Otsego 
Co., N. Y., where she died, Nov. 8, 1854. He was 
a third time married, June 2, 1857, in Columbia Co., 
N. Y., to Sarah J. Hornfager, and they have three 
children, namely, John,' Charles E. and Mary. 
The youngest daughter died Feb. 24, 1883, in Union 
Grove Township, when 17 years of age. Mrs. Grid- 
ley was born Oct. 3, 1822, in Columbia Co., N. Y. 

Mr. Gridley is a Democrat and he has held var- 
ious local official positions. His portrait is presented 
on a page in proximity, with more than ordinary sat- 
isfaction, from the relations he has borne to the 
progress of Whiteside County. It is a copy of a like- 
ness taken in 1885. 


arm T. Meins, farmer, section 16, Hop- 
kins Township, is a son of Henry W. and 
Mary Meins, natives of Germany, who 
came to America in 1859 and settled in Hop- 
kins Township, this county. She died Janu- 
ary 1 6, 1870, and he March 13, 1885. They 
a family of four children : Teite M., Mein, 
Harm and Mary. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Germany, 
Dec. 21, 1830, and learned the trade of shoemaker, 
which he followed in the old country and in Ameri- 
ca about 16 years. He came to this country in 
1854 and lived four years in Connecticut, where he 

**" S ^^ 

followed his trade, and in the summer of 1858 came 
to Whiteside County and worked at his trade two 
years in Sterling, and then purchased 40 acres on 
section 16, Hopkins Township, where he settled and 
has since lived. He is now the owner of 210 acres, 
200 of which is in good cultivation. He has erected 
fine buildings on his farm. 

He was married in Dixon, in August, 1858, to 
Anna C. Janssen, who was born in Germany, Aug. 
26, 1830. Mr. and Mrs. Meins are the parents of 
two children : Anna, now the wife of John Fulfs and 
residing- in Genesee Township; and Hannah H., 
now the wife of Henry W. Stern, and a resident of 
Hopkins Township. 

Mr. Meins has been Overseer of Highways, Road 
Commissioner and School Trustee. Mr. and Mrs. 
Meins are members of the German Lutheran 
Church. In politics Mr. M. is identified with the 
Democratic party. 

/,enry Pott, farmer, residing on section 27, 
Hahnaman Township, is a native of Ger- 
many, and was born in that country July 
14, 1844. His parents, Jacob and Catharine 
(Stroh) Pott, were also natives of Germany and 
emigrated to the United States and settled in 
Sterling, this county, in 1853. His father died in the 
latter place Feb. 17, 1881. The issue of this union 
was eight children, namely : John, who died in Ger- 
many; Christian, Henry, Joseph, Barbara, Mathias, 
Peter and Mary. 

Henry Pott came with parents to this country in 
1853 and direct to this county, arriving here when in 
his ninth year, and consequently has been a resident 
of the county for 25 years, and during which time he 
has been closely identified with its agricultural ad- 

Aug. n, 1862, Mr. Pott enlisted in Co. D. 75th 
111. Vol. Inf., and served until Feb. 15, 1865, at 
which date he received a discharge on account of a 
gunshot wound which deprived him of his left eye. 
He received the wound at Lovejoy Station, Ga. At 
the battle of Perry ville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862, he re- 
ceived a wound in the hip which, nevertheless, did 
not incapacitate him from duty. 

On receiving his discharge Mr. Pott returned to 

1*^ . 



this county, .where he has since lived. He settled 
in Hahnaman Township in 1861, and is now the 
owner of 154 acres on section 27, 1 10 of which is till- 
able. He is a deserving pensioner of the Govern- 
ment, and receives a pension for the loss of an eye 
as stated. 

Mr. Pott was united in marriage at Sterling, this 
county, Oct. 10, 1868, with Miss Mary, daughter of 
George and Elizabeth (Kauffman) Spangler, natives 
of Pennsylvania. They came to this county in 1863 
and settled in Sterling Township, where her father 
died. His death was caused by drowning in Rock 
River, and occurred in August, 1863. Her mother 
died in Hahnaman Township, March 26, 1873. The 
issue of their union was seven children, Mary, Sarah 
Abraham, Elizabeth, George, Jonas and Ida. 

Mrs. Pott was born in Cumberland Co., Pa. Aug. 
11, 1853. She and her husband are the parents of 
seven children, namely : Henry C., Elizabeth, Jacob, 
R., George A., Emma M., Albert B. and Catharine. 

Mr. Pott has held the office of Overseer of High- 
ways four years and School Director for ten years, 
and Clerk of the Board for five years, and politically 
is an independent. He and his wife are members 
of the German Catholic Church. 

eorge A. Whitcomb, retired manufacturer, 
formerly of the firm of Ely & Whitcomb, 
carriage manufacturers at Morrison, was 
born in Granville, Washington Co., N. Y., 
Oct. 23, 1837, and is the youngest son of 
Benjamin B. and Sabrina B. (Dual) Whitcomb. 
His father was a native of New Hampshire, and his 
mother of New York. 

In 1856 he came to Unionville, this county, and 
engaged as a clerk for James A. Fisher, a general 
merchant. In 1857 he came to Morrison and was 
employed as a clerk in a drug-store for Dr. Coe. He 
bought out Dr. Coe in 1858 and carried on the drug 
business three years, when he sold out and engaged 
in the grain trade. In 1865 he bought an interest 
in the drug-store of John S. Green and maintained 
that connection till 1867, when he sold out. He 
then formed a partnership with Mr. Ely in the real- 
estate business. In 1875 he bought a half interest 
in the Morrison Carriage Works, the property of R. 


S. W. Ely, and the business was conducted under 
the firm name of Ely & Whitcomb. The factory did 
an extensive business, furnishing employment for an 
average force of 22 men, and turning out from'25o 
to 300 carriages annually. He was still interested 
with Mr. Ely in extensive real-estate transactions. 
In November, 1882, he sold out his interest in the 
factory, but still retains his connection with Mr. Ely 
in the real-estate business. Their operations extend 
over several States, including Illinois, Wisconsin, 
Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska, wherein they 
own upwards of 5,000 acres of valuable farming 
land, besides city and town property, including 
dwelling-houses and business buildings. 

During the past year they have operated quite ex- 
tensively in real estate in Minneapolis, where they 
have much valuable property. 

Mr. Whitcomb was married at Mt. Carroll, 111., 
June 22, 1861, to Miss Sarah A. Town, daughter of 
Salem and Mary A. Town, pioneer settlers of White- 
side County. Mrs. Whitcomb was born in Union 
Grove, of this county, Jan. 14, 1841. Mr. and Mrs. 
Whitcomb have three children, all born in Morrison : 
Nettie, born Aug. 22, 1863, now taking a collegiate 
course at Oberlin, Ohio; Annie, born Oct. 22, 1865, 
is now taking a musical course ; and George G., 
bora April n, 1876. 

Mr. Whitcomb in early life was a Republican of 
abolition sympathies, and continued an earnest sup- 
porter of that party during the war and up to Grant's 
administration, since which time he has been an in- 
dependent, strongly opposed to so-called " protective 
tariff." He has been a thorough student in political 
economy and American politics. He supported the 
Democratic national nominees in 1880 and 1884, 
and has won a reputation as a candid and fair 
speaker, whose campaign arguments were logical 
and well supported by unimpeachable authority. He 
has been twice chosen Mayor of Morrison and has 
held minor offices. As shown by our sketch, Mr. 
Whitcomb is one of the pioneers of Morrison, he 
having been a resident of this city upwards of 28 
years, during which time he has been identified with 
its leading business interests, and foremost in sup- 
port of every public enterprise calculated to benefit 
the city or to improve its advantages.. 

Mr. Whitcomb is a thorough business man, cool 
and clear-headed, of quick perceptive faculties and 











sound judgment, scrupulously exact in all his deal- 
ings and rigid in his notions of justice, honor and 
veracity. Naturally quick and impulsive, he has 
won that greatest of victories, self-control. These 
few remarks are offered in no spirit of laudation, but 
simply as the briefest possible mention of some of 
the characteristics of an old settler who is held in 
high esteem as an upright man, true friend, and kind 
neighbor by many who will read these pages. 

Captain John MacKenzie, a resident of 
Fulton, and Master of the steamer" Silver 
Wave," of the Van Sant & Musser line, 
plying between Stillwater, Minn., and Mus- 
catine, Iowa, is a native of Whiteside Co., 111., 
being born in the town of Ustick, July 3, 
1850. His parents, John and Margaret (Ritchie) 
MacKenzie, were born in the Highlands of Scotland 
and came to this county in 1843. 

John was reared on his father's farm, and when 
18 years of age, or in 1868, he engaged as a deck 
hand on a Mississippi River steamer. Before the 
expiration of two years he had qualified himself for 
the position of pilot, and sailed as such. In 18 
he purchased a third interest in the steamer " Wm. 
White " and became her Captain. He afterwards 
built and commanded the steamer " Eclipse." He 
sold out his steamboat interests in the spring of 
1883, since which time he has sailed the "Sam 
Atlee " and the " Silver Wave." 

Capt. MacKenzie was married near Creston, Iowa, 
Dec. 14, 1880, to Miss Abbie E. Devore, daughter of 
John and Josephine (Smith) Devore. Mrs. Mac- 
Kenzie was born near Mt. Carroll, Carroll Co , 111. 

The Captain is a staunch Prohibitionist, of Repub- 
lican antecedents. He is Chairman of the Prohibi- 
tion County Committee, and was the Prohibition 
candidate for Representative in the late campaign. 
He is a member of Fulton City Lodge, No. 189, A. 
F. & A. M. Mrs. MacKenzie is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Captain MacKenzie has worked up through all 
grades of a boatman's duties from the lowest to the 
highest, and has long been classed among the most 
popular and skillful of the Mississippi steamboat 
Captains. He has made his home at Fulton, 111., 
since 1881. 

.avid G. Harrison, farmer on section 23 
Union Grove Township, is a native citizen 
of Illinois, having been born June 21, 
1842, in Beardstown. He is of English de- 
scent, his parents, Thomas and Nancy (Ger- 
{ lick) Harrison, having been born in England, 
where they were married. They came to the United 
States about 1841, and at once located in Beards- 
town, whence they removed after a residence of two 
years to Union Grove Township. They both died 
there. Their children were named John S., Eliza 
A., Charles W., Maria, David G., Mary H., Emma 
J., Sarah L. and Charlotte E. Mr. Harrison is the 
youngest son, and he was an inmate of the parental 
home until its relations were dissolved by the death 
of the father. He succeeded to the heritage of the 
homestead and has continued to make it the scene of 
his efforts. His estate includes 238 acres, and he has 
placed 200 acres under creditable tillage. In polit- 
ical inclinations, Mr. Harrison affiliates with the 
party of Prohibition. 

His marriage to Elizabeth W. Thompson took 
place in Ustick Township, Oct. 6, 1875. Their 
children have been four in number, and were named 
Otto W., Jeanie B., Bessie and Feemie G. Bessie 
died in infancy. The parents of Mrs. Harrison, 
William and Jane (Burns) Thompson, were natives 
of Scotland, and they had eight children, named 
Elizabeth W., Anna B., William G., Archibald T., 
Robert B., Maggie J., Hugh D. and Mary J. Mrs. 
Harrison was born in the city of Glasgow, Scotland, 
Jan. 19, 1848. .She and her husband are members 
of the Baptist Church. 

en. William M. Kilgour, late attorney 
at law at Sterling, was born June 12, 
1828, in Cumberland Co., Pa., and is 
a son of Col. Ezekiel Kilgour, manufacturer, 
and Colonel of the militia regiment in that 
county. His mother, nee Eliza Graham, was a 
daughter of Judge Graham, of the same county. In 
1837 the family came West, settling near Sterling. 
Gen. Kilgour received a common-school education 

L: rv 

UNIVLsi <ir 





in his youth, studied law, and was admitted to prac- 
tice in the State Courts by the Supreme Court at 
Ottawa, 111., in 1856. The next year he was ad- 
mitted to the Bar of the Federal Circuit and District 
Courts, and subsequently in the Supreme Court at 
Washington. The General was a prominent politician. 
Under the old regime he was a Whig, and was a 
representative from his county to the mass conven- 
tion held at Bloomington, which organized the Re- 
publican party in Illinois, and nominated Col. Bissell 
for Governor. 

It was as a soldier, however, that the General 
made his mark. In 1861 he was among the first to 
volunteer, enlisting as a private in the i3th Regt. 
111. Vol. Inf. Upon its organization he was elected 
Second Lieutenant, and served with the regiment one 
year in Missouri, taking part in the skirmish at Wet 
Glaze, Lynn Creek, Springfield and Salem. During 
the time he also served as Judge Advocate. The 
next year, 1862, he was taken sick with fever and 
resigned. He had scarcely recovered from his ill- 
ness when more troops were called for and he volun- 
teered again, receiving a commission as Captain in 
the 75th Regt. 111. Vol. Inf. When the regiment was 
fully organized he was promoted to the rank of Major. 
Shortly afterward, in an engagement at Perryville, 
Ky., he was wounded by a ball passing through his 
body. It was thought at the time that the wound 
would prove fatal ; but he recovered, and in August, 
1863, regained his command just in time to partici- 
pate in the bloody battle of Chickamauga. He con- 
tinued to serve with the regiment until it was mus- 
tered out, in July, 1865, having been in every battle 
in which it participated from the time he rejoined it 
excepting that at Gulp's Farm, making in all 27 regu- 
lar engagements. He was in nearly every battle 
fought in the Department of the Cumberland. Dur- 
ing a great part of the Atlanta campaign he was in 
command of the 8oth 111. Vol. Inf., and at Pumpkin- 
Vine Creek, in Georgia, was under fire for nine con- 
secutive days. The 75th Regt. 111. Vol. Inf., under 
Gen. Kilgour, was the first under Gen. Joseph Hook- 
er's command to charge the rebel works at Lookout 
Mountain, driving the rebels first up the mountain 
and then off of it. He was wounded three times, 
and was three times promoted for meritorious ser- 
vices in the field. His commission as Second Lieu- 
tenant of the 1 3th 111. Inf., he received from Gov. 
Yates, April 20, 1861. For gallant and meritorious 

services at Mission Ridge, Tenn., he was commis- 
sioned Major by brevet, Oct. 31, 1867, by U. S. 
Grant, then President of the United States. Also, 
the same date, he received, for similar valor at 
Atlanta, Ga., a commission as Lieutenant Colonel by 
brevet; and again, for bravery at Nashville, Tenn., 
he was brevetted Colonel. At the close of the war 
he was commissioned Colonel in the regular army, 
and subsequently brevetted Brigadier General. 

The foregoing testimonials to Gen. Kilgour's effi- 
ciency in the field of war in defense of his country 
were never sought by him either directly or indi- 
rectly. They are simply proofs of his merit. On 
his retirement from the army, in 1867, Gen. Kilgour 
resumed the practice of his profession at Sterling, in 
which he was successfully engaged until his death, 
which occurred May 29, 1885, at Los Gatos, Cal., 
from the effects of the principal wound he received 
from the rebels in defense of his country. He was a 
member of the Knights of Pythias, I. O. O. F., A. F. 
and A. M., K. T., and G. A. R. 

The General was married in 1865, to Mary Isa- 
bella Junkin, of Perry Co., Pa. They had five chil- 
dren : Eliza G., Susan J., James Albee, Cassius M. 
and William S. 

'ohn MacKengie, deceased, was an early 
settler of Whiteside County. He was born 
'in the Highlands of Scotland, in midsum- 
mer, 1800, and was the son of Alexander and 
Margaret (Thompson) MacKenzie. He learned 
the trade of mason and builder, and was mar- 
ried in Aberdeenshire, Oct. n, 1833, to Miss Mar- 
garet S. Ritchie, daughter of George and Margaret 
(Read) Ritchie. He emigrated to America in 1838, 
and settled in Virginia, where he continued to reside 
till June, 1843, when he came to Whiteside County 
and located on a farm in the township of Ustick. 
He worked at his trade of mason and contractor in 
Fulton, while his energetic and thrifty wife conducted 
the farm. Mr. MacKenzie built in 1848 and oper- 
ated the first saw-mill at Fulton, which was a small 
water-power mill, and continued to conduct it to the 
time of his death, which occurred Sept. 29, 1854. 
He also worked at his trade, and among his contracts 
was one for the erection of the stone building now 
used as a planing-mill by the Langford & Hall Lum- 


bet Company, which he built for Judge McCoy & 
Co. He was also employed by the Government 
in the construction of Fort Gaines, some 200 miles 
above St. Paul, and spent two seasons on Govern- 
ment work. 

While a resident of Ustick he was the first Super- 
visor of that township, and held other minor offices. 
In politics he was a Whig. Mr. and Mrs. MacKen- 
zie had four sons and six daughters. The eldest 
child was Margaret, wife of James Savage, now of 
Oregon; Helen is the wife of William Savage, of 
Morrison, 111.; Alexander died in childhood; Vir- 
ginia so named from her native State is the wife 
of Augustus Johnson, of Morrison ; George married 
Ella Houghton, and died in 1877, leaving a wife and 
four children ; Alexander, the second of that name, 
married Lovina Devore, and lives in Iowa; Mary 
married William Trye, and lives at Morrison ; John 
and Josephene are twins ; John is a Captain on the 
Mississippi ; he married Miss Abbie E. Devore, and 
resides at Fulton ; Josephene married John Kyner, 
and lives in Nebraska; Clarissa A. is the wife of 
Thomas Janvrin, of Morrison ; George and Alex- 
ander were soldiers of the late war. Mrs. Mac- 
Kenzie survives her husband, and resides at Fulton, 
with her son, Captain John MacKenzie. She has 
been a member of the Presbyterian Church since 
her girlhood. 

Andrew Mathew, farmer, section 6, Hop- 
kins Township, is a son of William and 
Jennette (Wiley) Mathew, natives of Scot- 
land, who came to America in 1851 (see sketch 
of David Mathew), and settled in West Virginia, 
and came to Whiteside County in 1856 and 
passed the remainder of their life here. They had 
ten children, named Thomas, David, William, Jean- 
nette, Andrew, Ann, Margaret, Robert, Jane and 

The subject of this sketch was born in Scotland, 
Aug. 6, 1830. He received a common-school edu- 
cation and remained in his native land till about 
1847, when he came to West Virginia, where he lived 
seven years, engaged in farming and at work on the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, grading. In the fall 
of 1856 he came to Whiteside County and worked 

out for three years. He then rented a farm in Hop- 
kins and Mt. Pleasant Townships for eight years. 
He then purchased 74 acres on section 6, Hopkins 
Township, where he settled and has since lived. He 
was married first in Virginia, to Mary A. Dumire, 
who was a native of Virginia. They h.xd one child, 
Sarah C., who is now the wife of John S. Lingel and 
resides in Morrison. Mrs. Mathew died in Hopkins 
Township, in April, 1858, and Mr. M. was again 
married, in Carroll Co., 111., Jan. 29, 1860, to Rachel 
Hunter, who was a native of Scotland, being a 
daughter of Robert and Jennette (Cassells) Hunter. 
By this marriage there have been seven children, 
Jennette E., Margaret J., William A., Eliza M., Rob- 
ert, Ella R. and Andrew T. 

In his political views Mr. Mathew is independent. 

ruman Culver, a retired merchant, of Rock 
Falls, is a native of the Empire State. He 
is the first son that survived in the family 
of Truman H. and Catherine A. (Campbell) 
Culver, and was born in Booneville, Oneida 

1 Co., N. Y., Sept. 9, 1835. His parents, na- 
tives also of that State, emigrated to Lee County, 
this State, in 1860, where his father died : his mother 
is still living, with one of her sons, at Cambridge, 

Truman, the subject of this biography, remained 
at his parental home until he was 17 years of age. 
At 14 he began to attend school ; being subject to 
asthma, he could not begin earlier. Although his 
schooling comprised so short a term, only three 
years, he made such progress that he then began 
to teach; and, as was the practice in those days, he 
"bought his time " and started out in the world for 
himself, promising to give his father $200 any time 
before he was 21. He paid this debt within 18 
months. He taught eight terms of district school, 
alternating with attendance as a pupil at higher 
schools. From the age of 22 to 24 he attended col- 
lege during the winters and followed manual labor 
the rest of the year. 

He next went to Pike's Peak to dig gold, and was 
not successful. After remaining there a month, in 
company with three others, he made two canoes 
(" dug-outs ") from cottonwood, lashed them together 


to keep them from rocking while on the water, and 
started from Denver (that place then comprising 
only seven sod houses) down the Platte River to 
Omaha; but after going about 150 miles they came 
to grief by the upsetting of their craft in a whirlpool 
caused by a beaver dam. They lost everything ex- 
cept a part of a sack of flour. They made a fire 
on the bank, rolled their rescued flour, which had 
become wet by the accident, into balls and roasted 
them on the coals, for their bread, which they stored 
in a small sack made out of the flour sack just re- 
ferred to. They started on foot and subsisted on 
these bread balls two days, when they met an old 
trapper, from whom they purchased an old coffee- 
pot, without spout, handle or bail, at the price of 
14.50! In this they made gruel out of the dry por- 
tion of their flour, which lasted them about a week. 

At this time they learned from inscriptions on 
buffalo bones that the coming trains had received 
word that the gold diggings had proved a failure and 
that they had turned back, and those coming back 
had taken a shorter route. On learning these facts, 
they knew they would not be overtaken by any one, 
nor met by those coming, while they were hun- 
dreds of miles from civilization, without anything to 
eat. They resolved, however, to push ahead, hoping 
to meat friendly Indians. After their little store 
gave out the first thing they ate was cactus, which 
proved nauseous and could not be retained in the 
stomach. They then tried several kinds of weeds, 
but with no better effect. Finally they succeeded in 
capturing five frogs, which they ate entire! and with 
good results! They pushed on until again ex- 
hausted, when they found some herd's grass, the 
roots of which they ate. On the strength of this 
they trudged along two days more! But by this time 
their stomachs became so weak they could bear 
nothing, yet they dragged their weary way along for 
a few days more, without endeavoring to -eat any- 
thing! At this juncture Mr. Culver noticed that the 
other boys avoided him, and were consulting each 
other privately! He pretended to go to sleep, so he 
might overhear what they said ; and, sure enough ! he 
learned that two of the three were in favor of killing 
him to eat! He roused up and asked them wheth- 
er they heard "those frogs." They answered No. He 
said, " Remain here, and I will go and look for them." 
Accordingly he went down to the bank, and forever 
disappeared from those fellows. He soon fell in 

with a band of Indians, who gave him "jerked" 
antelope, refusing money but accepting a bright- 
colored neck-tie as a remuneration. With this sus- 
tenance Mr. Culver pushed on, walking, for many 
days, and at last sank down on the bank of the 
Platte, utterly exhausted. He wrote on an envelope 
his address and a statement that he had starved to 
death; and there he lay insensible, he knows not 
how long, when he was discovered by four men, in 
the first boat that ever succeeded in getting down 
the river. He could not talk above a whisper. Af- 
ter informing them of the emergency, they took him 
aboard their boat, saying that if he were to die he 
should die with them. They gave him broth, and 
after a few days of careful management they so re- 
vived him that he became able to steer the boat. 
Their provisions being exhausted, they searched 
about for something to eat, and the best they could 
find was the carcass of a buffalo, which had lain so 
long as to become tainted ; but they made a portion 
of it palatable by scorching it. A day or two after 
that gave out, they arrived at Fort Kearney, where 
they were cared for by the Government army sur- 
geons. Regaining sufficient strength, they were 
sent to Omaha, where the subject of this sketch 
found he weighed a little over 100 pounds, having 
lost about 70 pounds! 

Mr. Culver then came to Whiteside County, lo- 
cating at Morrison. After working, as he was able, 
on a farm for three months, he returned to the State 
of New York and taught a term of school. Then he 
came West with his parents, who settled near Lee 
Center, while he came on to Morrison and worked 
on the same farm in 1861, owned by Erastus Pollard. 

Next, Mr. Culver enlisted for the cause of the 
Union in the great War of the Rebellion, joining Co. 
C, Eighth 111. Vol. Cav., as a private, and during 
his service in the army he was under fire more than 
a hundred times. At the battle of Gettysburg he 
was wounded in the right ankle, on the second day 
of the engagement, but he remained on duty to the 
close of that bloody contest. At the expiration of his 
term of service in 1865, he was honorably discharged, 
as First Lieutenant. 

Reluming to Morrison, he engaged in the grocery 
trade, which he followed for about 13 years, erecting 
at Ihe end of three years the first new store build 
ing in Rock Falls, on the corner of Main and May 
Streets. For the next three years he was engaged 




in the boot and shoe trade, and then retired from 
active business. 

Sept. 5, 1865, Mr. Culver was married to Clarinda 
Allen, of Morrison. Their only child, named Glen, 
died when five years of age. 

In his political views, Mr. C. is a Republican. 
Was the first Postmaster of Rock Falls, holding that 
position three years. He is a member of the G. A. R. 


"ohn Devore,, deceased, and early pioneer 
of Illinois and a resident of Ustick Tp., 
was born in Kentucky Oct. 18, 1819. He 
was brought up on a farm in Indiana, where 
he was married to Miss Josephine Smith, a 
native of Vermont. 
Mr. Devore came to Illinois in 1842 and settled 
near Mt. Carroll, Carroll County, where he was en- 
gaged in farming till 1852, when he removed to 
the township of Ustick, this county. He pursued 
the business of farming in Ustick till 1870, when he 
removed to Iowa near Creston, where he purchased 
a farm and made that place his home till the time of 
his death, which occurred Oct. 15, 1884. Mr. and 
Mrs. Devore had two sons and four daughters, viz. : 
Ellen, the eldest, died in infancy ; Noah died aged 
38 years ; Harry S. married Miss Jane Brady and 
resides in Iowa ; Lucinda is the wife of James Brady, 
also of Iowa ; Lovina is the wife of Alexander Mac- 
Kenzie, of Iowa ; and Abbie E. married Capt. John 
MacKenzie and resides in Fulton. 

Mr. Devore was a Republican and a member of 
the United Brethren Church. His wife survives 
him and resides at the homestead in Iowa. She is 
also a member of the Church of the United Brethren. 

B. Seger, M. D., of the firm of Tay- 
lor & Seger, physicians and surgeons; of- 
fice corner of Main & Genesee Streets ; 
residence on Grove, Morrison ; was born in 
Oxford Co., Maine, Jan. 4, 1842, and is the 
son of Allen & Achsa (Howard) Seger. His 
father was a native of Maine and his mother of 
Vermont. He came to Wethersfield, Henry Co., 111., 
his parents in 1852. He began reading medi- 

cine with Doctors Taylor & Person, of Erie, 111., 
prior to the breaking out of the late war. 

In November, 1861, he enlisted in Co. I, 45th III. 
Vol. Inf., and served six months, when he was dis- 
charged for physical disability contracted in the 
field. He then resumed the study of medicine with 
his former preceptors, and pursued his studies till 
the fall of 1863, when he re-enlisted in the 74th 111. 
Vol. Inf., and was detailed as hospital steward in the 
4th Army Corps. He was in constant service in 
hospital duty till the close of the war, and was dis- 
charged Oct. 8, 1865. On his return from the war 
he attended Rush Medical College, of Chicago, tak- 
ing a regular course of lectures and graduated in the 
class of 1867-8, with the degree of M. D. He be- 
gan practice at Erie, this county, which he continued 
till 1882, when he came to Morrison and formed the 
existing partnership with his old preceptor, Dr. Tay- 
lor. He has a rapidly increasing practice, and is 
working into the front ranks of the profession. 

Dr. Seger was married at Erie, III., Feb. 14, 1873, to 
Miss Kate L. Reynolds, daughter of William and 
Ann (Binan) Reynolds. Mrs. Seger was born in 
Fenton, Whiteside Co., 111. They have two children. 
Inez and Ivy. Mrs. Seger's parents were early pio- 
neers of Fenton Township, of this county. 

S. Street, Mayor of Sterling, was born in 
Hinsdale, Mass., Jan. 29, 1836, third in 
order of birth in a family of five children; 
j- parents of Massachusetts nativity. His father, 
Horace Street, was a farmer, moved to Orleans 
Co., N. Y., in 1837, and resided there until his 
death, in June, 1875. His mother, whose maiden 
name was Althea Stowell, died in the same county, 
in January, 1844. 

He remained at his parental home until 1860, at- 
tending the Albion Academy and receiving a prac- 
tical education. From 1853 to 1860 he taught 
school, and then he came to Sterling and engaged 
in selling farm machinery for 18 years, then selling 
out. In 1883 he purchased the coal yard of Taylor 
Williams, of which he is now the proprietor. He 
is a successful, honorable business man, and a prom- 
inent citizen. His residence is on the corner of 
Fifth and Locust Streets. 

In 1865 he was elected Alderman and held 

A f-\ **jaeL~' JiaJ// 


- .. r 


office (or two years ; was Deputy Collector of Inter- 
nal Revenue from 1870 to 1873. In 1881 he was 
elected Mayor, and re-elected in 1884, and again re- 
elected in 1885. At present he is a member of 
the Board of Education of the Wallace School. In 
politics he is a Republican, and in respect to reli- 
gion he attends the Methodist Episccpal Church. 
He is a member of the I. O. O. F. and A. F. & 
A. M. 

Dec. 12, 1861, Mr. Street married Julia A. Smith, 
a native of New York, and they have three children, 
named Emily J., Walter S.. and Albert L. 

I'ames M. Burr is a. resident of Como, Hop- 
|r kins Township, and was formerly a sea 
Captain. He was born in Boston, Mass., 
Dec. 2, 1808, and lived at home until he was 
1 1 years of age, when, after the fashion of a 
large number of youngsters who are born near 
the sea, he yielded to a temptation to try the ex- 
periences of the salt water himself, and ran away on 
a mackerel boat. The trip lasted two months, and 
he was sufficiently well pleased with the experiment 
to continue in the same business three years. He 
next tried the novelties and excitement of cod-fishing 
on the Newfoundland Banks for a season or two, after 
which he went to the Falkland Isles and spent five 
years in seal-fishing. On his return to Boston, he 
obtained a position as first mate on an ocean steamer 
belonging to the Liverpool Packet Line, and operated 
in that capacity about four years. He sptnt a brief 
time at his home in Boston, after which he shipped as 
a common sailor for a voyage around the world, and 
was absent three years. He continued his seafaring 
about 20 years, operating as a sailor before the mast 
as mate and finally as Captain. He passed a year 
or two in the Lake service and afterwards engaged in 
steam-boating on the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. 
While thus engaged he made a visit to a brother in 
Tazewell Co., 111., and while there he decided to 
abandon his seafaring life and accompany his rela- 
tives to Northern Illinois. He came to Whiteside 
County about 1838 and purchased 50 acres of land 
in Hopkins Township, which is now included in the 
platting of Como, and on which he has since resided. 
He has since made a trip to California for the pur- 

pose of mining for gold, in which he spent three 
years, with reasonable success. He has disposed of 
the major portion of his property in the township of 
Hopkins. Captain Burr is a stanch Republican. 

He is the son of Martin and Eunice (Turner) Burr, 
who were natives of Massachusetts and lived there 
until their death. That of the father took place 
Nov. 19, 1846; that of the mother occurred in Au- 
gust, 1853. They had nine children, George T., 
Harriet, Adaline, James M., Eunice, Sarah A., Wil- 
liam T., Theo. M. and Stephen M. 

Captain Burr was married Aug. 22, 1840, at Ports- 
mouth, N. H., to Caroline, daughter of Jeremiah and 
Lucy (Furber) Neal. Her parents were born in that 
city and lived there until their deaths, which oc- 
curred respectively in 1827 and 1869. Their chil- 
dren, five in number, were named Clarinda, Sarah A. 
Caroline H., John W. and Charles K. Mrs. Burr 
was born Dec. 5, 1820, in Portsmouth. To her and her 
husband seven children have been born, James M., 
Adaline E., Eunice T., Hattie, Netty, Charles M., J. 
S. Ellery and William T. The oldest son and the sec- 
ond daughter are deceased. Adaline E., oldest 
daughter, is the wife of Judge David Davis, formerly 
United States Senator from Illinois, and resides at 
Bloomington. Hattie is the wife of Charles Heitshu 
and resides at Marshalltown, Iowa. Eunice T. mar- 
ried Charles N. Munson, formerly of Sterling, now a 
resident of Kansas City, Mo. 

The portrait of Capt. Burr, on the opposite page, 
will naturally be expected on this connection. 

:enry Flock, farmer, residing on section 22, 
Hahnaman Township, is a son of John and 
Anna (Fanenstihs) Flock, natives of Ger- 
many, in which country they both died. They 
were the parents of six children, Henry, Will- 
iam, Joseph, Kathrina and Margaret. 
Henry Flock, subject of this biographical notice, 
was born May 22, 1833, in Germany. He lived in 
his native country until 24 years of age (1857), when 
he came to the United States and soon afterward to 
this county. On his arrival here, he settled in Ster- 
ling Township and " worked out " by the month for 
about four years. 

Mr. Flock enlisted, Aug. n, 1862, in the 75th 111. 
Vol. Inf., and served until the close of the war. He 





served in the infantry for about seven months and 
was then detached and placed on the pioneer corps, 
where he remained for about 14 months. He was 
then transferred to the First United States Engineer 
Corps, where he continued to remain until his dis- 

On receiving his discharge, Mr. Flock returned to 
Whiteside County and settled in Hahnaman Town- 
ship, where he has since resided. He is at present 
(1885) the owner of 276 acres in the township, 210 
of which is tillable. 

Mr. Flock was united in marriage at Polo, 111., 
June 15, 1862, to Miss Barbara, daughter of Jacob 
and Catharine (Stroh) Pott, natives of Germany. 
They came to this country in 1853, and soon there- 
after settled in Sterling, this county, where her 
father died Feb. 17, 1881. He and his wife were 
the parents of five children, Christian, Henry, Bar- 
bara, Mathias and Mary. 

Mrs. Flock was born in Germany, Oct. 18, 1846. 
She accompanied her parents to this country and 
county in 1853 and remained mostly at home until 
the date of her marriage. She is the mother of n 
children by Mr. Flock, namely : Catherine, John, 
Jacob R. W., Mary T., Anna E., Henry, Mathias, 
Elizabeth B., William, Maggie and Nellie T. 

Mr. Flock has held the office of Overseer of High- 
ways and School Trustee, and in politics is a Demo- 
crat. He and his wife are members of the German 
Catholic Church. 

ullivan Jackson, farmer, section 4, Mt. 
Pleasant Township, is the son of Thomas 
L. and Freedom (Heaton) Jackson. The 
former was born Oct. 23, 1787,111 New Lisbon, 
New London Co., Conn. He went to the 
State of New York, and in December, 1824, 
was married to the daughter of William and Martha 
(Bailey) Heaton, who settled in the township of Mt. 
Pleasant in 1837. She was born in 1805. They 
had three children. The family removed in 1835 to 
Portage Co., Ohio, and in April, 1841, he set out with 
his family for Illinois and arrived in May following, 
in Whiteside County. The father died Jan. 12, 
1882, aged nearly 95 years. The mother died Jan. 

23, 1879. Their children are still living, Floyd 
H., Mary and Sullivan. 

The latter was born Dec. 3, 1830, in Jefferson Co., 
N. Y. He has resided on the same section since he 
came in 1841 to Mt. Pleasant Township, and he is 
the owner of 265 acres of land, of which about 160 
acres are under tillage. Politically, Mr. Jackson is 
a Democrat, and has held several township offices. 

He was united in marriage ,Dec. 31, 1862, in Mt. 
Pleasant, to Almira C. Baxter, and they have two 
children, Andrew and Ralph B. H. Mrs. Jackson 
was born March 10, 1843, in Schoharie Co., N. Y., 
and is the daughter of Stephen and Emeline (Dillen- 
beck) Baxter. Her parents were natives of the State 
of New York and settled in Mt. Pleasant Township 
in 1856. They removed to the township of Lyndon, 
where the mother died Nov. 18, 1877. Their chil- 
dren were named Almira C., Jennie L., Lizzie S. 
and Clara T. 

.olomon Hubbard, lumber merchant at 
Rock Falls, was born in Thetford, Orange 
Co., Vt., Oct. 28', 1817, being the sixth in 
a family of 12 children. His parents were 
Josiah and Cynthia (Cummings) Hubbard, 
of Connecticut, and followers of farming pur- 
suits. He received a fine education in the academies 
of his native town, and assisted his father on the 
farm until 18 years of age, when for three years he 
was a clerk in a store. He then opened a general 
stock of goods in Strafford, Vt., continuing in mer- | 
candle business there about two years ; likewise in 
Thetford two years. Selling out, he came to Dover, 
Bureau Co., 111., in 1848, where he was a merchant 
15 years. He sold his stock there and followed the 
same business in Rockford, 111., for eight months. 
Next, he \vas a resident of Dover again, four years, 
dealing in real estate; and finally, in 1869, he moved 
to Sterling, where for the first five years he was en- 
gaged in the sale of dry goods. He sold out, and for 
four years afterward he purchased a stock of groceries 
and was a dealer in that line one year ; then dealt in 
real estate until 1882, when he purchased the lum- 
ber yard and stock of Wheeler & Brown, of Rock 
Falls, in the management of which he and his two 
sons, Harry F. and Arthur G., are now engaged. 



two other men as assistants. Their sales 
aggregate $50,000 or more per year. His first resi- 
dence, consisting of a house and two lots on Second 
Street, he sold, and in 1883 bought another house 
and two lots, on the same street, for $6,000, where 
he now resides. 

Mr. Hubbard was married Sept. 23, 1845, at Ran- 
dolph, Mass., to Miss Amanda N. Belcher, a native 
of Vermont. They have had seven children, four of 
whom are living, Harry F., Frederick B., Arthur 
G. and Emma A. Frederick B. married Lulu Brown, 
of St. Joseph, Mo., and they reside in Sterling, where 
Mr. H. is engaged in the furniture business of Dill 

In his political views, Mr. Hubbard, the subject of 
the foregoing sketch, is a Republican. 

rs. Isabella Sides, a resident of Sterling, 
was the daughter of John M. and Amelia 
H. (Eicholtz) Werntz, and was born Jan. 
1 8, 1843. Her father, a merchant of Stras- 
burg, Pa., sold out there in 1862, and came to 
Sterling, where he was a merchant tailor, un- 
til the time of his decease, which took place Jan. 3, 
1882. Mrs. Werntz died in Strasburg, Pa., Aug. 22, 


Their daughter, the subject of this sketch, mar- 
ried Jacob R. Sides, a native of Strasburg, Dec. 
31, 1863. Mr. S. was born Sept. 2, 1844, and was 
the son of John H. and Maria (Rohrer) Sides. He 
received a fine education. He made his home 
with his parents until he was of age. He taught 
school, and also followed agricultural pursuits in 
Pennsylvania, until 1865, when he sold out and 
came West, locating in Sterling, and entering the 
lumber and grain business. This he followed ten 
years Eight years of this time he bought 
grain and took charge of the books of the firm of 
John S. Miller & Co., distillers, who ran the Sterling 
distillery. During his lifetime he established a nice 
home for his wife and children, and built three other 
houses, two of which he sold. He died Aug. 25, 
1882, leaving a life insurance policy of $20,000, 
whch was paid his family. He had four children, 

namely: Minnie H., Ora K., Edwin R. and Grace 
B. Minnie H. married John Annas, of Sterling, 
May 6, 1885. 

'bomas McClelland, Marshal of the City ot 
Morrison and Constable, was born March 
20, 1824, in Cumberland Co., Pa. His 
father and mother, William and Margaret 
(Shannon) McClelland, were natives of the 
Keystone State. The former died in Franklin 
Co., Pa., in 1842, when about 60 years of age. The 
demise of the latter took place in Cumberland, Alle- 
ghany Co., Md., about 1848. Seven of their nine 
children are now living, namely : Mrs. Lydia Heaggy 
is a widow and resides at Mt. Carroll, 111. ; William 
is a carpenter in Clinton Co., Mo.; Jane, widow of 
William Paxton, lives at Morrison ; John is a Meth- 
odist clergyman in Virginia; Joseph is a mechanic 
in Washington, D. C. 

Thomas McClelland is next to the youngest of his 
parents' children in order of birth, and was brought 
up on his father's farm until he was 17 years of age, 
when he entered a shop in Loudon, Franklin Co., 
Pa., to learn the business of a blacksmith, in which 
vocation he was engaged 35 years, and has passed 
21 years of his life at Morrison in that pursuit. He 
opened his shop there in October, 1855, and oper- 
ated about five years in company with Solomon 
Eshleman. After that, until he abandoned the 
business in 1876, he conducted his affairs alone. 
In the spring of 1877 he was elected Constable, and 
has been successively re-elected to the same posU 
tion to the date of this writing in 1885. In 1879 he 
was elected City Marshal, and, with the exception 
of about one year, he has since occupied the same 
position. Mr. McClelland has been active in other 
official positions in the municipal affairs of Morrison, 
and was a member of the second Board of Trustees. 
He has also acted in the capacity of School Di- 

He was married in Mercersburg, Franklin Co., 
Pa., March 5, 1845, to Jane Ottenberger. Their 
seven children were named Martha J., Margaret I., 
Maria K., Thomas J., Susan C., Lydia A. and Ida 
May. Two of the daughters and the only son 
are deceased; Maria K. is the wife of William I. 

x . 



sv y 


Lane, of Morrison; Lydia A. married Lewis M. 
Brown, of the same place. Mrs. McClelland was 
born Oct. 19, 1823, in Franklin Co., Pa., and is the 
daughter of Jacob Ottenberger. 

iiimiel Taylor, M. D., physician and sur- 
geon, member of the medical firm of Tay- 
lor & Seger, at Morrison, was born March 
13, 1829, in Sharon Township, Richland Co., 
Ohio, and is the son of Henry and Evelina 
(Ayres) Taylor. His father and mother were 
born in Connecticut, and removed from that State to 
Ohio, where they completed the period of their lives 
in Richland County. The father died in April, 1874. 
The demise of the mother occurred Sept. 4, 1866. 
Three of their children are living, and the record of 
) seven, of whom they became the parents, is as fol- 
lows : Walter, the eldest, is deceased ; Esther mar- 
ried Dr. William Bricker, of Shelby, Ohio; Burton A. 
is not living; he married Catherine Sipe, of Shelby ; 
Dr. Taylor is the fourth in order of birth ; Alva B. 
and Mary A., who were his successors, are both 
dead; the former married Margaret Anderson, and 
the latter was the wife of A. D. Anderson, and died 
at Kansas City, in December, 1881 ; they re- 
moved to Whiteside County, where she died about 
seven years later ; Angelina is the wife of David 
Cummins, of Shelby, Ohio; Walter died a single man 
in California, to which place he had gone during the 
gold-mining enthusiasm. 

Dr. Taylor was reared on his father's farm, and re- 
ceived the anvantages of the common school. Later 
he attended Oberlin College several years, where he 
formed his purpose to devote himself to a profes- 
sional career; and later he read medicine under the 
direction of his brother-in-law, Dr. Bricker. 

After having read under his direction at intervals 
about four years, he went to Ann Arbor and attend- 
ed the Medical Department of the University of 
Michigan six months. The next year he went to 
the Western Reserve Medical College at Cleveland, 
Ohio, where he was graduated in the spring of 1854. 
began his independent initiatory practice at 


Salem, Ohio, where he continued nearly two years. 
He came thence to Erie, Whiteside Co., 111., in the 
fall of 1855, where he established and maintained 

his practice seven years. In 1862 he removed to 
Morrison, and has continued his business at that 
place for more than 20 years. In 1879 he associ- 
ated S. S. Hall, M. D., with himself in his business, 
and their connection existed until May, 1882, when 
Dr. Hall gave place to Dana B. Seger, M. D. 

Dr. Taylor has earned a substantial repute as a 
medical practitioner, and has built up a profitable 
and extensive practice. He has officiated eight 
years as County Coroner. He belongs by member- 
ship to the American Medical Association, and is 
also a member of the Order of Odd Fellows. 

He was united in marriage to Stella Hannum, 
Dec. 26, 1854, at Brecksville, Cuyahoga Co , Ohio. 
She was born in that county Sept. 9, 1835, and is 
the daughter of Julius and Martha Hannum. Her 
father was born Oct. 16, 1780, in Masschusetts, and 
died Dec. 9, 1853. Her mother was born in the same 
place Aug. 13, 1789, and died March 28, 1864. 
Five children have been born to Dr. and Mrs. 
Taylor: Eva M. was born Dec. i, 1858, in Erie, 
Whiteside County, and was married Oct. 30, 1879 
to Frank Fitzgerald; Walter, bom Sept. it, 1861 
died May 13, 1882; Burton was born July 19, 1864, 
and died Dec. n, 1876; Mary A. was born Oct. 27, 
1867 ; William B. was born Dec. 23, 1872. 

rederick Wahl, farmer, residing on section 
22, Hahnaman Township, is a son of Ma- 
thias and Rosa (Schwartz) Wahl, natives 
of Germany. They came to the United States 
in 1854, and first settled in Ohio. In 1857 they 
came to this county and located in Sterling 
Township, afterward removing to Genesee Town- 
ship, where, in 1862, the mother died. The father 
still survives. The issue of their union was six 
children, namely: Frederick, Frederika, Louisa, Wil- 
liam, Caroline and Lucinda. 

Frederick Wahl, subject of this biographical no- 
tice, was born in Germany, Feb. 8, 1834. He lived 
in his native country until 1853, attending the com- 
mon schools until 14 years of age. In the spring of 
1853 he came unaccompanied to this country, 
and for three years "worked out" in Ohio. In the 
spring of 1857 he came to this county, and "worked 
out" until 1861, when he went to Iowa and pur- 





chased a farm. He lived on the latter place four 
years; then sold, and returned to this county and 
rented a farm, which he cultivated for two years. 

In 1868 Mr. Wahl purchased 160 acres of land, 
situated on section 22, Hahnaman Township, on 
which he has since resided. He has erected fine 
farm buildings on his home place, and by subsequent 
purchase has increased his landed possessions in 
Hahnaman Township to 560 acres, 440 of which is 

Mr. Wahl was united in marriage in Sterling 
Township, Feb. 22, 1858, to Miss Anna, daughter of 
George and Catharine (Buhler) Kirges, natives of 
Germany. They came to America in the fall of 1855, 
and settled in Jordan Township, this county, where 
the father was drowned, in July, 1858. The issue of 
their union was five children: Mary, Barbara, Cathe- 
rine, Anna, Christiana. 

Mrs. Wahl was born in Germany, March 8, 1838. 
She and her husband are the parents of 12 children, 
namely, Catherine, Caroline, William W., Frederick, 
Edward, Charles M., Frank, Nellie H., Henry, 
George, Ethel A. and Glenn F. 

Mr. Wahl has held the office of Road Commis- 
sioner, School Trustee, School Director and School 
Treasurer, and politically is an adherent to the prin- 
ciples of the Republican party. He and his wife are 
both members of the Lutheran Church. 

|;apt. Christopher C. Carpenter, of Fulton, 
S^3 Captain of the steamer "Brother Jona- 
than," of the Jenks, Mathews & Jordan Line, 
of Stillwater, Minn., is a native of Whiteside 
Co., 111., and was born in Albany, Feb. 20, 
1849. His parents, John B. and Mary(Fisk) 
Carpenter, were among the pioneers of Illinois, of 
1840, and of Whiteside County, of 1846, and were 
originally from New York. 

The subject of this sketch was brought up on a 
farm, and in 1864 began work on the river, floating 
rafts. In 1868 he began steam-boating, and was 
made Captain of his first boat, the steamer "G. B. 
Knapp," in 1870, since which time he has been 
Master of the steamers " Jim Watson," " Lumber- 
man," <; Dexter," " Nellie," " La Fayette," " Lamb " 
and finally " Brother Jonathan." At this writing he 

is about starting out on his fourth season as Captain 
of the last named boat. He has had 20 years' ex- 
perience on the river in the lumber and log business, 
and 15 years' as steam-boat Captain. During this 
time he has never lost a boat or met with any acci- 
dent of consequence, but has been very successful, 
and is held in high esteem as an experienced and 
trustworthy officer. 

He was married in Albany, 111., Nov. 24, 1870, to 
Miss Mary J. LaRue, daughter of George and Ger- 
trude A. LaRue. Mrs. Carpenter was born in Lee 
Co., 111. They have two children, Effiie M. and 
Gertrude A. 

Capt. Carpenter is a member of Abou Ben Adhem 
Lodge, No. 148, I. O. O. F., of Fulton, 111., and has 
been through the chairs. In politics he is a Demo- 
crat. He has made his home in Fulton since 1870, 
except two years, from 1878 to 1880, which he spent 
in Cordova, 111. 

Daniel L. Burroughs, of Tampico, has been 
a prominent factor in the various business 
interests of Whiteside County since his re- 
moval here in 1867. He is at present ex- 
tensively interested in traffic in poultry, eggs 
and butter. He was born Oct. 14, 1841, in 
Napoli, Cattaraugus Co., N. Y., where his father, 
Loren Burroughs, was a prominent farmer. Meribah 
(Boardmari) Burroughs, the mother, was also a na- 
tive of the State of New York. Daniel is the tenth 
in order of birth of 13 children included in the 
family of his parents. He spent the years of his 
youth in alternate attendance at school and in farm 
labor on his father's homestead, and when 20 years 
old enlisted in the military service of the United 
States. Aug. 9, 1862, he enrolled in Co. B, i54th 
N. Y. Vol. Inf. His chiefs in company, regiment 
and brigade were Capt. Allen, Col. Jones and Gens. 
Hooker and Howard, and his command was assigned 
to the Army of the Potomac. He was in the various 
engagements in which the regiment participated, 
among which was the battle of Chancellorsville, 
where his brother, George W. Burroughs, was killed. 
He was taken ill with pneumonia, and on recovery 
was transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps. He 
was sent to Washington, D. C., where he was hon- 




orably discharged July 19, 1865, at the termination 
of the war, after a period of military service extend- 
ing over nearly three years. Previous to his enlist- 
ment his parents had removed to Chautauqua 
County, where he returned on being once more at 
liberty to resume the duties of a civilian. He was 
for some time engaged in teaching in that county, 
and was married Nov. 22, 1866, in Jamestown, to 
Mattie, the only daughter of W. C. and Mary E. 
(Abbott) Hassett. She was born in Chautauqua 
County, N. Y., in 1848, and was reared to woman- 
hood in her native county. Her father was a farmer, 
and was largely interested in the dairy business. 
Mr. and Mrs. Burroughs have one child, A. De Ette, 
born May 16, 1868. 

In March, 1867, they came to Whiteside County, 
locating at Prophetstown, where Mr. Burroughs was 
a farmer and also a teacher for some time. He 
went thence to Geneseo, Henry Co., 111., and became 
a dealer in butter and eggs, establishing his business 
in 1872 and operating extensively until 1876, when 
he sold out and came to Tampico. He has since 
been more extensively engaged in trade in poultry 
than any other single dealer in the State. In the 
winter of 1884-5 he shipped 200 tons of poultry, and 
he has also been interested in the management of two 
creameries. He has six poultry buildings in dif- 
ferent localities, and is the owner of considerable 
village property. 

Mr. Burroughs is a Republican of a decided type, 
and has served on the Board of Village Trustees. 

euben F. Shirley, retired farmer, and a 
resident of Rock Falls, was born Aug. 21, 
> " 1820, in Connersville, Fayette Co., Ind., 
and was the youngest son of eight children in 
the family of John and Elizabeth (Danner) 
Shirley, his father a native of Virginia and his 
mother of Pennsylvania. Receiving a limited school 
education, and remaining with his parents until 22 
years of age, he bought a farm in Marshall Co., Ind., 
containing 170 acres, and occupied it from 1843 to 
1864 ; he then sold it, and came to Lee County, this 
State, buying 240 acres of land, which he cultivated 
three years; selling this, he purchased an 8o-acre 
farm in this county, on the Dixon road, and resided 

there from 1867 to 1876. He then sold this place to 
his son, Samuel, and came to Rock Falls, and pur- 
chased a half block in Arey's Addition, erecting a 
residence thereon, which he now occupies. 

Politically, Mr. Shirley is Democratic. He is a 
self-made man, ready at all times to lend a helping 
hand for the good of society. 

He was married June 2, r842, to Jane Thompson, 
also a native of Indiana. They have had six chil- 
dren, four of whom are now living and married, 
namely: Samuel T., who married Alice V. Worth- 
ington; Meredith A., who married Sarah L. Dens- 
more; Sarah E., who married Charles E. Pay son, 
and Nancy A., who married J. H. Meckling. 


. Edward V. H. Alexander, dentist at 
Sterling (office on Locust Street), and the 
oldest operator in that line in the city, was 
born in Hartford, Conn., April 29, 1830, and 
was the fourth child in a family of six. His 
father, William Alexander, died in 1832, and his 
mother, nee Maria Wilber, survived until April 14, 
1885, the very day that this sketch was written. 

The subject of this biographical outline attended 
the common schools until he arrived at the age of 
1 6 years, and after he became of age he attended 
Macedon Academy, Wayne Co., N. Y., for two years, 
and then for eight years he taught school during the' 
winter seasons, alternating with farm work the re- 
mainder of the year. 

April 10, 1856, he married Miss Mary Ada Hale, 
a native of Wayne Co., N. Y. There are now two 
children living: Edward H. and Jessie. After mar- 
riage the Doctor moved to Beloit, Wis., where a 
daughter, Mary Hellen, was born. At this place he 
was engaged in farming and teaching for two years; 
then he returned to Clyde, Wayne Co., N. Y., where 
the daughter died, and was buried at Lyons, that 
county. There he purchased a farm of 80 acres, 
cultivated it one year, sold it, and moved West 
again, this time locating in Sterling. Here for the 
first two years he conducted a grocery and drug- 
store; this he sold, and in April, 1864, he visited 
the gold regions of Montana, being in the vicinity 
of Virginia City, Helena, the Yellowstone and Deer 
Lodge Valley, for three and a half years ; next, he 



went to Portland, Oregon, for a. few weeks, and 
thence to Salem, the capital of the State, where he 
remained two and a half years. At the latter place 
he finished his studies in medicine and surgery, 
which he had pursued years before, and graduated 
at the Willamette University in 1870. Having ac- 
quired the art of dentistry, and previously practiced 
it, upon returning home to Sterling in 1870 he en- 
tered the dental profession, in which he has re- 
mained to the present time, a successful operator 
and a leading man in the profession. 

In his political views, Dr. Alexander is a stanch 
Republican. He is a member of the I. O. O. F., 
and a representative and worthy gentleman. Mrs. 
A. died May 16, 1882, while on a visit at Lyons, 
Wayne Co., N. Y., and was buried there beside her 

;"ohn Mason, farmer, section 27, Coloma 
Township, was born Dec. 25, 1803, in 
Paisley, Scotland, and was the fifth child in 
his father's family of u children, eight sons 
and three daughters. His parents were George 
and Elizabeth (Nelson) Mason, natives also of 
Scotland. His father was a manufacturer of silk and 
shawls, and died March 7, 1849, and his mother 
Feb. 29, 1832. When 17 years of age he emigrated 
to America, landing at Quebec. Going to Caledonia 
Co., Vt., he worked out by the month on a farm, 
remaining there until 1830. He then traveled for 
a while, in the meantime learning the mason's trade. 
In September, 1836, he came to Chicago, and went 
thence to Joliet, where he worked on a farm. The 
next year he came to Sterling, this county, when it 
was wild prairie, there being there but one house a 
log structure. Here he worked at odd jobs, until he 
took a claim of a quarter-section of land three miles 
north of Sterling. After living there for four years 
he sold the place, and then for two years drove a 
team, hauling to Chicago and return, and doing other 
jobs in the line of teaming. About this time he 
suffered considerably from inflammation of the eyes, 
trying many remedies, but without avail. Returning 
to Scotland, his eyes were cured, and he came again 
to Sterling, where he resumed his trade for two 
years. He then came to Coloma, and purchased 80 

_?*jpG)*tr'. /-^.- \. 

acres of land, where he has since made his home. 
He has never been married, but has always had 
some of his friends living with him. 

In politics Mr. Mason is a Jackson Democrat, and 
votes steadfastly with his party. In religion he was 
brought up a Presbyterian. He is a public-spirited 
man, as is evinced by the material and moral aid he 
has given public institutions of beneficence. 

Robert McNeil, a nephew of Mr. Mason, who has 
lived with him ever since his immigration to this 
country, in 1849, superintends the work of the farm. 
He was married July 4, 1856, to Miss Jean Tyle, of 
Ogle Co., 111., but formerly from Scotland. They 
have been the parents of eight children : Alexander 
J., Agnes J., Willie E., John M., Jennie L., Geor- 
giana M., Robert B. and Mary I. Mr. McNeil is a 
Democrat, and a member of the County Democratic 
Committee; also Chairman of the Town Central 
Committee. He holds the Presbyterian faith, and 
his wife and daughter belong to the Presbyterian 
Church at Sterling. 

Mr. McNeil was the first organizer of the White- 
side County Caledonian Club, consisting of 40 mem- 
bers, all of Scotch descent. They received a charter 
in 1878, and are still in existence. They have a 
library of 250 volumes, mostly of Scotch and Eng- 
lish literature. 

illiam A. Early, farmer, section ir, Mont- 
morency Township, is a son of Charles H. 
and Elicia (McKinney) Early, natives of 
New York and Canada respectively. Tliey 
were residents of York State at the date of 
their death, that of the father occurring in the 
spring of r863, and that of the mother in December, 
1860. The issue of their union comprised seven 
children : Jane, William A., Margaret,~Mary, Margie, 
Elicia and Charles H. 

William A. Early, subject of this biographical 
notice, was born in Columbia Co., N. Y., Nov. 18, 
1832. He lived on the home farm, alternating his 
labors thereon by attendance at the common schools, 
until he attained the age of 21 years. On reaching 
that age he came to Kane County, this State, and 
resided one winter in Elgin. 

In the spring of 1854 Mr. Early came to this 
,--, ' ^jsxgflp" ^xa 



r.ounty, and for four years he was engaged in the 
livery business and teaming at Sterling. He then 
purchased 40 acres of land situated on section n, 
Montmorency Township, upon which he erected 
good buildings, and entered actively and vigorously 
upon the cultivation of his land. He now owns 160 
acres, 120 of which is tillable. He keeps about 40 
head of cattle, 6 head of horses, and fattens some 50 
head of hogs annually. 

Mr. Early was united in marriage, in Geneva, 
Kane County, this State, Jan. 10, 1861, to Miss 
Susan A., daughter of Abraham and Susan (Dolph) 
Dunham, natives of Connecticut and New York, re- 
spectively. They settled in Kane County, this State, 
where they both died, inside of one week, in March, 
1861. Their family comprised nine children, 
Edward, Harriet, Elizabeth, Sophia, Susan A, 
Fletcher D., Edward E., Charles and Martha. 

Susan A. (Mrs. Early) was born in Steuben Co., 
N. Y., Nov. 18, 1835, and has borne to Mr. Early 
eight children, Albert W., Emma ]., Eva M., Hat- 
tie A., George W., Frank A., Mary E. and Charles F. 

Mr. Early has held many offices of trust, and in 
politics is a Republican. Socially, he has been a 
member of the I. O. O. F. ever since he attained 
his majority. 

ames K. Chester, dry-goods merchant at 
Sterling, was born at Henrietta, Lorain Co., 
Ohio, March 6, 1843, the fifth in a family 
of seven children. His father, Edwin Chester > 
a fanner, was born in Connecticut, came West 
first to Ohio, then to Michigan and Kansas, 
where he lived five years with a son, and finally, 
in 1880, to Sterling, where he died, March 29, 1885. 
His wife, nee Mary E. Porter, was a native of Mas- 
sachusetts, and died in Ohio, in 1857. 

When 18 years of age, Mr. Chester, the subject of 
this sketch, entered the college at Oberlin, Ohio, at 
which place he afterward engaged as a clerk in a store 
for six years ; then for the two succeeding years he was 
a member of the firm of Reamer, Hubburd & Co , as 
proprietors of the same establishment. In 1869 he 
came to Sterling and, continuing in the same busi- 
ness, first was a member of the firm of Mills & Ches- 
ter, then Ingersoll & Chester, until 1875, tnen of tne 
terling Mercantile Company for five years, when he 


sold his interest in the latter and opened a dry -goods 
house on Third Street, under the firm name of J. K. i 
Chester & Co., where he has since been prosecuting ' 
his business interests, with that marked degree of 
success which characterizes a solid man of business. > 
He is a consistent member of the Congregational 
Church, a member of society in high standing and an 
influential citizen. He is a member of the A. O. U. 
W., of the I. O. M. A., and of the American Legion 
of Honor. He has a fine residence on Third Street. 
Oct. n, 1866, is the date 'of his marriage to Miss 
Cynthia L. Ingersoll, and they have one daughter, 
Sophie I., born Jan. 19, 1876. 

enry M. Zendt, a farmer of Jordan Town- 
ship, resident on section 17, was born Feb. 
21, 1825, in Baden, Germany. Jacob Zendti 
his father, was born also in Baden, and was 
a millwright by vocation. Elizabeth (Down) 
Zendt, his mother, was born in Baden. In 
1830, the family, consisting of the parents and six 
children, emigrated from Germany to the United 
States. After a residence of three years in the city 
of Philadelphia, where one child was born, they re- 
moved to Montgomery Co., Pa. In 1851 another 
transfer, to Lancaster County, in the same State, was 

While living in Montgomery County, Mr. Zendt 
served three years as an apprentice in learning the 
trade of carriage-maker from a man named Abraham 
Kolb. He worked at that business as a journeyman 
six years in Montgomery County, where he was fore- 
man four years in a carriage shop. After removing 
to Lancaster County, he established a shop with 
business relations under his own control, managing 
his affairs at that point 12 years with success. 

His marriage to Catherine Groff took place Feb. 
28, 1860. Mrs. Zendt is the daughter of B. M. and 
Lydia(Tombo) GrofF, and was born in East Lampster 
Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., Sept. 24, 1841. When 
she was ten years of age she was removed from the 
care of her parents and was reared to womanhood by 
strangers. Her mother died in Lancaster County, in 
the summer of 1884. Her father is yet living. The 
children of Mr. and Mrs. Zendt have been born as 
follows: Lydia A., Oct. 18, 1863; Mary M., June 16, 
A' s-\ 

' - 



1866; John G., Oct. 23, 1871. Two children died 
young: Franklin G., born Jan. 5, 1861, died June i, 
1864 ; Naomi T., born April 2t, 1859, died May 17, 

They came to Sterling in the spring of 1864. Mr. 

Zendt followed the business of carriage-maker there 
20 years with success. In 1873 he formed a part- 
nership with A. B. Spies, and their business relations 
continued until the senior partner became a farmer. 
In May, 1867, he purchased 80 acres of land on sec- 
tion 1 8, Jordan Township, which was improved. In 
February, 1884, he made another purchase of 60 
acres on section 17, which was also improved. He 
is also the owner of five acres of timber in Gen- 
esee Township. He has made considerable addi- 
tional improvement on his property. He and his 
wife are members of the Meaponite Church, and 
Mr. Zendt is one of the Deacons of the society. 

1'ames M. Winters, a retired farmer, resi- 
Jl?- dent in the village of Coleta, in Genesee 
Township, was bcrn March 22, 1809, in 
Leicester Township, Genesee Co., N. Y. His 
father, Timothy Winters, was a farmer by call- 
ing and was born in Pennsylvania. He was 
of Irish origin and was married in his native State, 
to Margaret Lemon. He fixed his family residence 
in Genesee County and lived there some years, re- 
moving thence to Washington Co., Ind. He engaged 
in farming there until his death in 1841, when he 
was 56 years of age. The maternal grandparents of 
Mr. Winters came from Germany to the United 
States, and from them descended the families of 
their name in this country, who are of German origin. 
The mother of Mr. Winters was born in the eastern 
part of Pennsylvania, near the line of the State of 
Xew York, where she was brought up to womanhood 
and married. She went with her husband to Indiana 
in 1817, and died in Washington County, in 1822, 
aged 38 years. She was the mother of six children, 
three sons and three daughters. 

Mr. Winter's birth was preceded by that of one 
sister, and he was a little less than nine years of age 
when his father removed his family .to Indiana. 
Washington County was in its infancy, having been 
organized only one year previous to their settlement 
within its borders. He was an inmate of his father's 

household until the years of his minority were 
passed, which were spant in obtaining a common- 
school education and in acquiring a complete un- 
derstanding of agriculture. His education was lim- 
ited according to the meagre advantages afforded by 
the pioneer schools, but his temperament led him to 
observe and reflect to an extent that sufficed as well 
for mental training as instruction would have done. 
He had also good judgment and discrimination in 
the choice of books, of which he was fond. 

He was married Aug. 17, 1831 (the year follow- 
ing th it in which he became his " own man "), to 
Susan, daughter of George and Tabitha (Hendricks) 
Gyger. She was born in East Tennessee, and her 
parents were natives of Scotland. They removed 
from Tennessee to Indiana in the year in which the 
State was organized. Her father died in Washing- 
ton County in 1831; the mother's death occurred 
about four years later. 

Mrs. Winters died in Coleta. She was a woman 
of decided Christian character and passed the later 
years of her life in earnest, devoted labor in the 
cause which was nearer her heart than any other. 
She died June 10, 1882. In religious connection 
she belonged to the United Brethren Church. She 
is sincerely mourned by her numerous acquaintances, 
and seven children are left motherless by her death. 
Two children had gone before to the other world. 
George Clinton Winters, one of the deceased sons, 
became a soldier of the Union Army, enlisting in 
Co. A, 34th Regt. 111. Vol. Inf., commanded by Col. 
E. N. Kirk, of Sterling. He was seized with typhoid 
fever, from which he died in the hospital at Louis- 
ville, Ky., soon after his regiment was assigned 
to its position. John M. died in 1856, aged three 
years. Following is the record of the seven chil- 
dren who survive : Catherine, who married Newlon 
Dodd, a farmer of Clay Co., Kan. ; William J., who 
married Elizabeth Fowler and now resides in the 
vicinity of Traer, in Tama Co., Iowa; Tabitha H., 
who married Cephas Hurless, late Supervisor of 
Genesee Township. He died at Coleta in the fall of 
1884. James P. married Olive Baxter and lives at 
Marshall, Iowa; Matilda C., who married E. M. 
Olmstead and lives at Coleta ; E. C. Winters, who 
married Paulina Scoville and lives at Sterling, 111.; 
Melissa is the wife of Charles Wallace, a farmer of 
Riley Co., Kan. 

Mr. Winters was a second time married, at Coleta, 




r ' 


Dec. 9, 1884,. to Anna Skill, daughter of Timothy 
and Margaret (Carr) Skill. Her parents were na- 
tives of Ireland, where their entire lives were passed. 
Her father died at 50 years of age, in 1883. Mrs. 
Winters was born in the north of Ireland, Dec. 25, 
1858, and emigrated to the United States in 1880, 
and had been in America four years when mar- 

Mr. Winters came from Washington Co., Ind., to 
Illinois in r847, and located at first in the township 
of Wysox, Carroll County, where he continued to 
reside until the fall of 1876, the date of his retire- 
ment from the life of a farmer, when he fixed his 
residence at Coleta. He is the owner of four dwell- 
ings at that place, and has 1 1 acres of land laid out 
in village lots. Mr. Winters is an active member 
of the United Brethren Church, in which he has 
been a Class-leader and Trustee. While a resident 
of Carroll County, he was active in the administra- 
tion of local affairs. He was elected Assessor of the 
township of Genesee in 1884, and is now the incum- 
bent of that position, which he has held since the 
date of his first election. He is an earnest and zeal- 
ous Republican. 

Mr. Winters is of that type of man and citizen as 
demands, in the estimation of the community, a rep- 
resentation among the portraits of this volume; and 
it is accordingly given, on a page opposite the be- 
ginning of the foregoing sketch. 

ugust Stern, farmer, section 8, Hopkins 
Township, is a son of Christian and Louisa 
Stern, natives of Germany, who emigrated 
to America about 1862, and settled in Ogle 
Co., 111., and afterwards removed into this 
county, settling in Genesee Township, where 
they resided until their death. They had five chil- 
dren, Fritz, Christoph, August, Fredericka and 

Mr. Stern, the subject of this sketch, was born in 
Germany, Aug. 24, 1835. He lived in his native 
country till 1858, where he was employed in farming. 
In the summer of 1858 he came to America and 
lived about a year in Ogle County, and came to 
Whiteside County in 1861, purchasing 80 acres of 
land on section 8, Hopkins Township, where he set- 

tied and has since lived. He is the owner of 203 
acres, 200 of which is in good cultivation. He has 
erected fine buildings u]>on his farm. 

Mr. Stern was married in Sugar Grove Township, 
Ogle County, Feb. 21, 1861, to Dorothea Shultz, 
daughter of Frederick and Dorothea Shultz, who 
were natives of Germany. They had a family of two 
children who lived to years of maturity, namely : 
Dorothea and Ernestina. Mrs. S. was born in Ger- 
many, Sept. i, 1839. Mr. and Mrs. Stern are the 
parents of 12 children, 11 of whom are living, viz., 
Henry W., Edgar F., Emma J., Isabella, John F., 
William C., Ernest T., Hannah J., GustavA., Helena 
A. and Herman A Christian died when an infant. 

The parents are members of the German Lutheran 
Church. In politics Mr. Stern is identified with the 
Democratic party. . 


"oseph C. Eeeves, farmer, section 20, Hahn- 
aman Township, is a son of Howell and 
Phebe (Howell) Reeves, his father a na- 
tive ; of New York and his mother of New Jer- 
sey. They passed their entire lives in the 
Empire State. They had eight children, as 
follows : Stephen, Hila, David, Amos, Fanny E., 
Joseph C., Harlan P. and Charles E. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Wayne Co., 
N. Y., April 26, 1840, and obtained his education at 
the common school until 17 years of age and then 
for two years at the Marion Collegiate Institute in 
Wayne Co., N. Y. In the fall of 1860 he came to 
Whiteside County; taught school in Hahnaman 
Township the following winter, and the next autumn 
returned to Wayne Co., N. Y., for the purpose of 
enlisting in the army. He enrolled Sept. 19, 1861, 
in the Eighth N. Y. Cav., and served nearly four 
years, being in about 60 general engagements, be- 
sides numerous skirmishes. At the battle of Five 
Forks, Va., in April, 1864, he was wounded in the 
neck by a minie ball, which incapacitated him for 
further service, and he remained in the hospital at 
Washington until the close of the war. 

After receiving his discharge he came directly to 
Whiteside County and, in company with his brother 
Amos, purchased 200 acres of land in Hahnaman 
Township, since which time he has resided there, 



with the exception of nearly six years, when he lived 
in the township of Tampico. He is now the owner 
of 1 60 acres on section 20, all of which is in cultiva- 

Mr. Reeves is a member of Samuel G. Steadman 
Post, No. 491, G. A. R., has held the office of Town- 
ship Assessor one year, is a Republican in his po- 
litical views, and both himself and wife are members 
of the Baptist Church. 

He was married in Washington, D. C., Nov. 30, 
1869, to Fanny R. Brewer, daughter of Hiram and 
Clarrissa (Hollister) Brewer, natives of Massachusetts 
and now residing in Washington, D. C. Their children 
were six in number, and named Mason H., Auren S., 
Hiram H., Maria C., Fanny R. and Daniel E. Mrs. 
Reeves was born in Berkshire Co., Mass., Nov. 26, 
1843. Mr. and Mrs. Reeves are the parents of four 
children, viz. : Auren C., J. Mason, H. Edson and 
Walter E. 

j ^ <:> _. 

r. John L. Morrill, practicing physician 
at Rock Falls, was born Oct. 19, 1823, at 
Olean, Cattaraugus Co., N. Y., and was 
reared in Napoli. He was the fourth in the 
family of Mastin and Sally (Osborn) Morrill, 
natives of Vermont. The senior Morrill was 
the first male child born in Danville, Vt., and was a 
farmer by vocation. The subject of this biograph- 
ical notice remained at his parental home until of 
age, obtaining a liberal education. He taught 
school for a time, and then attended high school in 
Springfield, Erie Co., about three years. Then he 
taught eight years in graded and district schools, in 
the meantime taking up the study of medicine. 
Commencing to attend lectures in the fall of 1855, 
he was admitted to practice the next year. He 
taught school and practiced medicine until 1860, 
when he made a trip to the Rocky Mountains. He 
visited Boulder City, when there was but one house 
m the place supplied with a floor ; and Golden City, 
where men were engaged in digging for gold ; and 
also Denver. He was on this tour from April to 
September. He then located in Yorktown, Bureau 
> Co., 111., where he followed his profession eight 
years, coming then, in 1867,10 Rock Falls, since 
- which date he has pursued his calling here. In the 

fall of that year he erected a residence, and the next 
year a store building, wherein he opened a stock of 
drugs ; but this he afterward sold to O. A. Oliver & 
Co., who continued business in the same building 
for about eight years. Being signally successful, he 
has had a large practice. He has built one of the 
finest residences in the village, and three miles east 
he owns a valuable farm of 2 1 2 acres. 

Dr. Morrill was married Oct. 28, 1863, to Louisa 
Smith, a native of Allegany Co., N. Y., and they 
have two children, viz. : Ella Francina, born Aug. 
13, 1866, and Arthur Burdett, May 7, 1872. 

In his political views the Doctor is a Republican, 
and both himself and wife are members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. 

'ohn R. Renner, farmer, section 18, Hahn- 
aman Township, is a son of William and 
Elmina (Rheinhart) Renner, natives of 
Pennsylvania, who married and lived in that 
State until Dec., 1842, when they emigrated 
West, and, after spending the ensuing winter 
at Deer Grove, Hahnaman Township,, this county, 
removed to Bureau County, this State. There they 
resided until 1859, when they returned to Hahnaman 
Township, settling upon section 17, where they re- 
sided until Mr. Renner's death, which occurred Nov. 
20, 1859. They had a family of n children, whose 
names were William D., Emanuel, Uriah, John R., 
Thomas, James, Margaret J., Susan E., Ruth, Frank 
and Freddie. Mrs. Renner was again married, in 
Tampico Township, to William K. Harvey, who 
afterward died in Hahnaman Township, Feb. 28, 
1862. Mrs. H. was again married in February, 
1867, in Hahnaman Township, to William Beal, who 
died in Iowa about 1871. Mrs. Beal is the owner 
of 80 acres of land in Hahnaman Township, all of 
which is in a state of cultivation. 

Mr. John R. Renner, the fourth in order of birth 
in his parents' family of children, was born in Greene 
Co., Pa., Feb. 17, 1842, and was a young child when 
his parents moved with him to this county, since 
which time he has lived in this and Bureau Counties. 
His education was such as was common to farmers' 
sons. Aug. 15, 1862, he enlisted in the ii2th Regt. 
111. Inf., and served nearly three years in the cause 
of the Union, participating in numerous battles and 




( ( 




skirmishes. While on picket duty at Columbia, 
Term., in November, 1864, he was taken prisoner, in 
company with thirty comrades of his regiment, and 
was confined' in the awful prison at Andersonville 
most of the time for five months, when the war 
closed and he was consequently liberated, barely 
escaping with his life. He received his discharge at 
Springfield, III., and returned to this county, where 
he has since made his residence and followed agri- 
cultural pursuits. He now owns 228 acres of land, 
130 of which is in a good state of cultivation. 

He is a member of Samuel G. Steadman Post, 
G. A. R. In his political views he is a Repub- 
lican, and he has held the offices of Road Commis- 
sioner, School Director and Overseer of Highways. 

uman Wakeman, farmer on section 18, 
Montmorency Township, is a son of David 
and Helen (Waltermire) Wakeman, who 
were natives respectively of Connecticut and 
New York State. Mr. David Wakeman died 
at his home in Dutchess Co., N. Y., April 28, 
1833, and his widow afterward married Hiram 
Witherwax, and they came to Whiteside County in 
1866, settling in Hume Township, where she died 
April 4, 1 88 1. They had five children, George, 
Clarissa, David, Sarah and Luman. 

Mr. Wakeman, the subject of this sketch, was born 
in Red Hook, Dutchess Co., N. Y., Feb. 27, 1831, 
and was about two years of age when his father died ; 
consequently he was very young when he started out 
in the perilous voyage of life for himself. At the age 
of 14 years he was apprenticed to learn the saddlery 
trade, to which he applied himself for something over 
two years. Up to this time his school education was 
very limited, owing mainly to feeble health. From 
the same cause, and partly from choice, he abandoned 
the trade that had been chosen for him, and sought 
out-door employment on the farm. After being thus 
engaged about 14 years, he purchased the farm which 
he now occupies, and upon which he permanently 
located in 1858; he had previously spent a short 
time in this county, and also in Winnebago County 
and Iowa. In Winnebago County he followed farm- 
ing about three years and was married. From the 

age of 20 to 24 he was engaged in the lumber woods 
and in a saw-mill, and also for a time had charge of 
the engine. In 1858 he purchased 80 acres where 
he lives, erected good farm buildings and subse- 
quently added other land by purchase, so that he is 
now the proprietor of 225 acres, all of which is in 

In his political action, Mr. Wakeman is indepen- 
dent; in religion he is a member of the Congrega- 
tional Church, and in the community he enjoys a high 
social standing. Officially, he has held many posi- 
tions of trust. 

Mr. Wakeman was first married in Yates Co., N. 
Y., March 16, 1852, to Sarah A. Bradbury, a native 
of that State, and they had one child, David L. 
His second marriage occurred in Guilford, Winne- 
bago Co, 111., Sept. 19, 1859, to Mrs. Emily A., 
daughter of Hiram and Nancy (Boss) Cunningham, 
and widow of Peter Christie, who died in Oakland, 
Jefferson Co., Wis., Nov. 15, 1856. By her first mar- 
riage there we. - e three children, Orson, Katie and 
Henry. The first named died Jan. 8, 1885, when 32 
years of age, and Katie died March 21, 1856. Mr. 
and Mrs. Cunningham were natives of Oneida Co., 
N. Y., moved to Jefferson Co., Wis., thence to Win- 
nebago Co., 111., and finally to Delaware Co., Iowa, 
where Mr. C. died, Nov. 18, 1868. Mrs. C. survives. 
They had a family of nine children, Edwin, Emily 
A., Benjamin, Horace, Henry, Freeman, Marshall, 
Guy and Putnam. Mrs. Wakeman was born in Os- 
wego Co., N. Y., Jan. 20, 1831, and by her present 
marriage there are three children, Emma A., Aetna 
D. and Edwin M. 

j: obert Emmet Logan, deceased, late Rep- 
resentative in the Legislature, was born in 
Bath.Steuben Co., N. Y., Feb. 13, 1828, 
and died of heart disease in the Illinois State 
Capitol, while in the performance of his du- 
ties as a Legislator, on Thursday, Feb. 26, 
He was educated at Bath Academy, N. Y. 
He learned the trade of cabinet-making, working at 
it for several years in the East, and in 1853 turned 
his steps westward, coming to Davenport, Iowa, 





where for some time he was foreman in a furniture 

In December, 1854, being attracted by the influ- 
ence of family relations, he took up his residence in 
Portland Township, Whiteside Co, 111., where he 
taught school, and afterward pursued the business 
of cabinet-making. In 1860 he became Deputy 
Sheriff of the County, and served in that capacity 
until lie was elected Sheriff in 1862, holding the lat- 
ter position for one term. General Oglesby was first 
elected Governor in November, 1864, and early in 
1865 he appointed Mr. Logan a Penitentiary Com- 
missioner. Mr. Logan was re- appointed at the end 
of two years, and in 1868 was elected to the same 
position by the people, the office having become 
elective. He is one of the proprietors of the present 
Revere House at Morrison at its opening, Dec. 26, 
1865, and maintained his connection with it for about 
a year. In the meantime, he had, in 1864, entered 
largely into the business of farming in Union Grove 
Township, about four miles west of Morrison, and 
moved upon his farm in 1867. He was President 
of the Whiteside County Central Agricultural Soci- 
ety from 1875 to his death, and by his energy made 
it one of the most successful in the State. His ex- 
excutive ability gave him great prominence among 
his fellow men, and as a presiding officer he had few 
equals in his party. 

For the past 20 years he has been actively inter- 
ested in politics. He was a Delegate to the National 
Republican Convention at Chicago, in 1880, and was 
Presidential Elector from the old Fifth District that 
year. He was very popular at home, and .on all 
occasions where the interest of the community was 
to be subserved, Robert E. Logan was the modest, 
liberal and efficient man, and to him the meed of 
praise was cheerfully accorded. He served as Su- 
pervisor of his town continuously from 1875 until 
November, 1884, when he resigned upon his election 
to the Legislature ; he was Chairman of the Board 
for several terms. In the fall of 1884 he was the 
unanimous choice of the Republican Convention of 
Whiteside County for the Legislature, and was nomi- 
nated shortly after by the Republican Convention 
of the Nineteenth Senatorial District, comprising 
Whiteside and Lee Counties. Upon the convening 
of the Legislature he took a very active and influ- 
ential part, and gave promise of a useful career. He 
was a member of the Masonic Lodge at Morrison. 

Seldom is it that a community is called to mourn 
the loss of a person so generally and warmly appre- 
ciated as was Mr. Logan a man who willingly 
aided every good work. No one could manage any- 
thing of a public nature better than he. His friends 
loved him because he was true to them; his enemies 
respected him because he was just to them. 

Mrs. Malvina (McCoy) Logan, who survives him, 
is the daughter of Hon. James McCoy, of Fulton, of 
whom a sketch is given elsewhere. Their marriage 
took place Feb. 23, 1864, and their children are 
three sons and a daughter. 

iharles H. Smith, farmer, residing on sec- 
lion 21, Hahnaman Township, is a son 
of Christian and Anna M. Smith, natives of 
Germany. His mother died in her native 
country, and in the spring of 185 i his father 
emigrated to this country, and settled in Mont- 
gomery Co , Pa. He resided there for six years, and 
in 1857 came to this county and settled in Sterling. 
The issue of their union was four children, namely: 
Christian, Charles H., Emma and William. 

Charles H. was born in Germany, Feb. i, 1846, and 
was five years old when he came with his father to 
the United States. He lived at home, in Pennsyl- 
vania, assisting on the farm and attending the 
common schools, until 1861, when he came to this 
county, and "worked out " on a farm for three years. 
He then, in partnership with his father, rented a 
farm in Coloma Township, which they jointly culti- 
vated for five years, after which he was variously 
occupied for a while, and then rented a farm, and 
cultivated it himself for several years. 

In 1880 he went to Hahnaman Township, and 
purchased 160 acres of land, located on section 21. 
He erected a fine house and barn on the land, and 
entered vigorously upon the task of its improve- 
ment. In April, 1884, the destroying element, fire, 
swept away his barn and outbuildings, together with 
a large quantity of grain, 16 head of hogs, and all 
his farming implements. Misfortune did not dis- 
hearten or overcome him, and he rebuilt the same 
year. About 80 acres of his land is in a good tilla- 
ble condition. 

Mr. Smith was united in marriage Feb. 18, 1868, 


at Sterling, III, to Miss Mary, daughter of Phillip 
and Margaret Obendorf, natives of Germany. They 
emigrated to the United States about 1850, and 
settled in Philadelphia, Pa., from whence they came 
to this county in the spring of 1860, settling in Jor- 
dan Township, where, three years later, in 1863, the 
father died. They were the parents of five chil- 
dren: John, Mary, William, Charles and Sarah. 

Mrs. Smith was born in Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 29, 
1850. She and her husband are the parents of four 
children : Nellie M., Nettie M., Charles E. and Lilly 

Mr. Smith has held the office of School Director, 
and politically is identified with the Republican 
party. Religiously, he is a member of the German 
Evangelical Church, and his wife is a member of the 
English Lutheran Church, of which she has been a 
member since 16 years of age. 



> - 


| ufus H. Sheldon, dealer in agricultural 
implements, grain and live stock, at Rock 
Falls, was born in Cayuga Co., N. Y., Aug. 
27, 1815. His father, Ira Sheldon, a farmer, 
was a native of Connecticut, of New England 
ancestry and English descent. His grand- 
father, Rufus Sheldon, was also a native of Con- 
necticut and of similar ancestry. The family, so far 
as concerns its history in America, originally sprang 
from three brothers who emigrated to this country 
previous to the Revolution, settling in New England. 
Most of the Sheldons have been farmers by vocation. 
Ira Sheldon was a soldier in the War of 1812, and 
died in Cayuga Co., N. Y., June 2, 1827, at the age 
of 42. His wife, Mary, was a native of Vermont, of 
New England ancestry and English descent, and 
died in Barry Co., Mich. The subject of this sketch 
is a relative of Henry O. Sheldon, editor of Sheldons 
Magazine. He is the second in a family of six chil- 
dren, his brothers being Isaac N., De WittC., Harvey 
N., Orson B. and Sylvester W. 

Mr. S. was 12 years old when his father died, but 
continued to live with his mother (who was again 
married) until he was of age, receiving a high-school 
education. At the age of 19 he commenced teach- 
ing during the winter seasons, while he pursued farm- 
ing during the intervals. He afterward purchased 

the interest of the other heirs and became sole pro- 
prietor of the old homestead, where he resided until 
1847, when he came to Illinois, settling on an unim- 
proved tract of 340 acres in Bureau County. After 
improving that place a number of years, he sold and 
came, in 1869, to Sterling, where, in partnership with 
C. M. Jaques, of Rock Falls, he entered the trade in 
agricultural implements and coal. They now have 
two elevators (having built one in 1877), with a 
capacity of about 60,000 bushels. They also deal 
extensively in live stock, and are driving a prosperous 
business. Mr. S. attends the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and in politics is a stanch Republican. 

Mr. Sheldon was married in his native county, 
Dec. i, 1836, to Miss Mercy E. Edmonds, who was 
born in the township of Brutus, same county, in 1817, 
the daughter of Joseph Edmonds, a farmer. Mr. 
and Mrs. S. became the parents of eight children, 
three of whom are deceased. The record now 
stands : Irving W. married Eleanor Cortwright, and 
now resides on a farm in Dakota; Clarence L. mar- 
ried Letitia Crawford and resides in Sterling, where 
he is practicing as an attorney at law; R. H., 
Jr., married Miss May Stitzel,and is interested in the 
agricultural implement trade with his father; William 
C. married Anna Banes, and is now a resident of 
Winnipeg, Manitoba; IdaM. married Newton Petrie, 
a county officer in Pittsburg, Pa.; and the deceased 
are Mary, Edward S. and Joseph C. 

evi Courtright, farmer, section 28, Genesee 
Township, was born Jan. 27, 1840, in Sus- 
sex Co., N. J., and is a son of Reuben and 
Elizabeth (Vernanten) Courtright. (See sketch 
of John Courtright). His parents came to Illi- 
nois when he was 15 years of age. His father 
was the parent of 2 r children, born of two marriages. 
Mr. Courtright is the sixth in order of birth of ten 
children born of the second marriage. He was 
brought up on his father's farm and lived at home 
until he was 22 years old. 

He was married Dec. 24, 1861, in Genesee Town- 
ship, to Sarah Franklin. She was born Feb. 12, 1841, 
in Muskingum Co., Ohio. Her parents, Simeon and 
Catherine (Funk) Franklin, went when she was ten 
years old to Fulton County, in the same State. Six 

>f^^_____ _e^LiSv^SA 

l ^7*^L**o '\ 


years later they made another removal to Genesee 
Township, in Whiteside County. Her father died in 
May, 1871, aged 70 years. Her mother lives in 
Jones Co., Iowa, with her eldest daughter, and is 
aged 78 years (1885). 

Mrs. Courtright is one of a family of eight children, 
and is herself the mother of five sons and daughters. 
Emma V. is the wife of Henry Finzel, a farmer and 
teacher in Genesee Township. Martha C., Charles, 
Frank and Fred (twins) are the names of those who 
are yet unmarried. 

Mr. Courtright passed some years in the business 
of farming "on shares," and in February, 1873, 
bought 103 acres on sections 28 and 19, which has 
since been his field of operation. The family belong 
to the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Courtright 
is a Republican in political affiliation. 

dward Horner, senior member of the firm 
of E. Horner & Son, dealers in pianos, 
organs and musical merchandise, was born 
April 2, 1823, in Wakefield, Yorkshire, Eng- 
land. His father, Frank Horner, was a native 
of Yorkshire and was a professional musician, 
playing the "cello and singing in concert. He died 
in August, 1853, in Thornhill, Yorkshire, and was 68 
years old. The mother, Ellen (Rowley) Horner, was 
about 63 years old when she died (in 1854), in her 
native county of Yorkshire. Five of their eight chil- 
dren are living. George is a farmer in Greene Co., 
Iowa, and has acquired some reputation as a violin- 
ist. Jesse enlisted in the War for the Union, in the 
38th 111. Vol. Inf. He was taken prisoner at the 
battle of Murfreesboro, and died of the concentrated 
miseries and sufferings at Andersonville! John is a 
dry-goods merchant at Queensbury, Yorkshire, and 
he is also a musician. Bessie is the wife of Charles 
Baxendale, a game-keeper on Breton Hall's estate in 
Yorkshire, England. 

When he was 15 years of age, Mr. Horner engaged 
in the business of a wool-sorter, in which he was oc- 
cupied until he was 24 years old. At that date he 
obtained an appointment as receiving clerk in the 
Wakefield prison and officiated in that capacity four 
years. After the expiration of his engagement he re- 
sumed his former employment, 

In July, 1854, he came to the United States. He 
at first located at Lincoln, 111., where he spent a few 
months. He went thence to the lead mines of Jo 
Daviess County, where he spent seven years in pros- 
pecting. He went next to Mt. Carroll, and he em- 
barked in the sale of Mason & Hamlin organs and 
the Vose & Co. pianos. After operating there seven 
years, he went to Depere, Wis., where he conducted 
a music store between two and three years. 

In 1870 he came to Morrison and opened his 
present business, which he has since continued to 
pursue. He is a musician of more than ordinary 
ability, and has engaged in teaching to a consider- 
able extent, as have his sons. His whole family are 
educated in music. 

Mr. Horner was married Sept. i, 1847, in the 
Halifax Cathedral, Yorkshire, England, to Anna 
Ellis, and they have had seven children, of whom 
but two are living. Sarah A. was born June 4, 1848, 
and died Nov. 4, 1864; Matilda was born Aug. 19, 
1849, an d died Oct. 9, 1852 ; Frank was born April 
27, 1851, and died April 2, 1852 ; Henry is a dealer 
in music and sewing-machines at Marengo, 111. He 
was born Oct. 26, 1852. Alice was born April 3, 
1854, and died Oct. 31, 1864; Mary, born Oct. 16, 
1860, died July 10, 1863; Samuel, born Oct. 19, 
1857 is in business with his father. He is the 
leader of the Morrison Band and is a fine pianist. 

The members of the firm of E. Horner & Co. deal 
in American, English and German musical publica- 
tions, and make a specialty of Peek & Sons (N. Y.) 
pianos. They handle the organs of George Wood- & 
Co. and those of Hillstrom & Co., which are man- 
ufactured at Chesterton, Ind. 

.nines P. Hopkins, farmer, section 36, Hop- 
jfp kins Township, is the youngest son of 
Jason Hopkins, whose memory is per- 
petuated by the name of that division of the 
county in which he resides. His father was 
born Jan. 27, 1789, and he married Eleanor 
Johnson, who was born in Kentucky. They lived in 
Tennessee until their removal, in 1835, to Hopkins 
Township, where they were the first white settlers. 
The senior Hopkins built the first log house on Rock 
River, in Whiteside County, of which he took posses- 





"> v7 


sion and which he occupied some years. He re- 
moved thence to another part of the same section, 
known as the " Como Purchase." He died there 
Aug. 19, 1853. The date of the death of the mother 
is May, 13, 1858. Their children were four in number, 
and were named William T., Helen, Frances and 
James P. The oldest child was born Feb. 22, 1837, 
and was the first white male child born in Whiteside 
County. He died about 1862. 

Mr. Hopkins of this sketch was born Oct. 4, 1843, 
in Hopkins Township. He was but 10 years of age 
when his father died, and he has lived all his life at 
Como, with the exception of the time which he spent 
in the military service of the United States. He en- 
listed Sept. 2, 1862, in the 75th Regt. 111. Vol. Inf., 
and was in active service until the close of the war, 
receiving his honorable discharge in July, 1865. He 
was under rebel fire at Atlanta, Murfreesboro, Chick- 
amauga and Lookout Mountain, besides seeing other 
service of a miscellaneous character. He passed 
through the varied experiences of war entirely with- 
out injury. On. his return to his home he resumed 
his former occupation of farming. He is an adherent 
of the Republican party in his political principles. 
He has been active in school and other local interests. 

Mr. Hopkins was married Nov. 30, 1869, at Atkin- 
son, Henry Co., 111., to Asenath H., daughter of 
Donald and Mary (Lloyd) Lamont. Her father was 
born in Scotland and her mother was a native of 
Canada. 1 hey were married in the Dominion, where 
they resided some years, and afterward came to Illi- 
nois, settling in Hopkins Township, this county, in 
1865: they are still living. Mrs. Hopkins is their 
oldest child, and her brothers and sisters are named 
Flora A., John, Jesse L., Susanna, Elizabeth J, 
Charity, Washington M., Emily I. and Mary I. Mrs. 
Hopkins was bora Nov. 2, 1842, in Canada. She 
has become the mother of five children, Eleanor 
M., Jessie L., Anna F., Eunice B. and James P., Jr. 

harles L. Hubbard, farmer, residing on 
_^ section 5, Montmorency Township, is a 
* son of Chas. C. and Lucia A. (Reed) Hubbard, 
natives of New England. Soon after their 
marriage they came to Illinois and settled in 
Bureau County, where they resided most of 
time until the spring of 1880, when they came to 

this county. On arrival here they located in Ster- 
ling and continued to reside there until the father's 
death, which occurred April 6, 1883. The mother 
still survives. Their family consisted of two chil- 
dren, May C. and Charles L. 

Charles L. was born in Maiden, Bureau County, 
this State, Oct. n, 1860. He attended the com- 
mon schools of his native county until he was 16 
years of age, and then for three years attended the 
Dover Academy in Bureau County. He lived at 
home until 1880, when he came to this county and 
settled on a farm of 240 acres his father purchased 
in Montmorency Township, this county, of which he 
has had the entire management, giving his attention 
largely to the breeding of thcroughbred cattle and 
horses, and taking a prominent position among the 
advanced farmers of the county. 

Politically Mr. Hubbard is identified with the Re- 
publicans. Religiously he is a member of the Con- 
gregational Church of Sterling. 

iharles F. GifFord, editor and proprietor of 
the Tampico Tornado, was born in Elgin, 
111., June 25, 1847. His father, Edmond F. 
Gifford, died of apoplexy at the residence of 
his daughter, Mrs. L. S. Norris, of Grinnell, 
Iowa, Thursday, July 19, 1883, aged 72 years, 
10 months and 15 days. He was born in Duxbury, 
Mass., Sept. 4, 1810, was early in life thrown upon 
his own resources, and he worked for others at farm 
labor during the summer, and attended school during 
the winters. He learned the cabinet trade, at which 
he worked and also taught school, and thereby earned 
money sufficient to enable him to complete a classical 
course, graduating at Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. For a year or two following he prac- 
ticed law in Boston, Mass. May 25, 1840, he married 
Miss Lucy W. Sampson, of Duxbury, Mass., and 
shortly afterward emigrated West, locating in Elgin, 
111., where he practiced law and for a number of 
years held the office of County Superintendent of 

At the breaking out of the War of the Rebellion he 
enlisted, and served as Adjutant of the Second Bat- 






V 'it ii 

talion of the Eighth 111. Vol. Cav. After the seven 
days' battle before Richmond, Va., he was appointed 
Paymaster and stationed at New Orleans, which 
position lie held to the close of the war. During the 
Red River Expedition he was wounded in the right 
arm, the scar resulting from which he carried ever 

After the close of the war he returned to Elgin, but 
soon moved to Louisiana, where, under the Kellogg 
government, he was appointed a District Judge. In 
February, 1882, he returned North, and after making 
his home several months with his son, Charles F., at 
Tampico, he went to Grinnell, where he died, as 
stated. Charles' mother is now residing in Boston, 
Mass., with her daughter, Mrs. Ada Sampson, and is 
aged 64 years. She was the only daughter of a New 
England ship-builder, and came of a family of con- 
siderable prominence. 

Mr. Gifford, the subject of this biographical out- 
line, is the third in order of birth of a family of nine 
children, five of whom are now deceased. At the 
age of 13 years he went with his father into the army 
as clerk for him. In 1862 he quit the field of war 
and entered the military school at Fulton, this 
county, and after a year's drill there he enlisted as 
Corporal in the 1415! Regt. 111. Vol. Inf., which was 
attached to the Army of the Cumberland. At the 
expiration of the roo days, for which he had enlisted, 
he was honorably discharged. He then went to 
Louisiana and served as Clerk in the Paymaster's 
Department of the Division of the Gulf, remaining 
there with his father until the close of the war. 

In April, 1866, he became an employee of the 
Elgin Gazette, under the management of Kincaid & 
Post, where he remained for two years, when he ac- 
cepted a position as foreman of the Elgin Watchman, 
E. C. Kincaid then being the proprietor. One year 
later, the Gazette and Watchman consolidated, and 
he was elected, by the hands of both offices, as fore- 
man of the new office. He held that position until 
the fall of 1870, when sickness compelled him to re- 
sign. In the spring of 1870 he went to Missouri 
and acted in the capacity of clerk, for his father-in- 
law, John Murdock, who was a contractor in grad- 
ing a railroad running from Hannibal to Edina. In 
October he returned home, and in November, 1871, 
he, in company with Mr. C. F. Larkins, established 
the Dundee (111.) Weekly. They soon after sus- 

)5(2^^ >*JB^*' ^ f^^ 


pended for an indefinite time, and shortly afterward 
Mr. Gifford went to Chicago and for a time served 
on the Post and then the Inter Ocean, during the 
Greeley campaign. Next he was engaged with Mr. 
Bent on the Sentinel at Morrison, this county, and 
then was employed at Fulton. In 1876 he went to 
Tampico and established the Tornado, an historical 
sketch of which paper will be given in the last 
division of this work. 

In politics, Mr. Gifford is a Republican. 

May 4, 1868, is the date of Mr. Gifford's marriage, 
at Elgin, 111., to Miss Mary J., daughter of John and 
Jane Murdock, who was born in Ulster Co., N. Y., 
Sept. 25 1848, and came West with her parents when 
a child. Her father was born in Delaware Co., N. 
Y., in 1826, a mason by occupation, is now a farmer, 
residing at Tolona, Mo.; her mother died when she 
(the daughter) was very young. Mr. and Mrs. Gifford 
are the parents of six children, namely : Harry L., 
Agnes L.,Ella L., Mabel L., Arthur L. and Julius L. 

aron Fluck, a farmer on section 14, Hume 
Township, is one of the enterprising agri- 
culturists of Whiteside County of which he 
has been a resident principally since 1857. 
He first located at Sterling, where he passed 
several years working at his trade of carpenter 
and also as a general laborer. He went to Arkansas 
just previous to the outbreak of the Southern Rebel- 
lion, where he found himself pressed into drill pre- 
paratory to the organization of the rebel army. He 
spent a month in the distasteful occupation, and es- 
caped on the last steamer that passed up the Miss- 
issippi River before it was closed by the rebel 
authorities, thereby forfeiting his wages. He re- 
turned to Sterling, where he resumed his occupation 
as a mechanic. He was a resident of Sterling until 
1866, working at his trade and engaging also, as 
opportunity offered, in the improvement of his farm, 
which he had purchased in 1864. It comprised 160 
acres, and at the time of his purchase it was un- 
broken prairie. He took possession o( the place in 
1866, and was its occupant until 1872, when he went 
to a small tract of land containing T4 acres situated 
near the city of Sterling, and which was the location 
of a valuable stone quarry. He operated there 

A ^ -^J&SLir ^IfrgsVj^g) 








years, and in 1878 again removed to his farm, where 
he is engaged in the management of his agricultural 
interests. He also owns 40 acres on section 15 and 
80 acres adjoining the land of his first purchase. 
The dwelling Mr. Fluck has erected on his place is 
the largest and most valuable in the township, and 
his barns are of the same comparative size and merit. 
He deals in high grades of stock. In political faith 
and connections he is a Democrat, and has held 
several local offices. 

He was born Sept. 22, 1833, in Bucks Co., Pa. 
His family descent is from a German ancestor who 
settled many years ago in Bucks County, where the 
descending generations maintained a residence 
through the succeeding years until 1857, when Mr. 
Fluck of this sketch broadened the field of occupa- 
tion by removal to Illinois. John Fluck, his father, 
was born in Bucks County in 1797, and married 
Elizabeth Leight. She was born in Northampton 
Co., Pa., and was of mixed Scotch and German an- 
cestry. Her birth took place in 1807, and she died 
in 1844. Her husband was a carpenter and was a 
prominent official in the German Reformed Church, 
to which she also belonged. He died in Lehigh Co., 
Pa., in i88r. Their family included seven children. 
The grandfather of Mr. Fluck was named John, and 
he was a stone mason. 

Aaron Fluck is the third child of his parents, and 
he was n years of age when he lost his mother by 
death. He continued under the care of his father 
until he came to his majority; but at the age of 17 
he began to work at his trade of carpenter with 
Daniel Shafer, his cousin by marriage, who lived in 
Lehigh County. On reaching the age of 2 i years he 
entered the employment of his master as a journey- 
man, with whom he served one year, and with the 
exception of $5 gave his earnings to his father. He 
passed the three years subsequent in his native 
county, working at his trade. 

Mr. Fluck was married Nov. 15, 1864, in Sterling > 
to Lydia A. Tombow, and they have had eight chil- 
dren. Six of them are still living, and following are 
their names: McClelland, John, Ida M., Aaron, 
Katie and Matilda. Benjamin and William are de- 
ceased. Mrs. Fluck was born Aug. 26, 1846, in 
Lampeter Township in Lancaster Co., Pa., and is 
the daughter of William and Elizabeth (Borer) Tom- 
bow. Her parents were of Dutch descent, and her 

father was a stone mason by trade. Her mother died 
when she was seven years old, and she was placed 
in the charge of Mr. Landis, now of Sterling Town- 
ship, by whom she was brought up and with whose 
family she came to Whiteside County. Her father' 
meanwhile had married again and had removed to 
Sterling a year previous to her coming to this county. 
She continued a member of Mr. Landis' family until 
her marriage. 

The portraits of Mr. Fluck and his wife are given 
on previous pages, and represent the typical class 
whose thrift and energy have so rapidly developed 
Whiteside County. They are copies of likenesses 
recently taken. 

lames N. Ward, druggist, at Fulton, was 
born in Essex Co., N. J., June 19, 1822, 
and is the son of Reuben and Electa 
(Condit) Ward. He spent his early life in his 
native county, and in 1836 removed with his 
parents to Delaware Co., Ohio. He learned 
the trade of carpenter and joiner, at which he worked 
in Ohio till April, 1856; in August of that year he 
came to Fulton and engaged in business as con- 
tractor and builder, which he continued till Decem- 
ber, 1870. He then went to Maquoketa, Iowa, and 
engaged in the lumber trade. He carried on the 
lumber business in Iowa about three and a half 
years, still maintaining his residence at Fulton. In 
October, r875, he purchased the stock of Mr. John 
Hudson, druggist at Fulton, and succeeded to the 
business. Mr. Ward has had ten years' experience 
as a druggist, and has a tasteful, well stocked store 
in his line, that of drugs, medicines, paints, oils, 
toilet articles, wall paper, etc. The average value 
of his stock is $3,000. His course as a business 
man has won him a reputation for fair dealing and 
conscientious and careful attention in serving his 

He was married in Delaware Co., Ohio, April 3, 
1849, to Miss Sarah J. Thatcher, daughter of Elisha 
and Sarah J. (Dana) Thatcher. Mrs. Ward was 
born in Delaware Co., Ohio. They have three chil- 
dren, all sons. The eldest, George A., was born at 
Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 17, 1851, and is a resident of 
Fulton ; James F. was born in Columbus, Ohio, Jan. 


4, 1853, married Miss Sedate Houghton, and is also 
a resident of Fulton; the youngest, William W., was 
born in Fulton, Sept. 23, 1856, and is living in Chi- 

In politics, Mr. Ward is a Democrat, " tried and 


aeob Hein, farmer, section 19, Hahnaman 
- Township, came to this county in 1858, 
sf *^" purchasing 200 acres of good land, which 
he still occupies as a home, and where he has 
erected fine farm buildings. He now owns 360 
acres of land, 200 of which is in cultivation. 
He was first married in Kendall Co., 111., in 1851, 
to Christiana Krum, and they have five children, 
Matilda, Gustavus A., William A., Jacob H. and 
Christian. Mrs. H. died May r, 1860, and Mr. 
Hein was again married, Dec. 24, 1860, in Hahnaman 
Township, to Mary A. Hamblock, and by this mar- 
riage there have been two children, namely, Mary K. 
and Matilda Elizabeth. Mr. Hein's parents were 
natives of Germany. 

j illiam Butman, farmer, residing on sec- 
tion 26, Fulton Township, is a son of 
James and Esther (Moulthrop) Butman, 
natives of Massachusetts and Vermont, 
whose family consisted of five children, 
namely: Betsey, Melissa, Laura, James and 
William. William Butman was born in Rutland, 
Rutland Co., Vt., Feb. 10, 182 r. He received a 
good common-school and academical education, and 
remained in his native State alternating his attend- 
ance at school by working on the farm until 19 years 
of age. On reaching this age he -went to Elmira, 
N. Y., where he was engaged in the occupation of a 
carpenter and builder for a year. He was next em- 
ployed as a passenger conductor on the New York 
Central R. R., and followed that position for about 17 
years. In 1865 he went to New York City, and was 
there employed in the Custom House as Examiner 
and Verifier for upward of three years. He then 
went to Michigan, and entered the employ of the 
Detroit, Lansing & Northern Railroad, as conduc- 

tor. He was the first conductor of a passenger train 
on that road, and remained with the company for 14 

His health failing, he came to this county, and 
settled in Fulton Township. 

Mr. Butman was married in Dundee, Yates Co., 
N. Y., in 1843, to Miss Clarissa Booth, a native of 
York State. She bore him five children : Theo. F., 
William E. and Emily E. Emily E. is the wife of 
John W. Boyer, and resides in Detroit. Sarah and 
Henry died in infancy. William is employed as 
postal clerk on the D., L. & N. R. R., and resides 
at Detroit. Theo. died in 1878, aged 36 years. 

The wife and mother died in 1871, and Mr. But- 
man was again married Sept. 17, 1873, to Miss Abbie 
A. Goodrich, at Ionia, Mich. She was a daughter of 
Leonard and Juliet Goodrich, and was a descendant 
from Miles Standish. Her parents were natives of 
Vermont, and emigrated to Michigan in 1850, and 
settled in Pontiac, Oakland County. Her mother 
died there, and her father moved to Ionia, Mich., 
where he still resides, living a retired life. Mrs. 
Butman's parents had five children : Melancton S., 
Norman S., Ellen J., Louisa A. and Abbie A. 

Mrs. Butman was born in Trumbull Co., Ohio, 
Dec. 13, 1848, and has borne to her husband five 
children, of whom two are living, Frank S. and an 
unnamed infant. Three died in childhood, Harry, 
James L. and Etta M. 

Mr. Butman has held the office of School Director, 
and politically endorses the principles of the Repub- 
lican party. Mrs. B., religiously, is a member of the 
Baptist Church. 

v ;* 



ason Hopkins, for whom Hopkins Town- 
ship was named, was a native of Nashville, 
Tenn., and was born Jan. 27, 1789. He 
remained at Nashville till about the middle 
age of life, when he came to Illinois on account 
of his anti-slavery principles, and settled at 
Belleville. From there he went to Peoria. When 
the Black Hawk War broke out, he volunteered in a 
cavalry regiment, was appointed Quartermaster, and 
served in that capacity during the war. In the 
autumn of 1832, as the troops were returning to their 
homes, Mr. Hopkins, with a party, came to Rock 




River, and in coasting along its banks came to 
the site of the present village of Como. Being im- 
pressed with the beauty of the place, he made a 
claim covering the whole tract known in pioneer 
parlance as a "jack-knife claim," by cutting his 
name in the bark of trees. Mr. Hopkins often spoke 
of this location as being as beautiful as the Garden 
of Eden. 

He was married at Peoria, 111., to Eleanor John- 
son, who was born Dec. 29, 1801, near Bowling 
Green, Ky., and with her Mr. H. returned in 1835 
and surveyed the claim, establishing the boundaries 
by marking trees in the timber and running furrows 
through the prairie with an ox team and a prairie 
plow. He afterwards purchased the claim, com- 
prising sections 25, 26, 35 and 36, and as much ad- 
joining as made 3,200 acres. He built the first log 
cabin in the township that bears his name. 

He died Aug. 19, 1853. He possessed many 
traits of character peculiar to the citizens of ancient 
Rome in its republican days, firmness, unswerv- 
ing integrity and patriotism. He was in intimate 
acquaintance with, and a great admirer of, General 
Jackson. He was altogether a remarkable man and 
admirably fitted for a pioneer. Mrs. H., his wife, 
died May 13, 1858. 

Their children were four in number and were 
named William T., Helen, Frances and James P. 
(A sketch of the latter is given in this work.) The 
first mentioned, William T. Hopkins, was the first 
white male child born in Whiteside County. He 
died about 1862. 

(jenry Diehl, formerly a farmer on section 
13, Hopkins Township, now residing in re- 
tirement at Empire in the same township, 
was born Oct. 12, 1805, in Lancaster Co., Pa. 
His parents, Samuel and Barbara (Bitner) Diehl, 
were also natives of the same State and had 
12 children. 

Mr. Diehl of this sketch remained in his native 
State, pursuing the vocation of a farmer, until 1865, 
when he came to Illinois. He first made a location 
in Carroll County, spending but one year there. In 
1866 he came to Whiteside County and bought a 
farm on sections 19 and 30 in Hopkins Township. 

He fixed his residence on the section last named, 
where he continued to live until 187 i. In that year 
he purchased a house at Empire and has since been 
retired from active business life. His property in 
Hopkins Township includes 137 acres of land. 

Mr. Diehl was married in Franklin Co., Pa., 
Jan. 13, 1829, to Margaret, daughter of John and 
Barbara (Leep) Myers, and she is the oldest of a 
family of three children. She was born Aug. 27, 
1808. To her and her husband ten children have 
been born, in the following order ; Catherine, Eliza- 
beth, Daniel, Lewis, Malachi, Adam, Mary, Jacob, 
Peter S. and Margaret C. 

The parents are members of the English Lutheran 

jharles G. Seidel is a farmer of Hopkins 
Township, being located in the northeast 
quarter of section 10. He is the owner 
of 100 acres of land, which is his original 
purchase in the township and county, and 
which came into his possession in 1867. He 
has since added to his real estate, increasing the ag- 
gregate to 160. It is all under good cultivation, and 
the proprietor has erected fine farm buildings. In 
political sentiment and connections Mr. Seidel is a 

He was born in Germany, Oct. 4, 1839. Gotleib 
and Barbara (Zaiser) Seidel, his parents, were inhab- 
itants of their native land until 1853, when they 
emigrated to the United States. They made their 
first location at Columbus, Ohio, whence they came 
to Whiteside Co., 111., and fixed their residence at 
Sterling. The mother died there May 3, 1883. 
Their children were born in the following order: 
Caroline, Louis, Fred, Charles G., Wilhelmine, Wil- ( 
liam, Joshua, Dorothea, Caleb, Sophia, Mary, George 
Emma. One child died in infancy. 

Mr. Seidel came to this country with his parents 
in 1853. He came with them to Sterling in 1857, 
where he engaged in farm labor and worked by the 
month for six years, after which he rented a farm for 
four years. At the expiration of that time he be- 
came a land-holder in Hopkins Township. 

Mr. Seidel was married April 9, 1863, to Anna, 
daughter of Solomon and Margaret A. (Wagner) 

- - 




Freighner. She was born Sept. 30, 1845, ln Penn- 
sylvania, where her mother died when she was 10 
years of age. The father lives with his daughter, 
who is one of six children. Anna M., Samuel, Mar- 
garet, John and David lived to reach maturity. One 
child died in infancy. To Mr. and Mrs. Seidel 12 
children have been born, six of whom are still living : 
Charles F., Margaret E., Georgietta, Charles W., 
Chester L. and Mary C. Those who are deceased were 
named Clara A., George W., Ida M., Aaron H. and 
Edward L. One child died unnamed. The parents 
are members of the English Lutheran Church. 

84 illiam H. Cadwell, Justice of the Peace, 
(kifli? Notary Public and Clerk of the Village of 
Rock Falls, was born Dec. 28, 1826, at 
^ Hartford, Conn., of which place his parents 
Charles and Annie T. (Benton) CadweU 
were also natives. Mr. Cadwell received a 
very limited common-school education. Being at 
the age of 12 years thrown upon his own resources, 
having to look out for himself, he entered a printing- 
office, where he remained nearly three years, at the 
expiration of which time he found employment-in a 
map-publishing house for another year. At the age 
of 1 6 years he apprenticed himself to his uncle, 
Daniel Fish, and completed his trade as a pastry- 
baker and confectioner. 

In 1848 Mr. Cadwell married Miss Catharine 
Fish, of Boston, Mass., by whom he has one daugh- 
ter, Nellie Frances; she married Mr. W. H. Tuttle in 
1871, with whom Mr. Cadwell is now residing, hav- 
lost his wife by death on the 5th of March, 1884. 
Soon afterward he assumed control of the manufac- 
turing department of his uncle's business. Having 
a desire to better his condition in life, he took Hor- 
ace Greeley's advice, packed up, and, with his wife 
and child, his sister and her family, started West, 
arriving in Belvidere, Boone County, this State, in 
the spring of 1856, where he again conducted his 
business, in connection with ice-cream parlors and a 
news room. 

Soon after the breaking out of the war he was ap- 
pointed agent of the American Express Company, 
at about which time the printing establishment then 
known as the Belvidere Union came into his posses- 
sion, and the name changed to the Boone County 

Advertiser, In 1868 he disposed of the office to a 
syndicate of Democrats, to boom the nomination of 
Horatio Seymour for President. After the election 
of Grant the establishment again came into the 
hands of Mr. Cadwell, who discontinued the paper. 
In 1870 he formed a partnership with Mr. W. H. 
Tuttle, and moved the establishment with his family 
to Rock Falls, and started the first newspaper pub- 
lished on the south side of Rock River, naming it 
the Rock Falls Progress. After conducting the 
paper for six years and six months, it was discon- 
tinued and the partnership dissolved, Mr. Cadwell 
continuing in the job-printing business. 

In 1882 Mr. Cadwell was elected Justice of the 
Peace to fill a vacancy. At the spring election of 
the present year (1885), Mr. Cadwell was elected 
his own successor. He also is appointed by Gov- 
ernor Oglesby a Notary Public, also for four years, 
and again re-elected Village Clerk. 

Politically, he is a Republican and takes an active 
interest in matters pertaining to the growth and 
prosperity of the Republican party, and the village 
and town in which he resides. Socially, he is a 
member of the Order of Odd Fellows : was an active 
worker for the organization of Advance Lodge, No. 
590, of which he was the first presiding officer; is 
also a member of the Grand Lodge of Illinois. He 
is also the first Master Workman of Union Lodge, 
No. 3, A. O. U. W., of Sterling, the organization of 
which is due to his labor. He was sent from No. 3 
as a delegate for the organization of the Grand 
Lodge of Illinois, of which organization he was made 
the first Past Grand Master of the State; also the 
first Representative from the Grand Lodge to the 
Supreme Lodge of the United States, meeting at 
Cincinnati in 1875, which position he filled for three 
successive terms. 

Jenry S. Powell is a farmer on section 12, 
in Sterling Township. His parents, Joseph 
and Hannah (Benerman) Powell, lived after 
their marriage in Saratoga Co., N. Y., and 
afterwards in Monroe Co., N. Y., where they 
died. They had nine children, all of whom 
lived to maturity with one exception. 

Mr. Powell was born Dec. 7, 1823, in Saratoga 

& ^PZ fJ@JX@ 

-: .. - 






Co., N. Y., and he was nine years of age when his 
parents removed thence to Monroe County. He is 
the fifth child, and he remained in Monroe County 
throughout the remaining years of his minority, com- 
ing, in 1844, to Whiteside -Co., 111. About three 
years subsequent to his removal hither, he bought 
150 acres of land in Sterling Township, and he has 
since purchased 75 acres additional. The place is 
in valuable agricultural condition, with an orchard 
containing 400 trees and excellent buildings. In 
political affinity Mr. Powell is identified with the 
Republican party. 

He was married in Genesee Township, Feb. 16, 
1853, to Elizabeth Batchelder, a native of Vermont. 
She died May 10, 1883, having been the mother of 
nine children, four of whom lived to grow up, John, 
George, Lucia M. and Jessie B. The oldest son was 
drowned when he was 16 years of age. 

avid G. Ely is a general farmer and stock- 
grower on section i, Hume Township. He 
was born Sept. 20, 1811, in Oneida Co., 
N. Y. John Ely, his father, was a native 
of New Jersey, and became a prominent farmer 
of Oneida County. He owned about 700 acres of 
land in the valley of the Mohawk. He built two 
large jails in Oneida Co., N. Y., in an early day, one, 
in the town of Whitestown, four miles west of Utica, 
which is still standing, the other, in Rome, N. Y. 
which was burned probably about 30 years ago. His 
death occurred April 14, 1842. Beulah A. (Gould) 
Ely, the mother, was born in Williamstown, Mass., 
and descended from the earliest settlers of New 
England. She died in February, 1845. 

Mr. Ely is the fifth of his parents' ten children. 
When he was 15 years of age he learned the shoe- 
maker's trade, and made for himself the first pair of 
boots he ever wore. Later, he learned the trade of 
carpenter and joiner, and worked with his father at 
that business and as a farmer until he was 26 years 
of age. Feb. 17, 1836, he was married, in Floyd 
Township, Oneida County, to-Alvira Wallace, who 
was born in that township May n, 1817, and died 
Nov. 26, 1873, in Hume Township. She was the 
mother of six children, three of whom are deceased. 
Beulah, George and Nancy, who are the survivors, 

*&* ^ 

are married. Lydia M., Eliza and Lovisa are dead. 

Mr. Ely was a resident of his native State until 
1855, when he went to Oshkosh, Wis., and worked 
there three years as a jnechanic. In 1858 he lo- 
cated in Hume Township, purchasing 184 acres on 
section 10. He occupied this property five years, 
when, in 1863, he went to the township of Coloma, 
where he resided three years on 80 acres of land. 
He went back in 1866 to Hume Township, and, af- 
ter operating three years a little east of the central 
portion of the township, he came to section i, where 
he had become the owner of 92 acres of land by ex- 
change. His estate is under good improvements, 
and he is engaged in successful farming. 

Mr. Ely was a second time married, Nov. 17, 
1876, in Adair Co., Mo., to Mrs. Mary (Paddock) 
Miner. She was born July 18, 1826, in Oneida Co., 
N. Y., where she was brought up and educated. 
John Paddock, her father, was an enterprising agri- 
culturist of her native county. She was first mar- 
ried to Michael Gushing, who was born in Vermont 
and died in Pennsylvania. Two children were 
of that earlier marriage, Jane, now Mrs. Buck, and 
Michael, both of whom are living in Shelby Co., 
Iowa. She married Curtis Miner in Prophetstown, 
Whiteside County. He was a native of Vermont, 
and died in the military service of the United States, 
from a gunshot wound. Frank, Curtis and Ella are 
the names of the children born of the second mar- 
riage. The oldest and youngest are married. 

Mr. Ely is a Republican in his political opinions. 

||.enry S. Landis, farmer, section 23, Sterling 
Township, was born March 27, 1820, in 
Lancaster Co., Pa. David and Margaret 
(Shaffer) Landis, his parents, were born in 
Pennsylvania, where they also died. They had 
five children, named Eliza, Emanuel, Maria, 
Henry S. and Anna. 

Mr. Landis has been a resident of Whiteside 
County since 185 r, when he removed hither from 
his native State. He still lives on the property he 
first bought, which comprised 144 acres of land. 
The 'estate is all under improved cultivation. Mr. 
Landis is a Republican, and is interested in school 

He was married Nov. 18, 1841, in Lancaster Co., 



VN ' 


Pa., to Fanny Stauffer, and they have 13 children, as 
follows : Anna, Barbara, Margaret, Susanna, Amos, 
Maria, John, Henry F. and Emma F. (twins), 
Emanuel, Benjamin F., Jonas R. and Daniel. Mrs. 
Landis is the daughter of John and Barbara (Eby) 
Stauffer, and is one of nine children born to her par- 
ents : Benjamin, Fanny, Peter, Christian, John, 
Margaret, Anna, Bertram and Henry. Mrs. Landis 
belongs to the Mennonite Church. 

,oses Dillon, lumber, grain and coal mer- 
chant, at Sterling, was born in Ohio, Sept. 
19, 1845. His father, Lloyd Dillon a 
native of Maryland was employed in the 
furnace business at Zanesville, Ohio, where he 
died, in 1845. His mother, nee MargarefA. 
Culbertson, was a native of Pennsylvania. Mr. 
Dillon was an inmate of his parental home until he 
was of age, receiving a common-school education. 
From 1857 to 1860 he was a resident of Dixon, 111. 
In 1859-60 he herded cattle for William Butler at 
Nelson Station. In 1861 he engaged as clerk in the 
mercantile establishment of D. M. Crawford in Ster- 
ling the first boy employed in such capacity in that 
store remaining there two and a-half years, and 
thereby receiving a good business education. Then, 
at the age of 18, he enlisted in Co. A, T4oth Regr. 111. 
Vol. Inf , was mustered into the military service at 
Dixon, went with his regiment to Memphis, Tenn., 
and did guard duty. 

In 1865 he returned home and formed a partner- 
ship with Charles Smith in the grocery business, 
under the name of Smith & Dillon, and thus con- 
tinued in the trade for ten years. He sold out his 
interest in 1875, and bought the interest of Joseph 
Golder, in the grain, coal and lumber business, 
forming a partnership with Mr. Golder's son, under 
the firm name of Golder & Dillon. In this relation 
they continued until 1880, when Mr. Dillon pur- 
chased the interest of his partner, since which time 
he has conducted the business alone, with success. 
His office is on the corner of Third and Spruce 
Streets, and in the rear of his office he has an eleva- 
tor with a capacity of 60,000 bushels, which he runs 
with a gas engine a curiosity to all the people of 

the county. His lumber and coal yard occupies all 
of block 43, and his salt and drying sheds and barns 
all of block 42. He has the only planing-mill in 
Sterling, where he does all kinds of wood work. 

Mr. Dillon is a " Sterling " man. Coming when 
young to the place, he has by diligence and strict 
integrity won a high business and social position. 
He'is the President of the Northwestern Fair Asso- 
ciation, and is a member of the I. O. O. F., and of 
the A. O. U. W. He is a Republican in his 
political views, and, with his wife, is a member of the 
Presbyterian Church of Sterling. 

May 8, 1867, Mr. Dillon married Miss Emma J. 
Golder, daughter of Judge Golder, of Sterling, and 
they have five children, namely: Mary P., Maggie 
A., Alice E., Joseph G. and Moses L. 

c * ? i? JifX^^i ^ " o 
1 fe ^KSXs-J-r^ @) v . 

D. Hill, editor of the Prophetstown Spike, 
office in Baldwin's Block, is a son of Ben- 
jamin F. and Rebecca (McElroy) Hill, and 
was born in Lancaster Co., Pa., June 19, 1842. 
Growing up, he was engaged as clerk in a 
store, taught school, and dealt in coal, lumber, grain, 
etc., and in July, 1866, came to Morrison, this 
county, where he was employed in buying grain, 
stock, etc., first by himself, and afterward in com- 
pany with others; taught school; was local editor of 
the Whiteside Sentinel, and finally, in company with 
Charles Bent, established the Prophetstown Spike, 
issuing the first number of the paper Sept. r, 1871. 
In October, 1872, he bought out Mr. Bent, and con- 
ducted the paper alone until 1876, when he formed 
a partnership with Charles F. Gifford in the publica- 
tion of the Spike and the Tornado, of Tampico, the 
latter paper being established in May of that year. 
In January, 1878, he sold the Spike to John W. Olm- 
stead. In the meantime, in April, 1878, he founded 
the Whiteside Herald, and conducted it for five 
years. In the fall of 1882 he dislocated his ankle, 
which laid him up for the ensuing winter. The fol- 
lowing spring, 1883, he returned to Prophetstown 
and bought the Spike, since which time he has 
conducted it with success, employing usually two 
assistants. The paper is an eight-column folio, 
four pages, 26x40 inches, Republican in politics 
and devoted to local news. It is ably edited. A 





-, .. - 


good job office is in connection with the establish- 


Mr. Hill has been a member of the Town Council 
one year; April 21, 1885, he was elected Village 
Clerk; has taken an active part in local politics, 
having been a Delegate to a number of District, 
County and State Conventions ; was a member of the 
Illinois National Guard five years, holding the com- 
mission of Lieutenant of the 141)1 Battalion, with 
headquarters at Moline, III, during a portion of that 
time. Mr. H. is also a member of the I. O. O. F. 

He was married in Morrison, 111., June i, 1872, to 
Miss Jane, daughter of John and Martha Beck, and 
born in Newton Township, this county. Mr. and 
Mrs. Hill have three children, the two eldest born in 
Prophetstown, and the youngest in Morrison. Their 
names are John B., Martha R. and Vio C. 

janiel Young, farmer, section 30, Portland 
Township, is a son of Adam and Elizabeth 
'Young, and was born in Blair Co., Pa., 
Jan. 6, 1851. In November, 1853, the family 
came West, when the senior Young Iccated a 
part of the land on which he now resides, and 
which lies adjoining the premises of Mr. Daniel 
Young, on the northwest ; it is a nice farm of 200 

After remaining an inmate of his paternal home 
until he was 19 years of age, the subject of this 
sketch commenced working out as a common 
laborer, and thus continued until 1876, when he 
purchased 87 acres of his present farm, and resided 
there until the spring of 1883 ; he then bought his 
present residence and 160 acres of land, and having 
purchased 40 acres in 1881, he has now an aggre- 
gate of 287 acres. He is beginning to make a spe- 
cialty of Holstein cattle, of which he expects to keep 
about 75 head ; also 15 head of graded Clydesdale 
(Norman) hor